First, to the guy who said “Jesus” was a superhero. Jesus wasn’t a superhero, he was a human being who actually lived on earth. Superheros are fictional. Second, to the guy who said Gilgamesh was a superhero. Gilgamesh isn’t a superhero, he is an archtypal hero from mythology. A “superhero” is from a comic book, a “hero” is from mythology. You might say that comic books are just a modern form of mythology, but that is not true. Comic books are made for one reason; profit. They try to sell an entertaining story for money. Myths don’t. Myths served an important purpose in ancient times, they weren’t sold and they weren’t just for entertainment value.
The updated suit has many new features, such as Karen, an artificially intelligent system to aid him, a heads-up display embedded in the eye lenses, a reconnaissance drone, a parachute, and retractable wingsuit components. The suit was monitored by the Stark Industry Training Wheels Protocol, a program designed and installed into the suit by Stark to restrict certain actions, and the Baby Monitor Protocol, which tracked and recorded everything through the eye lenses.
Indira "Indy" Daimonji (appeared in Spider-Man: The New Animated Series): She is Peter Parker's potential love interest and a rival of Mary Jane Watson. She works at a news network down in Manhattan. She is seriously injured by Spider-Man in the series finale when Spider-Man is tricked by the Gaines Twins into injuring Indy. This led to Peter giving up being Spider-Man
Spirit Halloween is your number one shop for boys Halloween costumes for 2018! We’re costume experts, so we have options for your son no matter what his interests. With brand new 2018 outfits along with classic costume looks like mummies and pirates, we have festive attire from masks to accessories and full oufits that will make him wish Halloween took place every single day. He can look just like his favorite movie and TV characters, reciting their most popular lines from memory, or go very old school with a historical time period costume.

I really liked the idea of Popeye as the first sequential art precedent! But the general Modernist and American concept of a superhero also has deep roots in the radio legacy of The Shadow and others. I don’t know enough about early european newsprint comics to hazard a guess; I wouldn’t be surprised to hear of one. Other western antecenants not mentioned in detail, King Arthur (most certainly magical, and indirectly religious being THE socialized mythic antecend to the Divine Right of Kings) Robin Hood, certainly Populist, but no superpowers…falls into the category of abnornally super abilities a la Batman, and if Batman isn’t included on this list, well….
If your son lives and breathes video games, he’ll love Spirit’s boys gaming Halloween costumes for 2018! If he can’t get enough of Assassin’s Creed, he can dress as Ezio, in his hooded jacket along with chest belt, cape, glove and gauntlet. He’ll be able to connect with his fellow gamers and tell who’s also a fan when he wears a costume that looks like it walked out of the game, like our blue and yellow Fallout Vault Boy costume. No matter how many parties he goes to or how many houses he stops at to get candy, he’ll always look the best when he’s wearing one of Spirit’s officially licensed Fortnite Halloween costumes! Dressing in a Stormtrooper costume or Brite Bomber costume will really make him stand out in the crowd. Accessorize this awesome Halloween costume with tons of Fortnite weapons and accessories. The Pumpkin Launcher and Boogie Bomb both light up and have sounds, so you’ll really be able to bring the video game to life!

Fearing for MJ's safety, Peter pushes her out of the apartment so that he could fight the Puma as Spider-Man without revealing his identity to her. MJ heard the sounds of battle. After Peter defeated Puma, MJ confessed to him that she cannot handle the danger he puts himself in. She tells him that she has always known his secret identity. Black Cat appears to reconcile with Peter which caused MJ to run away crying. She considered leaving town again but she then decided to confront Peter. They became very close and they would tell each other everything. They were hiding from their true feelings and Peter proposed to MJ. Although she initially refused, after making amends with her sister, MJ returned to Peter and accepted his proposal. Despite knowing that they are still too young and Peter's double life may make things difficult, Peter and Mary Jane tied the knot.


