With more and more anime, manga and tokusatsu being translated or adapted, Western audiences were beginning to experience the Japanese styles of superhero fiction more than they were able to before. Saban's Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, an adaptation of Zyuranger, created a multimedia franchise that used footage from Super Sentai.[38] Internationally, the Japanese comic book character, Sailor Moon, is recognized as one of the most important and popular female superheroes ever created.[39][40][41][42][43]
Critics in the legal community dispute whether the "Super Hero" marks meet the legal standard for trademark protection in the United States: distinctive designation of a single source of a product or service. Controversy exists over each element of that standard: whether "Super Hero" is distinctive rather than generic, whether "Super Hero" designates a source of products or services, and whether DC and Marvel jointly represent a single source.[48] Some critics further characterize the marks as a misuse of trademark law to chill competition.[49] To date, aside from a failed trademark removal action brought in 2016 against DC Comics' and Marvel Comics' United Kingdom registration, no dispute involving the trademark "Super Hero" has ever been to trial or hearing.[50]
At his headquarters, Mysterio is preparing to cement his victory by destroying the portal and trapping Spider-Man in the Ultimate universe forever. But unable to resist the temptation to see how his enemy is faring, he keeps the portal open long enough for Peter and the Ultimates to capture him. Despite his best efforts to throw them off with his usual weapons, Mysterio is quickly defeated and Fury decides to keep him prisoner on their side of the rift due to his knowledge of Peter's secret identity. With the portal closing, Peter departs for his world after giving Miles his blessing as the new Spider-Man of this world, an acknowledgment that makes Fury and Miles very satisfied. Back in his world, Peter runs a search for Miles' counterpart in his world and is shocked at the result.[7]
There was a second miniseries, Spider-Men II, released in 2017. It was a new team-up of Peter and Miles, now both living in the mainstream Marvel universe. It also features the native Miles Morales of the mainstream universe, an adult and close friend of the Kingpin. At the end of the story, the adult Morales moves into the Ultimate Marvel universe, which had been destroyed in the 2015 Secret Wars crossover. This remade the Ultimate universe, Peter Parker is now Spider-Man again, and has joined the Ultimates.[14]
A version of Peter Parker exists, who is a child abused by his Uncle Ben. While locked in the cellar, he is befriended by a large spider-like creature, the Tallus instructs Blink and Nocturne to lead this universe's incarnation of Wolverine to the run down shack the Parkers call home, a fight ensues and the creature and Wolverine are both slain, as Blink and Nocturne depart this reality, it is shown that the creature bit the young Peter.[4]
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a common and powerful programming paradigm that heavily incorporates ideas of abstraction. Abstraction allows programmers to write code that shows the essential features of a piece of software without including the background details. Some common object-oriented programming languages include Python, Java, Ruby, and C++. Object-oriented programming languages often use classes, which group objects, attributes, and methods together for user-friendly and modular programming.
The Negative Suit's black-and-white design comes from a history that is not all from your new villain Mister Negative, but from Spider-Man's visit to the Negative Zone, where his suit transformed in a realm with no color. However, in other stories, Peter's suit was also transformed into the Negative Suit after being attacked by Mister Negative himself.
The student finally declares, “You should not sleep at night! You are disgusting!” Bear in mind that this is a student described by peers with phrases like, to cite one example, “I've never known her to be anything other than extremely kind, level-headed, and rational.” But her apparent embrace of an ideology that tends toward intolerance produce a very different set of behaviors.
In 1957 Japan, Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in Japanese popular culture towards tokusatsu masked superheroes over kaiju giant monsters. Along with Astro Boy, the Super Giant serials had a profound effect on Japanese television. 1958 saw the debut of superhero Moonlight Mask on Japanese television. It was the first of numerous televised superhero dramas that would make up the tokusatsu superhero genre.[27]
Here’s one of the ways that white men at Yale are most privileged of all: When a white male student at an elite college says that he feels disempowered, the first impulse of the campus left is to show him the extent of his power and privilege. When any other students say they feel disempowered, the campus left’s impulse is to validate their statements. This does a huge disservice to everyone except white male students. It’s baffling that so few campus activists seem to realize this drawback of emphasizing victim status even if college administrators sometimes treat it as currency.
Jump up ^ Skog, Jason (2008). Teens in Finland. Capstone. p. 31. ISBN 9780756534059. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church. It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering. In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri, or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.
What’s more fun than going all out with the scare factor on Halloween? Our scary boys costumes are the perfect way for your son to frighten his friends and classmates. This is the one night a year when you’re encouraged to look as grotesque as possible! What better way to do that than in an Exploding Guts Zombie Spandex Suit, with organs coming out of it? No one will be able to resist looking at him, even if they have to peek between their fingers! If he’s all about ghoulish horror or simply celebrating the darker side of life, we’ve got affordable boys horror costumes ranging from skeletons to monsters to vampires, werewolves or even the grim reaper.
We have all of the costumes, accessories and decorations that you, your friends and your family are looking for to make your celebration the best one yet. We offer a wide variety of categories, including men’s, women’s, girls’, boys’, men’s and women’s plus size, baby, accessories, decorations, and many more. There is truly something for everyone here—from sexy costumes to family-friendly ensembles—and we make it easy to find your fit by including size charts with each costume. We also understand that everyone’s budget is different, which is why we offer costumes, accessories and decorations in a wide variety of prices. We want to make sure that you love your costume, and we understand that fit and affordability are two of the most important factors when shopping online.

