Following Bruce's seeming death at the hands of Darkseid, Dick Grayson reluctantly took up the mantle despite instructions Bruce left for him not to do so. Grayson made some modifications to the Batsuit to better suit his combat style. Having always hated capes, the first thing he disposed of when creating his Nightwing identity, he has substantially reduced its weight, presumably sacrificing the semi-established bullet- and fire-proof nature. A further modification was made, making it what Grayson calls a "paracape" acting like a parachute and able to slow down a rapid descent. The other noticeable change is made to the utility belt, which now sports a bat-shaped belt buckle and has mechanical compartments, as opposed to the fabric pouches Bruce had last been seen using.
A previously unknown translation of an ancient grimoire, the Darkhold, has been unearthed by archaeologists in South America. But this chilling discovery will have far-reaching effects. Halfway across the globe, the Darkhold is relentlessly pursued by the Cabal of Scrier, an organization devoted to achieving ultimate power through whatever means necessary. And it is through their actions that a darkness from beyond the grave will return to haunt the Spectacular Spider-Man in the form of one of the most frightening and dangerous foes he's ever encountered....
Character hoodies are perhaps our favorite quick-and-easy costume, because they work for a great everyday geek fashion too! This Yoda hoodie will instantly transform you into a Dagobah dwelling Jedi. People might be expecting a Yoda voice when you go in this sweatshirt though, so do your best to practice your gravelly tone and work on flipping around the words in your sentences!
In The New Batman Adventures (1997-1999) the Batsuit is revamped having the dark blue highlights on the cape, cowl, gloves, briefs, and boots changed to gray and the Bat-emblem is changed to a larger bat-emblem without the yellow ellipse and his utility belt is changed to light brown with the capsules being replaced with pouches. The Batsuit is based on the Batman: Year One costume.
Spirit Halloween has a huge selection of affordable boys 2018 costumes featuring all the latest and greatest movie and TV characters, along with scary ghoulish outfits and hilarious funny ones. Many of our costumes will cover him from head to toe, while others such as our Harry Potter Robe give him room to add eyewear or other accessories. He can play a hero as a police officer or go the opposite route as a convict dressed in telltale orange.
Professor Nicholas Christakis lives at Yale, where he presides over one of its undergraduate colleges. His wife Erika, a lecturer in early childhood education, shares that duty. They reside among students and are responsible for shaping residential life. And before Halloween, some students complained to them that Yale administrators were offering heavy-handed advice on what Halloween costumes to avoid.
"People often say glibly that Marvel succeeded by blending super hero adventure stories with soap opera. What Lee and Ditko actually did in The Amazing Spider-Man was to make the series an ongoing novelistic chronicle of the lead character's life. Most super heroes had problems no more complex or relevant to their readers' lives than thwarting this month's bad guys.... Parker had far more serious concern in his life: coming to terms with the death of a loved one, falling in love for the first time, struggling to make a living, and undergoing crises of conscience."
Michele Gonzales: Michele is a criminal defense lawyer and the hot-tempered sister of Peter's roommate Vin Gonzales, as well his temporary roommate while Vin serves time for his involvement in the Spider-Tracer Killings frame-up (to which she got him a plea bargain[6]). When Michelle attempts to kick Peter out (who is actually the Chameleon in disguise) she is instead seduced by him and become infatuated with him.[7] She is almost constantly angry, and questioning her or drawing attention to the size of her buttocks really sets her off.[8] However, she is also a helpful and kind person, by trying hard to help her clients get their lives back on track. After pestering and bothering Peter tirelessly, she returned to her previous home in Chicago shortly after Vin's release.[9]
In No More- a story arc starting in Peter Parker: The Spectacular Spider-Man #303- a trip to the past to retrieve vital information resulted in Peter Parker changing his past when his younger self decided to abandon being Spider-Man because he felt, based on what he had seen and overheard of his future self's life, that such a career would only bring him pain and suffering. As a result, Peter Parker became a successful industrialist married to Gwen Stacy, but Norman Osborn has conquered the world, killing Iron Man and most of the Fantastic Four and imprisoning Doctor Doom, with Peter still hiding behind his corporate role even as Gwen discreetly aids the resistance as he believes that taking action as Spider-Man will only make things worse.

