A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010, at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night on June 14, 2011.[199][200] The music and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor, Glen Berger, Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa.[201] Turn Off the Dark is currently the most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $70 million.[202] In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to have been about $1.2 million per week.[203]
On Earth-50701 Spider-Man is abducted by an alien scientist and injected with a mysterious drug that corrupts him and causes him to attack fellow abductee The Thing. He is attacked by the Human Torch and Storm, both also corrupted, and in the scuffle is wounded, causing him to bleed the drug out of his system, returning him to normal. He is returned home, and later joins other heroes in fighting the scientist's Imperfects and their invasion attempts.

On the evening of 11 May 1984, in Jackson Township, New Jersey, the Haunted Castle (Six Flags Great Adventure) caught fire. As a result of the fire, eight teenagers perished.[184] The backlash to the tragedy was a tightening of regulations relating to safety, building codes and the frequency of inspections of attractions nationwide. The smaller venues, especially the nonprofit attractions, were unable to compete financially, and the better funded commercial enterprises filled the vacuum.[185][186] Facilities that were once able to avoid regulation because they were considered to be temporary installations now had to adhere to the stricter codes required of permanent attractions.[187][188][189]

The Post-Crisis version of the bodysuit is not constructed from simple fabric but from Kevlar thread and carbon nanotube fibers. This imparts it with a unique sheen and makes it heavily resistant to tearing. In addition, the suit also is constructed with a full body electric shock delivery system, which is also layered into the suit's fabric. The basic version of the Batsuit is insulated against electricity and is mildly fire resistant. Batman utilizes many different body armor designs, some of which are constructed into his Batsuits, and others which are separate. In its most basic version, the suit is bulletproof around the upper torso and back and can withstand a point-blank range blast from a 12-gauge shotgun. Other versions are entirely bulletproof to small arms fire and have advanced flexible armor plating made from Carbon composites and lightweight metal polymers.
The next night, May drove Parker and Leeds to the Toomes Residence. Despite wearing his Spider-Man suit underneath his clothes, Parker was adamant to be himself. They greeted Toomes and noticed that Michelle Jones was also attending the party. However, after another taunt from Thompson, Parker excused himself and donned his costume outside on the residence's roof. On the roof, Parker spotted a nearby explosion, which he proceeded to investigate.
When Peter learns that his old enemy the Rhino is on a rampage in Times Square, he suits up as Spider-Man to stop the destructive villain in his tracks. But he's unexpectedly foiled in his attempts by the Black Cat, a former ally and old flame. The Cat informs Peter that the Rhino is just a distraction -- the real threat comes from a group of Ancients, members of the same race as the being called Morlun, who Spidey defeated in battle years earlier. The Ancients are now looking to exact revenge -- and hope to steal Spider-Man's life force in the process.
^ Jump up to: a b Morrow, Ed (2001). The Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing Corporation. p. 19. ISBN 9780806522272. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events. These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows. The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night.
In The New Batman Adventures (1997-1999) the Batsuit is revamped having the dark blue highlights on the cape, cowl, gloves, briefs, and boots changed to gray and the Bat-emblem is changed to a larger bat-emblem without the yellow ellipse and his utility belt is changed to light brown with the capsules being replaced with pouches. The Batsuit is based on the Batman: Year One costume.
who lives a life as Peter and Spider-Man. They also used the same characters as before, such as: Peter's Aunt May, J. Jonah Jameson: Editor of the Daily Bugle, Betty Brant: Jameson's secretary and classic damsel in distress, and later on during the series, Robbie Robertson, Jameson's assistant. Spidey also faces some of his usual foes such as: Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio and the Chameleon. This also included a six part story arc where Spidey goes up against Doctor Doom throughout the series. Spidey was voiced by Ted Schwartz in this series.