The Sailor Moon series is known for featuring a substantial number of openly LGBT characters since its inception, as Japan have traditionally been more open about portraying homosexuality in its children's media compared to many countries in the West.[65][66] Certain characters who are presented as homosexual or transgender in one continuity may not be presented as such in others, particularly with dubbed versions made for international release.[67]
While I don’t know explicitly where the idea comes from, it seems to me that there are a few interesting threads that could be looked at. First, many of the original superhero creators were immigrants or children of immigrants — Americans but not quite like other Americans. Much has been made of the “Jewishness” of Superman — an immigrant from an Old World whose geeky, mild-mannered, weakling exterior hides his inner superiority to everyone around him, who even chose an American name to hide his secret foreign-sounding one. A second thread is the rise of teen culture in the US, and the development of the gender gap as the necessity for greater and greater independence became a factor in child-rearing. FInally, I think it bears looking at the problems of urban living which, at the beginning of the 20th century, had become the main environment for most Americans. Especially important in this connection is the anonymity afforded by urban living and the alientation — call it the Walter Mitty effect — leading people to desperately wish for a way to prove themselves worthy and *noticable*.
Some Christians feel concerned about the modern celebration of Halloween because they feel it trivializes – or celebrates – paganism, the occult, or other practices and cultural phenomena deemed incompatible with their beliefs.[217] Father Gabriele Amorth, an exorcist in Rome, has said, "if English and American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no harm in that."[218] In more recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "Saint Fest" on Halloween.[219] Similarly, many contemporary Protestant churches view Halloween as a fun event for children, holding events in their churches where children and their parents can dress up, play games, and get candy for free. To these Christians, Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage.[220] Christian minister Sam Portaro wrote that Halloween is about using "humor and ridicule to confront the power of death".[221]

Mass-market edition of a brand new novel which follows super hero Spider-Man as he tries to put a stop to The Gentleman's (the leader of the Sinister Six) plan to destroy all the financial markets in the world. Spider-Man battles the most dangerous Sinister Six line-up ever: Doctor Octopus, Electro, Mysterio, the Vulture, the tragic but deadly Pity, and the group's mysterious leader, the Gentleman - a villain who had a hand in the deaths of Spider-Man's parents! But what neither Spider-Man nor his enemies know is that the Gentleman is about to set his master plan into motion: destroying all the financial markets in the world and make himself the richest man in the world. As for the villainess Pity, Spider-Man has become convinced that she is his long-lost sister. But to get Pity to reject her life of crime and break free of the Gentleman's control, he needs conclusive proof - proof that only the X-Man known as Wolverine has. But time is running out for Spider-Man, for Pity and for the world.


While the previous game had been acclaimed for replicating the show's iconic construction paper style, the original South Park elements had to all be re-created and re-animated in Flash for use in the game, requiring collaboration between the developers and South Park' artists. For the sequel, Ubisoft San Francisco aimed to simplify this process by building an entirely new game engine that is fully capable of not only replicating the show's trademark art style, but also importing the original art assets used in the show. This enables not only total accuracy, but the ability to lift new characters, props, locations and other assets created for Season Twenty, while the game is still in production.
See also: Ethnic stereotypes in comics, African characters in comics, List of black superheroes, List of Asian superheroes, List of Latino superheroes, List of Native American superheroes, List of Jewish superheroes, List of Filipino superheroes, List of Middle Eastern superheroes, List of Russian superheroes, and List of Italian and Italian-American superheroes and villains

^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0756692360. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man to be written by someone other than Stan Lee...Thomas also managed to introduce a major new player to Spidey's life - the scientifically created vampire known as Morbius.

Students hailed Spider-Man as a hero for his elevator rescue after he returned to New York City. He learned from Karen that the suit was recording all of his activity, so he reviewed a log of the day of Brice and Schultz's arms sale; he decided to confront the customer, Aaron Davis. At Karen's suggestion, he activated the Enhanced Interrogation Protocol, which made his voice sound deeper and more menacing.

That isn’t to dismiss all complaints by Yale students. If contested claims that black students were turned away from a party due to their skin color are true, for example, that is outrageous. If any discrete group of students is ever discriminated against, or disproportionately victimized by campus crime, or graded more harshly by professors, then of course students should protest and remedies should be implemented.


Nevertheless, variations on the term "Super Hero" are jointly claimed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics as trademarks in the United States. Registrations of "Super Hero" marks have been maintained by DC and Marvel since the 1960s,[45] including U.S. Trademark Serial Nos. 72243225 and 73222079. In 2009, the term "Super Heroes" was registered as a typography-independent "descriptive" US trademark co-owned by DC and Marvel.[46] Both DC Comics and Marvel Comics have been assiduous in protecting their rights in the "Super Hero" trademarks in jurisdictions where the registrations are in force, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, and including in respect of various goods and services falling outside comic book publications.[47]
Assigned as the sidekick of Captain Diabetes, the New Kid is forced to accompany him to infiltrate the Peppermint Hippo strip club and pose as a stripper in order to locate a woman with a penis tattoo, who may hold a clue to Scrambles' location... after questioning to wealthy regulars, and mixing up a fart-laden drink for the Peppermint Hippo DJ, they discover Classi is the woman in question. Chasing her to the back in pursuit, they are forced to battle many of the strippers, lead by Spontaneous Bootay, who aim to protect her.
The updated suit has many new features, such as Karen, an artificially intelligent system to aid him, a heads-up display embedded in the eye lenses, a reconnaissance drone, a parachute, and retractable wingsuit components. The suit was monitored by the Stark Industry Training Wheels Protocol, a program designed and installed into the suit by Stark to restrict certain actions, and the Baby Monitor Protocol, which tracked and recorded everything through the eye lenses.