Whether your son is the type who plans every detail of his trick or treating attire months in advance or you’re looking for a last-minute boys Halloween costume, Spirit has you covered! We have hundreds of costumes ranging from humorous to scary for boys of all ages, from toddler to teenager. As part of our full array of affordable kids Halloween costumes, Spirit has the outfits and accessories to make your son’s festive look complete.

Spider-Man first appears in the episode Along Came A spider where he helps Captain America fight the serpent society He next appears in New Avengers where he leads the New lineup of Avengers against Kang...after the victory and return of the Original Avengers he officially becomes a member (although a reserve one). The last time he appeared was Avengers Assemble amongst the rest of Earth's heroes fighting The Heralds of Galactus.
When on a counter Earth, Peter Parker temporarily used his evil/good doppelganger's uniform. It was a look at the classic Spider-Man suit, red & blue, however with a modern twist. The Spider suit had web shooters built into the wrist bands/arms, and also featured a cape for mobility. This was used when Peter Parker's counterpart was badly wounded and needed Peter, Amazing Spider-Man, to fight crime in New York for a short time while Peter, the Amazing Spider, healed up. In the end, Peter Parker found out that his counterpart was actually draining the abilities of other Spider-Men and soon took the permanent role as the Amazing Spider.

Popular choices for boys costumes include classic horror icons such as vampires and zombies. Maybe your son loves video games and wants to portray Freddy Fazbear or the Super Mario Bros.! Some hilarious options can turn them into food, drinks, and animals. Whatever and whoever they wish to become, there are so many great options for boy’s Halloween costumes. Look through all of our costumes to find the perfect outfit for Halloween nights, celebrations and parties!


J. Jonah Jameson is depicted as the publisher of the Daily Bugle and is Peter Parker's boss and as a harsh critic of Spider-Man, always saying negative things about the superhero in the newspaper. Despite his role as Jameson's publishing editor and confidant Robbie Robertson is always depicted as a supporter of both Peter Parker and Spider-Man.[47]
All this is, I feel, a bit part of what feeds into making a hero a superhero in our minds - when they become larger than life, existing outside the boundaries that we normally exist in. Ironically, history in real life has probably seen more “super villains” than real super heroes; it’s much more tempting to human weakness and easier, to go outside the normal boundaries and cause harm or perform selfish acts. Many of the colorful supervillains from comic books, especially Batman’s rogue gallery of criminals, are not very far removed in some cases from the activities of real life villains who are epic in scope.
Here’s an example: If I’m your laundry object, you can give me your dirty clothes and send me a message that says, “Can you get my clothes laundered, please.” I happen to know where the best laundry place in San Francisco is. And I speak English, and I have dollars in my pockets. So I go out and hail a taxicab and tell the driver to take me to this place in San Francisco. I go get your clothes laundered, I jump back in the cab, I get back here. I give you your clean clothes and say, “Here are your clean clothes.”
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.
Family owned and operated for over 65 years, Rubie’s Costume Company is the largest designer, manufacturer and distributor of Halloween costumes and accessories in the world! We remain true to our founders’ vision by continually offering innovative products and a variety of styles for the whole family to enjoy, including pets! With the 3rd generation playing such an integral role in our future, we’re confident Halloween with Rubie’s will continue to flourish for years to come.

“First published in 1930, Gladiator is the tale of Hugo Danner, a man endowed from birth with extraordinary strength and speed. But Danner is no altruist. He spends his life trying to cope with his abilities, becoming a sports hero in college, later a sideshow act, a war hero, never truly finding peace with himself. The character of Danner inspired both Superman’s creators, and Lester Dent’s Doc Savage. But Wylie, an editor with the New Yorker, sought to develop more than a pulp hero. His Gladiator provides surprising insights into the difficulties suffered by the truly gifted when born in our midst.”