To make your own basic Spider-Man costume, start with a basic Spider-Man costume from a shop. Use black puffy paint to paint the web design on the costume and mask, then let it dry for about 2 hours. Next, spray paint window mesh white and glue the mesh to Spider-Man lenses. Attach the mesh and lenses to the mask as well. Sew or glue the shoes from a pair of running shoes to the feet of the costume, and add your own web shooter made from aluminum foil, a straw, and a foldable template printed from the internet.
Samhain (/ˈsɑːwɪn, ˈsaʊɪn/) was the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic calendar and was celebrated on 31 October – 1 November in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.[39][40] A kindred festival was held at the same time of year by the Brittonic Celts, called Calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav in Cornwall and Kalan Goañv in Brittany; a name meaning "first day of winter". For the Celts, the day ended and began at sunset; thus the festival began on the evening before 7 November by modern reckoning(the half point between equinox and solstice).[41] Samhain and Calan Gaeaf are mentioned in some of the earliest Irish and Welsh literature. The names have been used by historians to refer to Celtic Halloween customs up until the 19th century,[42] and are still the Gaelic and Welsh names for Halloween.
^ Not counting any other character in the mainstream Marvel Universe with that name. Only outside of the mainstream Spider-Man comics or in other media is there other Spider-Man villains (that isn't named Mac Gargan) that are antagonists of Spider-Man.[151][152][153] Gargan is cited to be the fourth who is called that in the comic books but is the most iconic villain with that name.[33]
When fighting Electro, Spidey had to modify his costume to defeat his foe. He once made a costume from a rubber air mattress that made victory over Electro possible. On another occasion, when Electro's powers were amplified, Spider-Man used an improved version of the insulated costume that was resistant to Electro's attacks. With the help of X-Man, Spider-Man once again defeated Electro.
If you're a guy, you probably spend most nights quoting your favorite movies, telling the latest jokes or mimicking superheroes, whether or not your properly dressed for the occasion. That's why Halloween is the perfect night for men. Is there another holiday where you can dress up like Bender and talk about your shiny metal posterior? And what other night can you dress up like a pirate captain and swing a sword around? What other night can you wear a cape, a Batman costume, all while pretending to fight crime, without the police getting involved. That's right, Halloween might be the best thing that's ever happened to men across the world, so you'd better make the best of it in one of our men's costumes.
The New Kid is you, after all, so customizing your character remains a crucial part of the game. After selecting your character's sex and selecting from a variety of hairstyles and a default outfit, everything else plays out ingame. Costume pieces are no longer attached to stats, so now you can create your own unique and customization superhero costume. (Try to be a little more creative than Super Craig.)

Peter's first super-villain confrontation was with a communist spy called the Chameleon who could disguise himself as anyone. He attempted to disguise himself as Spider-Man and steal some important documents but he was defeated by the debuting hero, restoring his good name. Peter went on to get a job at the Daily Bugle as a photographer, selling photos to J. Jonah Jameson even though they were usually used against him. He eventually fought his second super villain, The Vulture. Due to his inexperience, Spider-Man was defeated but when the villain got cocky, Spider-Man used a gadget of his own to defeat The Vulture. Spider-Man then had his first confrontation with his most dangerous villain yet, the tentacled madman known as Doctor Octopus. Spider-Man was defeated by the more powerful Doctor Octopus in their initial encounter which caused Peter to doubt himself for the first time. He was encouraged by a speech given by the Human Torch to keep on fighting. Spider-Man managed to defeat the villain by knocking him out with one punch to the jaw, since Ock's powers came only from his tentacles. He would follow up this victory by fighting the shape shifting Sandman, the lethal Lizard, who is actually Peter's mentor and friend Curt Connors, the Enforcers, Electro, Mysterio, Kraven the Hunter, Doctor Doom, and his soon to-be arch-nemesis the Green Goblin.
Spider-Man became a force for good, from stopping muggings to rescuing workers at a construction site. These heroic activities also gained him positive media attention but he still didn’t want to get back in show business. Even after Shiffman told him they could make millions, Peter chose responsibility over money. His heroism had also earned Spider-Man a certain fan named Flash Thompson. Spider-Man soon encountered another teenager with superpowers of her own and he and Joey Pulaski became friends. However it turned out that Joey was working for The Kingpin and the friends inevitably clashed, resulting in Joey’s defeat and arrest. Although portrayed as just a misguided kid, chronologically Joey Pulaski was the first super powered being Spider-Man had encountered.
The Dude. His Dudeness. El Duderino if you're not into the whole brevity thing. Whatever you want to call him, well, now you can be him when you go in one of our authentic The Big Lebowski costumes for men! Officially licensed by Paramount Pictures, we have exclusive designs that you're only going to find right here at HalloweenCostumes.com. A classic men's Halloween choice, when you go in this bathrobe costume, you're sure to feel like a much laid back individual. Just make sure you know how to whip up a killer White Russian!
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".[25]:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man, as drawn and envisioned by Kirby, was too similar to the Fly.[25]:127
You can start with a simple costume base like a skin suit or a few pieces of clothing, and build your look out of whole cloth – so to speak – with cool accessories like capes, hats, gloves, boots. You can make whatever kind of costume you feel like, and you're sure to have an amazing time at your next costume party or other Halloween event with a unique look!