The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but not trick-or-treating.[149] Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s, with the first U.S. appearances of the term in 1934,[150] and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939.[151]
Many superheroes have a secret identity, and wear a costume or uniform to help conceal that identity. The costume usually has a logo or symbol as part of its design. Sometimes the costume/uniform incorporates special equipment, tools or technology. For example: Iron Man's armor suit, Captain America's vibranium shield, Spider-Man's web-shooters.   
“Parents who wonder why college tuition is so high and why it increases so much each year may be less than pleased to learn that their sons and daughters will have an opportunity to interact with more administrators and staffers—but not more professors,” Benjamin Ginsberg observed in Washington Monthly back in 2011. “For many of these career managers, promoting teaching and research is less important than expanding their own administrative domains.” All over America, dispensing Halloween costume advice is now an annual ritual performed by college administrators.

Those who purport to speak for marginalized students at elite colleges sometimes expose serious shortcomings in the way that their black, brown, or Asian classmates are treated, and would expose flaws in the way that religious students and ideological conservatives are treated too if they cared to speak up for those groups. I’ve known many Californians who found it hard to adjust to life in the Ivy League, where a faction of highly privileged kids acculturated at elite prep schools still set the tone of a decidedly East Coast culture. All else being equal, outsiders who also feel like racial or ethnic “others” typically walk the roughest road of all.


Parker's daughter May is returned to him and Mary Jane, but he continues as Spider-Man. He loses a leg fighting the Green Goblin, gives up on superheroics and joins the police. He has trouble dealing with his daughter taking up the family business as Spider-Girl, though he supports her and occasionally aids her as Spider-Man. He and Mary Jane have one other child, Benjy.
In this example, the objects or instances are the individual superheroes described by the class Superhero. There could be an Ironman object, a Wonder Woman object, a Batman object, or a Spiderman object. The class Superhero associates certain attributes and methods with the superhero objects. For this example, each superhero will have the following attributes: strength, superpower, costume color, secret identity, points, and health. Additionally, each superhero will have the following methods (or actions): attack and heal.
Halloweiner · Horrific Head of Hare · Hound's Hood · Face Plante · Faun Feet · Sprinting Cephalopod · Terrier Trousers ·  Cadaver's Capper · Freedom Feathers · Hardium Helm · Hidden Dragon · Larval Lid · Spellbinder's Bonnet · Faux Manchu · Grub Grenades · Jupiter Jumpers · Lieutenant Bites the Dust · Shaolin Sash · Space Bracers · Bozo's Bouffant · Burny's Boney Bonnet · Corpsemopolitan · Crispy Golden Locks · Gothic Guise · Macabre Mask · Mucous Membrain · Raven's Visage · Spectralnaut · Abhorrent Appendages · Beast from Below · Carrion Companion · Cauterizer's Caudal Appendage · Creature From The Heap · Death Support Pack · External Organ · Glob · Grisly Gumbo · Handhunter · Hard-Headed Hardware · Hollowhead · Maniac's Manacles · Monster's Stompers · PY-40 Incinibot · Rugged Respirator · Scorched Skirt · Up Pyroscopes · Vicious Visage ·  Headtaker's Hood · Mann-Bird of Aberdeen · Squid's Lid · Transylvania Top · Cap'n Calamari · Horsemann's Hand-Me-Down · Lordly Lapels · Parasight · Polly Putrid ·  Ivan The Inedible · Last Bite · Monstrous Mandible · Chicken Kiev · Horned Honcho ·  Grease Monkey ·  Alternative Medicine Mann · Das Blutliebhaber · Medimedes · Shaman's Skull · Teutonkahmun · Trepanabotomizer · Archimedes the Undying · Lo-Grav Loafers · Ramses' Regalia · Second Opinion · Surgeon's Space Suit · Vicar's Vestments ·  Carious Chameleon · Hallowed Headcase · Sir Shootsalot · Candyman's Cap · Hyperbaric Bowler · Bountiful Bow · Bozo's Brogues · Foul Cowl ·  Baphomet Trotters ·  Candleer ·  Pin Pals ·  Snaggletoothed Stetson ·  Ethereal Hood · Birdie Bonnet · Dark Helm · Haunted Hat · Magical Mercenary · Manneater · One-Way Ticket · Tuque or Treat · Accursed Apparition · Beacon from Beyond · Cryptic Keepsake · Guano · Pocket Horsemann · Quoth · Sackcloth Spook · Unidentified Following Object
Most of the supervillains of Spider-Man would be introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man comic book starting with the Chameleon.[3] The early villains would be introduced in the 1960s in the Silver Age of Comic Books,[3] and created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko.[3] John Romita, Sr. replaced Ditko starting with the Rhino.[4] Gerry Conway later replaced Stan Lee and helped create new adversaries for the web-slinger and also helped pave the way to the Bronze Age of Comic Books with the death of Spider-Man's long time romantic interest, Gwen Stacy.[5][6][7] Many collaborators would soon take over The Amazing Spider-Man title. One of the more popular examples included Todd McFarlane's Venom in the Modern Age of Comic Books.[8]
Jump up ^ "Halloween Pranks Keep Police on Hop", Oregon Journal (Portland, Oregon), 1 November 1934; and "The Gangsters of Tomorrow", The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana), 2 November 1934, p. 4. The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in 1934, although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'. "Front Views and Profiles" (column), Chicago Tribune, 3 November 1934, p. 17.
If you have any questions about selecting your boys Halloween costume for 2018, whether about the sizing, fit, material or anything else, we’re here to assist you. We want your son to have his best Halloween yet. You can reach the Spirit Halloween costume experts in our Customer Service department by calling 866-586-0155 or clicking the “Help” button above. We also carry treat bags to match his costume’s theme, so he can store all his goodies when he goes trick or treating.
Catwoman has no shame about her preferred choice of action, stealing and being a top notch catburglar are at the top of her list. But when the times call for a hero, she has no problem standing side-by-side with Batman to team up and defeat the baddies. When she’s on the prowl for precious jewels, though, is sure to be the most opportune time for a quick picture. Once she takes out the vital controls of the security system, she’ll have no problem slipping into the joint and lining her pockets with a little extra cash or whatever she can find in the safety deposit box. Have her show her claws for the picture, and she can smile or look serious—either way this picture is going to be one to remember!