Since the North American history is relatively short, in searching for the superhero, maybe you should take a look into European or Asian history. I’m pretty sure there were stories about the super-capable guys fighting for the justice long before the 1934. These stories were probably told by the word of mouth, more likely then written down or sketched.
Billy Braddock alias Spider-UK, a British-based Spider-Man and a member of the Captain Britain Corps.[62] He became a sole survivor from Earth-833 after his home reality was destroyed during Time Runs Out and chose to remain in the reality of the defeated Inheritors along with Anya Corazon.[63] During the second volume of Spider-Verse set during the Secret Wars event, Spider-UK and Anya Corazon found themselves in the domain of the Battleworld called Arachnia with no memories of how they got there.[64] and eventually teamed up with Spider-Gwen, Spider-Ham, Spider-Man Noir, and Spider-Man: India, neither of them remembering their previous encounter during the original Spider-Verse.[65] Following the conclusion of Secret Wars the team of six Spiders will rename itself and feature in a new ongoing series called Web Warriors, a name that was coined by Peter Parker from the Ultimate Spider-Man TV series during the original Spider-Verse.[66]

In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first Spider-Man game for the Atari 2600 titled Spider-Man. The game involves climbing a sky scraper, rescuing hostages and defusing bombs set by the Green Goblin. The 1990's saw a flood of Spider-Man Video Games. The first game of the decade released was The Amazing Spider-Man, a puzzle action game released for Amiga, PC:DOS, Commodore 64, and Atari ST. Another game, also titled The Amazing Spider-Man was released in 1990 for the Game Boy. The Game Boy titles spawned two sequels: The Amazing Spider-Man 2 and The Amazing Spider-Man 3: Invasion of the Spider-Slayers.
It begins with an orphan named Peter Parker, raised by his beloved Aunt May and Uncle Ben in Queens, New York. A quiet student, he works diligently at his studies and pines for the beautiful Mary Jane Watson. But this ordinary teenage boy is about to have his life turned upside down, when he is bitten by a genetically altered spider. Suddenly, he finds himself possessed of spectacular powers. He is now and forever Spider-Man!
The radioactive, complex mutagenic enzymes in the spider's blood that were transferred at the time of the bite triggered numerous body-wide mutagenic changes within Parker, granting him superhuman strength, speed, toughened flesh, and numerous arachnid-like abilities. Like many superhuman powers, the effectiveness of Spider-Man's abilities varies based on the author and the needs of the story.
Boy's Costumes are proportioned for the appropriate age, from toddler all the way to teenager. Some of our costumes are in a jumpsuit style, which has the legs, torso and arms all attached in one piece. Others costumes have multiple pieces, such as shirt, jacket, pants, and more. These separate pieces give the wearer more freedom of movement, and offer a realistic look due to a layered effect. Our costumes for boys are great for trick or treating, but don't forget that they are also useful long after for purposes of make believe and healthy personal growth. 
Rapper Kanye West makes a return to the South Park world, having fully teansformed into a "Gay Fish" (his only identification in the game) and seeking Sea-Man and the player's help to guide his "momma" to Heaven aboard a unicorn that farts rainbows. This is a reference to 'Only One', a real mobile game West is making about his real mother's ascension to Heaven.
Two years later, during his final battle against the Green Goblin, rather than survive unscathed, Peter loses a leg to his arch-enemy and Osborn is killed.[volume & issue needed] Peter finally realizes the price he has paid for being Spider-Man, and ends his career to raise a family with Mary Jane and May. Over the years, he overcomes his physical handicap and ultimately joins the NYPD in a scientific capacity. However, after saving him from an insane Normie Osborn, his daughter May "Mayday" Parker begins a career as Spider-Girl behind his back, a decision Peter begrudgingly is forced to accept and deal with, made difficult by his love for May.[volume & issue needed]
Answering the call of justice, Call Girl disconnects criminals and places their evil ambitions on hold. Extending her influence from social media to the town of South Park, Wendy Testaburger is a gadgeteer and a white-hat hacker with a heart of gold who uses technology and an army of followers to unfriend evil. If you need information, just know that you can rely on... Call Girl!
After being defeated on two more occasions by Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus became more determined to defeat his foe and formed the Sinister Six, a group consisting of five other villains who all share the same grudge against the young hero. Ock had each villain face Spider-Man individually so that every member could reap the glory of Spider-Man's death, but he secretly devised this plan to ensure the other villains' defeat each time. After rendering Spider-Man tired, Otto lured him to a fight by kidnapping Aunt May and Betty Brant. Despite everything, Spider-Man came out victorious and saved the two hostages. On his high school graduation, Spider-Man battled the Molten Man, who would turn out to be the stepbrother of Liz Allen. During his early career, Spider-Man would frequently team up with other heroes such as Daredevil, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, and the Human Torch in particular. Peter and Betty broke up after her brother was killed. She couldn't bear the thought of losing another loved one as she feared that Peter would die while taking pictures of Spider-Man. She later settled in with Ned Leeds.
The game's other key new feature is a crafting system - with just a few common items like water bottles and tortillas, you can get crafting valuable healing items in moments. Water bottles can be used to craft healing drinks, tortillas to craft Mexican food for stronger farts and healing, bits of fabric to create costumes, and junk to sell for more parts.