Thought to be the cowl worn by Bruce Wayne when he was "killed" in a confrontation with Darkseid during the Final Crisis. Bruce Wayne's last batsuit actually refers to two suits; one worn by Bruce as he was thrown through time by Darkseid's Omega Sanction and one worn by the corpse of a Bruce Wayne clone that Darkseid had the Earth's population believe was Bruce.

It ought to be disputed rather than indulged for the sake of these students, who need someone to teach them how empowered they are by virtue of their mere enrollment; that no one is capable of invalidating their existence, full stop; that their worth is inherent, not contingent; that everyone is offended by things around them; that they are capable of tremendous resilience; and that most possess it now despite the disempowering ideology foisted on them by well-intentioned, wrongheaded ideologues encouraging them to imagine that they are not privileged.

Why buy a superhero costume when you can have fun making your own at home? Replicate your favorite character's costume or invent your very own superhero complete with personalized powers using simple arts and crafts materials that you probably already have lying around the house. Think about the basic elements of a superhero costume outlined below and start building your superhero look!
The game consequently incorporates some elements introduced in seasons (S17 on, largely) that were created shortly before or after the release of the previous game, such as PC Principal and Classi, who both debuted in Season Nineteen, as well as Crunchy's Micro-Brew which debuted the same season, and the re-designed Skeeer's Wine Bar, although much of ShiTpaTown is still missing. The layout of the map has been changed to include other more South Park locations, such as the Peppermint Hippo strip club. The game's development also effected the show, as it was Senior Producer Jason Schroeder who brought Matt and Trey's attention to the fan art about Tweek and Craig that became the cataylist for the episode "Tweek x Craig", which in turn informed the game's development.
So you're a bearded bro. Or a mustache wearing macho man. Or maybe you've got a fu manchu the likes of which few have ever seen! Whatever kind of facial hair you have, we're sure that you're not exactly looking to go clean shaven to portray your favorite character. Fret not, because fortunately we have a TON of costumes for men with beards, mustaches, sideburns! Peruse these top selling costume choices to pick out your favorite facial hair enhanced look.
That isn’t to dismiss all complaints by Yale students. If contested claims that black students were turned away from a party due to their skin color are true, for example, that is outrageous. If any discrete group of students is ever discriminated against, or disproportionately victimized by campus crime, or graded more harshly by professors, then of course students should protest and remedies should be implemented.
Costumes also serve as an avenue for children to explore and role-play. For example, children may dress up as characters from history or fiction, such as pirates, princesses, cowboys, or superheroes. They may also dress in uniforms used in common jobs, such as nurses, police officers, or firefighters, or as zoo or farm animals. Young boys tend to prefer costumes that reinforce stereotypical ideas of being male, and young girls tend to prefer costumes that reinforce stereotypical ideas of being female.[10]

Something is turning ordinary people into zombie like bank robbers. One of which is a friend of Mary Jane. In Spider-Man’s search for answers, he comes across the aid of Private Detective Barb Lightner, whose partner was killed over a mysterious trinket. These events lead to a new crime boss calling himself the ‘The Jewel’. How he is connected to all this is discovered as the detective and superhero pool their resources to find answers.