The Crime Master arrives and starts destroying Octavius’ work. Spider-Man drives most of Crime Master’s gang away as Octavius gets his robotic arms on The Crime Master. He slices him apart with scalpels, desperate to save his work. Spider-Man then sets on Octavius for what he has done, crushing his robotic arms. DeWolff arrives before Spider-Man kills him and tells him to thank his girlfriend for calling them in. Spider-Man sees Robbie safe and swings to see Felicia. Her guard tells him that she does not ever want to see him again after she was hurt because of him.[8]
This suit is based upon a reality in which Peter Parker's uncle Ben did not die, and eventually learned how to bring other Spider-Men into his universe to absorb their powers. After trying to absorb Spider-Man from Earth-616 (our universe), things backfired and this version of Peter Parker was put into a coma, while his spirit was trapped in Hell. It wasn't until later that his spirit was freed, giving him a second chance at life as the Ghost Spider - bearing the flaming skull head

With the reveal of Tom Holland’s Spider-Man in the Captain America: Civil War trailer, we wanted to go back and look at the many Spider-Man costumes over the years! Peter Parker being the thrifty science-nerd that he is, we can’t include every version of the wall crawler that has appeared in Marvel comics as some only make single issue appearances (though we did include some of those). Starting from Peter’s first appearance in Amazing Fantasy #15 to the Ultimate Spider-Man Miles Morales and every major version of the webslinger in-between, check out the gallery below for a look at the Spider-Man costumes.
Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.
A geneticist named Miguel O'Hara gained his spider-like powers from a gene-splicing incident, when the company he was about to quit injected him with a dangerous drug called Rapture. He tried to rid himself of the drug by using the Gene Slicer he helped to invent, but unbeknownst to him a jealous co-worker had set it to repeat the previous experiment of a spider. The last time they had tried this experiment it killed the test subject (the main reason Miguel O'Hara quit), but this time it worked. Instead of becoming a company owned version of Spider-Man he became the opposite, a Spider-Man to fight Alchemax and the other large corporations ruling the world in 2099. He now fights crime as the Spider-Man of 2099.[29]
Karen: The suit has a built-in A.I. named Karen, similar to Tony Stark ’s F.R.I.D.A.Y., that informs Spider-Man on changing tactical situations and provides diagnostic reports. This feature was initially set to activate after Parker completed the Training Wheels Protocol, but Ned Leeds unlocked it with the rest of the suit's abilities. Karen records and stores data while the suit is in use through the Baby Monitor Protocol, allowing Spider-Man to access a personal database and review information he may have overlooked previously, or to research people or events he has previously encountered. Karen also provides suggestions and activates features autonomously, such as when she enabled the suit's 'Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode' when Parker needed help surveying a couple of criminals.
The dark Skull Man manga would later get a television adaptation and underwent drastic changes. The character was redesigned to resemble a grasshopper, becoming the renowned first masked hero of the Kamen Rider series. Kamen Rider is a motorcycle riding hero in an insect-like costume, who shouts Henshin (Transform) to don his costume and gain superhuman powers.