In an unidentified alternate reality, the Man-Spider is Peter Parker who has an allergic reaction to the bite of the radioactive spider and is hospitalized. Because both Uncle Ben and Aunt May are at Peter's side in the hospital when their house is broken into, Ben is not killed by the burglar as in the main timeline. He is discovered by the Six-Armed Spider-Man and Spider-Man Noir, who cure him of his spider powers.[77]
^ Not counting any other character in the mainstream Marvel Universe with that name. Only outside of the mainstream Spider-Man comics or in other media is there other Spider-Man villains (that isn't named Mac Gargan) that are antagonists of Spider-Man.[151][152][153] Gargan is cited to be the fourth who is called that in the comic books but is the most iconic villain with that name.[33]
"If This Be My Destiny...!" (1965) "Green Goblin Reborn!" (1971) "The Six Arms Saga" (1971) "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" (1973) "Nothing Can Stop the Juggernaut!" (1982) "The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man" (1984) "Secret Wars" (1984) "Alien Costume Saga" (1984) "The Death of Jean DeWolff" (1985) "The Wedding!" (1987) "Kraven's Last Hunt" (1987) "Torment" (1990) "Invasion of the Spider-Slayers" (1992) "Maximum Carnage" (1993) "Clone Saga" (1994) "Identity Crisis" (1998) "The Gathering of Five" and "The Final Chapter" (1998) "Flowers for Rhino" (2001) "The Other" (2005) "Back in Black" (2007) "One More Day" (2007) "Brand New Day" (2008) "New Ways to Die" (2008) "Spidey Meets the President!" (2009)" "The Gauntlet" and "Grim Hunt" (2009) "One Moment in Time" (2010) "Big Time" (2010) "Spider-Island" (2011) "Ends of the Earth" (2012) "Dying Wish" (2012) "Spider-Verse" (2014) "Dead No More: The Clone Conspiracy" (2016) "Spider-Geddon" (2018)
All seemed to go well again until Mary-Jane, whom had started acting again, was threatened by a stalker. It started with phone-calls, but when Mary-Jane took a plane, it exploded in mid-air and seemingly killed Mary-Jane. Peter, firstly stricken with grief, did not believe she had died. He knew it must have had something to do with the stalker, and Peter started a crusade to find out the truth. This brought him to Latveria and in a fight against the Hulk among others. Eventually, Peter learned that it was indeed the stalker that had faked Mary-Jane's death and had held her captive during it all. The stalker was a mutant that absorbed all of Peter's memories when he was saved by him during one of Spider-man's fights on the streets of New York. The Stalker needed Mary-Jan for himself because of it and he felled he knew her. Spider-man managed to save Mary-Jane and defeat the Stalker. Mary-Jane however was traumatized by the experience and needed time of from her life as the wife of a superhero. The two parted ways for some time.
If the threat of facing off against two of S.H.E.I.L.D.’s top heroes isn’t enough to stop a villain in his tracks, maybe the head-to-toe look of a detailed superhero costume will make the bad dudes think twice. We recommend having Captain America pairing up a big ol’ fist along with his Vibranium shield , and when Iron Man stands by his side, the high tech armament courtesy of Stark Industries is sure to give the most villainous threats a pause before they attempt to enact their diabolical plans. Pose your children side by side to achieve this shot, and even if their sights are solely set on filling up their trick-or-treat bags, they’ll be able to make the neighborhood rounds like true Avengers.
This version of Spider-Man, after being blamed by J. Jonah Jameson for his son's disappearance exploring another planet named Counter-Earth, designs a new costume with sonic weaponry and stealth capabilities using nanotechnology borrowed from Reed Richards. Traveling to Counter-Earth himself, he joins a group of human revolutionaries led by John Jameson himself in resisting the High Evolutionary and his tyrannical rule, in which humans are brutally oppressed and the half-human, half-animal Beastials form the social elite. He also battles Venom and Carnage, who traveled with Jameson to Counter-Earth and are plotting to infect the entire planet with symbiotes.[volume & issue needed] He is killed by Daemos of the Inheritors, along with the Knights of Wundagore and many other Beastials.[42]