After Peter was separated from the symbiote by Mr. Fantastic, he was left without a costume and as part of a practical joke; the Human Torch gave him an old Fantastic Four costume with a paper bag for his head, dubbing him the Bombastic Bag-Man. When he was accused of murder, Spidey would use this moniker on another occasion to prevent others from identifying him but this time he only wore a Paper-Bag mask while only wearing orange pants.
Though only a few classes are available to the player at the start of the game, a total of twelve classes can be unlocked altogether, and the player has the option of occasionally changing their class or eventually being able to dual-class or further. Abilities can be upgraded individually, allowing the player to establish a custom, one-of-a-kind hero unlike any other that fits their playing style.
In the Clone Saga, a controversial story arc, the long lost Jackal-made copy of Peter Parker returns. For years he was believed to have died after his initial encounter with the real Peter Parker. The clone, who is now calling himself Ben Reilly spent years traveling the world as he knew there was no place for him in New York City again. When his aunt May was believed to be dying, Ben returned to New York and eventually met Peter Parker. At first the two fought and Peter saw Ben as a thread, but later on the two of them worked together, with Ben even taken over as Spider-man for some time when it was believed that Peter had lost his powers. It was also during this time that aunt May seemingly died of old age. Before she passed away, she told Peter that she had known about him being Spider-man for some time now. Years later, it would be revealed that it was not aunt May that had died, but a stand in that was the work of Norman Osborn. Peter remained out of super-heroin for some time, untill his powers seemingly returned and he and the Scarlet Spider fought side by side for some time. The story arc lasted for two years and ended with the death of Ben Reilly at the hands of a returning Norman Osborn who was revealed to be alive and has been pulling strings from the moment he was believed to have died. On that day, Peter felt to have lost a brother. Although Norman Osborn was defeated, it was far from the last thing that was heard from him. With his powers fully returned, Peter resumed his work as the Amazing Spider-Man once again.
Upon approaching the Spider-Island arc, Peter felt vulnerable with the lack of his spider sense. He began training under Shang Chi to create his own unique martial arts style to make up for his lack of spider sense called the "Way of the Spider". It was then revealed that Shang Chi was instructed by the new Madam Web (Julia Carpenter the former Arachne and Spider-Woman) to secretly prepare Peter for a future threat (Spider-Island). This style consists of among other things, hitting pressure points with Spider Strength, and striking with Spider Speed. This new martial art has considerably improved Spider-Man's H2H capabilities, and so far he has stalemated Julia Carpenter and effortlessly defeated 3 spider-powered individuals in a few seconds during Spider-Island. When he regained his Spider-Sense, he defeated a mutated Kaine who was considerably stronger and quicker than him, and effortlessly trumped a mind controlled Spider-Woman, in handful of blows and kicks.
Spider-Man has a limited healing factor. While not on Wolverine's level, it is sufficiently powerful enough to recover from severe injuries from broken bones and large amounts of tissue damage in a matter of days. After getting his powers, he soon found that his eyesight was repaired, discarding his glasses. During a battle with a villain called the Masked Marauder, Spider-Man is rendered completely blind, however after about 2 days his sight was perfect, albeit sensitive for about a day after. In another instance, he suffered multiple broken bones, trauma, and blood loss when he was defeated by the Rhino, but was fine in the next issue.
Spidey's next video game adventure was released on September 7th, 2010, in the form of Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions. In this game, you can play as four distinct Spider-Men in four different universes, in search of the shattered pieces of a legendary tablet. The game sometimes features sequences where the player is in first person and has to use the analog stick to win the fight, much like in some boxing games. The first dimension is the Amazing Universe (Earth 616), the world of regular comics Spider-Man that we know and love, voiced by Neil Patrick Harris. He uses mainly far-range combat to defeat his enemies, it is known he faces Sandman in this dimension. The second is the Noir Universe, which takes place in the 1940s, in a darker, stealthier, and grittier setting, where stealth and timing is crucial. In this dimension, Spider-Man Faces Hammerhead, Green Goblin and the Vulture. The third is 2099, taking place mostly in the skies, with many free falling levels. In this dimension, Spider-Man faces the Hobgoblin with a new, more advanced look. The final dimension is the Ultimate Universe, where Spider-Man has somehow been reunited with the Venom symbiote as his "gift" from Madame Webb. He battles Deadpool and many other bosses with symbiote tendrils and many more attacks. Carnage is the main boss of this dimension. In the end you battle a immensely empowered god-level Mysterio.
Have you ever wanted to have super powers? Sure you have. It’s one of the most common (and satisfying) daydreams there ever was. While we can’t say you’ll have superpowers when you dress yourself in one of our superhero outfits, we do think you’ll feel super, look incredible, and inspire others to pursue truth, justice, and the American partying way. A good hero starts at a good costume and that’s exactly where we come in! We carry adult superhero costumes as well as styles for kids and toddlers, so you can find superhero family costumes for the whole clan. If you’re already impressed by our staggering collection of superhero suits and gear and need just a little extra help in making your decision, we’ve gone the extra mile to assemble a few tips and tricks to help you come to the right conclusion. This guide will give you a run down on taking the best photos with your little ones and finding the best superhero or superheroine to be this year. We have all of the top choices for female superhero costumes for the ladies, and styles that will transform any man into a muscled do-gooder. And for good measure. we’ve included the top hero groups if you’ve got a team in mind for your mission. Just check out the best superhero costumes and get some ideas below for the ultimate costume inspiration!
The Big Time story arc mainly deals with Peter's luck getting better after going through much turmoil. As Spider-Man, Peter has become a much more respected member of the Super-Hero community. Additionally, thanks to Marla Jameson, Peter has become a think tank scientist at Horizon Labs under the employ of known scientist Max Modell. Roderick Kingsley is murdered by a crazed Phil Urich who takes up the mantle of the Hobgoblin. He takes on the mission Kingpin initially assigned to Kingsley, which involved stealing a metal called reverbium from Horizon Labs. On Peter's first day at Horizon Labs, the lab is attacked by the new Hobgoblin who is using new weapons. After a fight with Spider-Man, Phil steals the reverbium and delivers it to Kingpin who allows Phil to work for him. Spider-Man designs himself a new Stealth Suit (Which has the ability to turn invisible.) to overcome Phil's Goblin Laugh which incapacitated him in their previous encounter. Along with the Black Cat, he attempts to take down Kingpin and Hobgoblin and steal back the reverbium. At Fisk Towers, Spider-Man and the Black Cat fight the Hobgoblin, Kingpin and his Hand Ninjas. The reverbium is destroyed along with Fisk Towers, and Hobgoblin and Kingpin escape. But despite everything, Peter is now living a life with his dignity intact. He now has a new girlfriend, a new apartment and a proud Aunt May and Jay Sr. Part 2 Alistair Smythe and his Spider-Slayers are back and taking aim at Mayor J. Jonah Jameson and his astronaut son John once again. Smythe returns Mac Gargan to his Scorpion identity and attacks the launch site where John is flying the Vertex shuttle into orbit which will meet up with a Horizon Labs space station. Spider-Man appears and web lines to a shuttle that just took off. Smythe has locked down the controls and rigged its booster rockets to explode before it leaves the atmosphere. To make matters worse, the evolved Scorpion appears to kill Spider-Man. But with secret help from Otto Octavius Spider-Man saves John. He gets help from the New Avengers in defending Jonah but Smythe sends his Insect Army after Jonah's loved ones. But Spidey and his friends cannot hurt the Insect Army, they can barely even touch them, as Smythe gave them their own spider-sense. Peter with the help from Max Modell creates the spider-sense disruptor. He is given the detonator and must be far from the center of the "explosion" or his sense might be also caught in in. But during the second fight against the Scorpion, Scorpion destroys the detonator, and Spider-Man must do it manually. And when he detonates it he is caught in the epicenter. The Insect Army has lost the spider-sense, but so has Spider-Man. After Spider-Man defeats the Scorpion, he goes to check on the others but Smythe suddenly appears and Spider-Man had not seen it coming due to not having spider-sense, but Marla Jameson did. She jumps right in front of Jonah, and saves him but scarifies her own life in the process. Spider-Man then defeats Smythe and for the first time, Jonah refuses to blame Spider-Man and blames himself instead.
Cartman's reference to not introducing solo films for "the black superhero" or "the chick", in "phase three", is a reference to the upcoming release of the 2018 film Black Panther by Marvel Studios, the first solo film about the titular black superhero, and the later 2019 release of Captain Marvel by the same studio, which will be Marvel Studios' first solo film with a female superheroine. They are considered part of Marvel's own third phase of films.