Bob mentioned the epic Ramayana, which is itself the story of a “superhero” — the god Rama, who does some pretty nifty stunts, along with his brother Lakshama and monkey hero side-kick Hanuman (my personal favorite). I think he’s probably right about Asia being the earliest origins of superheroism; Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religions and it’s full of larger-than-life men/gods who right wrongs and fight for truth and justice.


Peter Parker's re-emerged consciousness begins to explore his Mindscape, discovering the world is now a large empty space, with only the very few key memories left. Recalling that he's more than Peter Parker, he is Spider-Man, he declares that Otto had made a big mistake in leaving the memories that define him and promises to find a way to regain the control of his body. Continuing to explore the Mindscape for clues into reclaiming his body from Doctor Octopus, he makes a note that only 31 pieces of his memories are left and wonders what he can do with them. Just then, he stumbles upon the memory of his fight with the Green Goblin at the Brooklyn Bridge, wonders why Doctor Octopus is probing into this. Deciding to delve into Doctor Octopus's memories for a way out, he is overwhelmed by the amount of memories and struggles to hold on. He sees a bright light and witnesses the moment of Otto Octavius's birth. Peter Parker's consciousness struggles to fight against the deluge of Doctor Octopus' memories, but it proves too much and he convinces himself that he is Doctor Octopus merging with Otto's memories.
If your son wants to showcase his warrior side, a boys ninja Halloween costume is a fabulous way to look super cool. Our red, green, blue and black ninja costumes harken back to those fighters of ancient Japan, with a thoroughly modern twist that’s perfect to wear while trick or treating or to any costume party. We carry everything from officially licensed Power Rangers Ninja Steel costumes to our Blackstone Ninja, Ice Dragon Ninja and Ghost Dragon Ninja costumes.
You can also get pretty formal with some of our mens costumes. The Stitch suit is what finely tailored couture looks like in the land of the undead. That faux top stitching isn't a mistake, every line is carefully crafted for a "barely holding it together" effect. You can add a fedora to make this suit look even more like a throwback to a bygone age. Remember, old mobsters never die. They just fuggedaboutit.
Jump up ^ "Halloween Pranks Keep Police on Hop", Oregon Journal (Portland, Oregon), 1 November 1934; and "The Gangsters of Tomorrow", The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana), 2 November 1934, p. 4. The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in 1934, although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'. "Front Views and Profiles" (column), Chicago Tribune, 3 November 1934, p. 17.

While Peter Parker still becomes the titular Spider-Man in the comic book starring his name, the initial focus of the story is upon Daily Bugle reporter Ben Urich, an experienced and respected reporter who has a network of informants under the alias of the Spider. The Goblin is a crime lord named Osborn whose henchmen consist of the Enforcers (consisting of Ox, Fancy Dan, Montana), Kraven, the Chameleon (a master of disguise) and the Vulture (a sideshow freak who had developed a taste for human flesh). Urich does not use the information he has to expose the Goblin but rather to blackmail him, in order to get enough money to feed his secret drug habit.[1]
Peter Parquagh is a counterpart to Peter in the miniseries Marvel 1602, albeit without powers. In the series he acts as an apprentice to the royal spymaster Sir Nicholas Fury. A running gag involves Peter repeatedly almost getting bitten by unusual spiders, something that finally occurs at the very end. In the sequel, 1602: New World, he takes the identity of the Spider. Later, Peter's dual identity is revealed, and with the death of his beloved Virginia Dare at the hands of Norman Osborne, he returns to Europe and falls in love with Marion Jane Watson and joins her family of theater performers. During a battle with Baron Octavius, Norman Osborn, and Curtis Connors in Venice, a bystander picks up some of Peter's webbing which eventually served as the basis for the Super Soldier Serum and created Captain America in World War II in this universe.[26] While in the Globe theatre, he is attacked and killed by the supervillain Morlun.[27][28]
By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor souls."[82] "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls,[83] has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating.[84] The custom dates back at least as far as the 15th century[85] and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria.[55] Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends and relatives.[85][86][87] Soul cakes would also be offered for the souls themselves to eat,[55] or the 'soulers' would act as their representatives.[88] As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating that they were baked as alms.[89] Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[90] On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[91]
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