Diamond Collectibles has been released a number of Spider-Man figures for the Marvel Select line. They initially released an Ultimate Spider-Man figure, and subsequently released a Symbiote-suit Spider-Man, Iron Spider, Zombie Spider-Man, a classic Spider-Man, a Spider-Man from The Amazing Spider-Man (with unmasked and metallic variants), an Amazing Spider-Man 2 figure (with an unmasked variant), a Spectacular Spider-Man, and a Spider-Man: Homecoming Spider-Man figure.
Enhanced Durability: Woven with durable fabric, Spider-Man's new suit is highly tear resistant, as seen when it received no damage after being dragged along the streets after a van, withstood the strain of Spider-Man holding the Staten Island Ferry together, and when it was unscathed by shards of shattered glass during the Rescue at the Washington Monument. In addition, the suit is waterproof, as showcased when the suit and its technological capabilities were unaffected despite being submerged in water.

In the face of hateful personal attacks like that, Nicholas Christakis listened and gave restrained, civil responses. He later magnanimously tweeted, “No one, especially no students exercising right to speech, should be judged just on basis of short video clip.” (He is right.) And he invited students who still disagreed with him, and with his wife, to continue the conversation at a brunch to be hosted in their campus home.
Determined to make his short time on Earth count, Gerry designs his own Spider-Man costume and equipment based from his idol's, and convinces his mother to train him in how to use his powers. Calling himself Spider-Man, he meets Spider-Girl, and the two initially clash.[9] During a fight between several villains, a bullet intended for Spider-Man kills one of the villains when Spider-Girl shoves him out of its way. Upset that he was responsible for a death, Gerry runs into Darkdevil, who trains him to be a more effective crime fighter. At the request of Peter Parker, the original Spider-Man, Gerry decides to retire from super heroic adventuring while Reed Richards searches for a cure for his blood disease.[volume & issue needed]
The film was a hit at the box office, and as a result, The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was released in 2014. The film featured the return of most of the original cast, as well as new faces like Jamie Foxx as Max Dillon/Electro, Dane DeHaan as Harry Osborn/Green Goblin and Paul Giamatti as Aleksei Sytsevich/The Rhino. While the movie was a modest financial success, it was heavily panned by critics and made less at the box office than its predecessor. Despite plans for a third movie and a host of spin-offs (including a solo Venom movie, a female-led team movie featuring characters like Silver Sable, Black Cat, Spider-Gwen, Stunner and Lightbrght, and a Sinister Six movie) , the decision was made to discontinue the franchise.
Boy's Costumes are proportioned for the appropriate age, from toddler all the way to teenager. Some of our costumes are in a jumpsuit style, which has the legs, torso and arms all attached in one piece. Others costumes have multiple pieces, such as shirt, jacket, pants, and more. These separate pieces give the wearer more freedom of movement, and offer a realistic look due to a layered effect. Our costumes for boys are great for trick or treating, but don't forget that they are also useful long after for purposes of make believe and healthy personal growth. 
When night falls in South Park, Cartman takes up the call and dons the Coon costume. This fearless crime fighter is the only one who can sort through the trash can of society. As the founder of Coon and Friends, the Coon is the mastermind behind the greatest superhero franchise of all time and will stop at nothing to see it realized. Thinks Eric Cartman is handsome and cool.