All I can say is that the Peter Parker of the Ultimate Universe casts a huge shadow over Miles' spiritual and emotional development. What will he do when he's confronted with the Peter Parker from another universe? Well, that's the story. And there are a couple of things going on. First, Miles is meeting someone who's the closest flesh-and-blood thing to his actual biggest hero. Second, he's being shown a window into an entire new universe. That's mind-bending stuff for a young kid to come to terms with." Alonso went on to reveal that "there's a super-cool villain involved in all of this and it's mind-bending, twisted stuff that puts these two in each others' orbit. We don't break down the wall between the Marvel Universe and the Ultimate Universe lightly."
Further customization comes with exploring the town as the New Kid fills out a 'character sheet' - finding characters who specialize in this fields and talking to them ad fulfilling tasks helps you discover your gender, race, economic class, etc. Of course, this still South Park, so none of it only matters - the Rednecks will try to beat you up anyway. (Some of the dialogue does change a little.)
With nearly 20 years of expertise in the costume business, more than 10,000 unique costumes, and one million-plus customizable costume and accessory options, we know Halloween inside and out. We started with a dream, and we’re in the business of making our customers’ dreams come true. Whether you’re looking for the perfect Halloween costume or you’ve been designated this Christmas’ Santa Claus, you’ve come to the right place.