As part of the Avengers, Spider-Man traveled to Latveria to investigate Doctor Doom's apparent attack on the neighboring country, Symkaria. Upon arrival, he and his fellow heroes found a dome-shaped structure emitting radiation and broke into it. Inside the building, they came under attack from automated laser turrets, and while Spider-Man was busy webbing them up and cracking jokes, he was suddenly electrocuted into submission and kidnapped by Runabout. When he regained consciousness, he found himself strapped to a table by a giant robot named Megatron, who explained that the hero was about to help him and his Decepticons conquer the world. Man and Machine, Part One Megatron began extracting Spider-Man's radioactive blood, refining it into a powerful energon isotope that he used to supercharge his troops. All Spidey could do was lay there and weakly taunt him. Man and Machine, Part Two
Reconnaissance Drone: In addition to altering the suit's size, the spider emblem on his chest is capable of detaching from its socket, utilizing a miniature propulsion engine from its tail section that allows it to fly through the air independent of Spider-Man's control. It has a tracker mode which allows it to fly onto a target and relay its position to the Spider-Man Suit, allowing Parker to follow targets through the interface of his Web-Shooters.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a common and powerful programming paradigm that heavily incorporates ideas of abstraction. Abstraction allows programmers to write code that shows the essential features of a piece of software without including the background details. Some common object-oriented programming languages include Python, Java, Ruby, and C++. Object-oriented programming languages often use classes, which group objects, attributes, and methods together for user-friendly and modular programming.
Black Widow a.k.a. Natasha Romanova: During a HYDRA attempt to take over S.H.I.E.L.D., she is tortured to such an extent that she regresses back to an old cover identity of schoolteacher Nancy Rushman, but she is recovered by Spider-Man in time to help Nick Fury and Shang-Chi work out what had happened and restore her memory, with "Nancy" developing an attraction to Spider-Man before her memory is restored during the final fight against Madam Viper, Boomerang and the Silver Samurai.

Costume design is the envisioning of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer to the style of dress particular to a nation, a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute to the fullness of the artistic, visual world that is unique to a particular theatrical or cinematic production. The most basic designs are produced to denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest to a character. Costumes may be for, but not limited to, theater, cinema, or musical performances. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination, which merely involves altering existing clothing, although both processes are used to create stage clothes.
Spider-man meets a strange individual named Ezekiel, whom knows that he is truly Peter Parker, and warns him of a powerful enemy whom will try to kill him, known as Morlun. Peter follows Ezekiel and tries to find out why he knows so much about him. Ezekiel tells Spider-man that he is part of a "Spider-Totem", witch is why his enemies all are animals as well (Rhino, Lizard, Doctor Octopus, Vulture). Spider-man does not care much about these strange stories, but is happy with the help that Ezekiel provides when he finally encounters Morlun. He barely defeats Morlun, and struggles back home after the fight. He lands on his bed, with a torn-up Spider-man costume and falls asleep. It is at this time that aunt May enters the room and sees Peter as Spider-Man. The secret is finally out! Aunt May walks away and uses a full day to comprehend the facts before she finally confronts Peter with it. Peter tried to talk his way out of it, but finally sees that it is no use and then told his aunt May about why he became Spider-Man. It was during this time that Peter and Mary-Jane again renewed their relationship and their marriage-vows. Marry-Jane returned to live with Peter and the two where a happy couple once more.
What do we mean by signature? Well, the officially licensed green Halo Master Chief costume, perfect for any gamer, has a full helmet with lights and a jumpsuit shell. The Midnight Count costume is dashing and spooky, especially when he pairs it with a villainous accent. If he wants to look like he just escaped from the zoo, he can wear our plush gorilla costume, with furry bodysuit, mask and gloves. Add a banana and get ready to hear him scream and beat his hands against his chest. These costumes are so exquisite he may not want to take them off when the night of trick or treating is done.
Remember Alf? He's back! For any guy old enough to remember the 80s, watching the hilarious alien, Alf, series is sure to be a fond memory. Try your turn as the TV character when you go in this HalloweenCostumes.com exclusive costume for men. Whether reliving your favorite moments or just looking for a fun throwback look, the furry plush jumpsuit and oversized character mask will turn any human into the lovable alien from Melmac!
Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[65] From at least the 18th century, "imitating malignant spirits" led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century.[65] Traditionally, pranksters used hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels often carved with grotesque faces as lanterns.[65] By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits,[65] or were used to ward off evil spirits.[69][70] They were common in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands in the 19th century,[65] as well as in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.[65]
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