Add your other half and the kids for a night of Halloween fun the entire family will remember, and get matching costumes for everyone! Become a king and queen with the little members of royalty, dress them up as their favorite farm animals, turn them into little Halloween monsters, and more. They'll love joining enchanted lands and making their own unforgettable memories with you!
Determined to make his short time on Earth count, Gerry designs his own Spider-Man costume and equipment based from his idol's, and convinces his mother to train him in how to use his powers. Calling himself Spider-Man, he meets Spider-Girl, and the two initially clash.[9] During a fight between several villains, a bullet intended for Spider-Man kills one of the villains when Spider-Girl shoves him out of its way. Upset that he was responsible for a death, Gerry runs into Darkdevil, who trains him to be a more effective crime fighter. At the request of Peter Parker, the original Spider-Man, Gerry decides to retire from super heroic adventuring while Reed Richards searches for a cure for his blood disease.[volume & issue needed]

Pursuing the Vulture once again, Peter Parker went to grab his homemade suit from beneath the school lockers. After changing hastily into his suit, Spider-Man went outside only to be ambushed by the Shocker, who subsequently knocked Spider-Man's Web-Shooters off his wrists, putting him at a disadvantage. Shocker relentlessly kept attacking Spider-Man, smashing him through school buses. Before Shocker could strike Spider-Man again, Ned used one of the Web-Shooters to distract the Shocker, and Spider-Man bound him to a school bus.[2]
The Spider-Man Suit is a specialized suit used by Peter Parker to protect his identity as Spider-Man. Originally consisting of a hoodie with a spider symbol, blue pants, a blue shirt, and a red mask with black goggles to help him focus his senses, the suit received a "minor upgrade" from Tony Stark for Parker to use during the Clash of the Avengers. Stark allowed Parker to keep the suit after the Avengers Civil War.
Samhain/Calan Gaeaf marked the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year.[43][44] Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí (/iːsˈʃiː/ eess-SHEE), the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more easily come into this world and were particularly active.[45][46] Most scholars see the Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods [...] whose power remained active in the people's minds even after they had been officially replaced by later religious beliefs".[47] The Aos Sí were both respected and feared, with individuals often invoking the protection of God when approaching their dwellings.[48][49] At Samhain, it was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí.[50][51][52] The souls of the dead were also said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality.[53] Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them.[54] The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world.[55] In 19th century Ireland, "candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. After this the eating, drinking, and games would begin".[56]
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