He is a playable character in the video games Spider-Man Shattered Dimensions and Spider-Man: Edge of Time, with Edge of Time seeing him pitted against a psychotic version of Peter Parker in 2099, this Peter having become the CEO of Alchemax and attempting to rewrite the universe to fit his vision. CEO Peter uses an elaborate spider-based robot in his fight against Miguel, but Miguel is able to defeat him by using the tentacles of Atrocity- a twisted hybrid of Anti-Venom, Doctor Octopus, and Alchemax employee Walker Sloan- to weaken CEO Peter's powers. He is a playable character in Lego Marvel Super Heroes 2.

At Yale, every residential college has a “master”––a professor who lives in residence with their family, and is responsible for its academic, intellectual, and social life.  “Masters work with students to shape each residential college community,” Yale states, “bringing their own distinct social, cultural, and intellectual influences to the colleges.” The approach is far costlier than what’s on offer at commuter schools, but aims to create a richer intellectual environment where undergrads can learn from faculty and one another even outside the classroom.
...that we didn't receive the story and methodology to the resolution that we were all expecting. What made that very problematic is that we had four writers and artists well underway on [the sequel arc] "Brand New Day" that were expecting and needed "One More Day" to end in the way that we had all agreed it would. ... The fact that we had to ask for the story to move back to its original intent understandably made Joe upset and caused some major delays and page increases in the series. Also, the science that Joe was going to apply to the retcon of the marriage would have made over 30 years of Spider-Man books worthless, because they never would have had happened. ...[I]t would have reset way too many things outside of the Spider-Man titles. We just couldn't go there....[75]
Silk a.k.a. Cindy Moon: In the Original Sin storyline, When Spider-Man was exposed to the energies of the Watcher's eye, he recalled the first time the spider that bit him, but not before the radioactive spider that bit him managed to bite another before it died, Cindy Moon. Cindy shows remarkable abilities that are quicker and faster than Peter's. She felt a primal connection to Peter as they show an animalistic attraction to one another, and that bond was seen in a more tender, caring way throughout the Spider-Verse series. However, Cindy seems determined to keep Peter at a distance, as though attempting to come to terms with her own identity without the input of her famous ally.

The traditions and importance of Halloween vary greatly among countries that observe it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going "guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays.[239][240] In Brittany children would play practical jokes by setting candles inside skulls in graveyards to frighten visitors.[241] Mass transatlantic immigration in the 19th century popularized Halloween in North America, and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a significant impact on how the event is observed in other nations. This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as Ecuador, Chile,[242] Australia,[243] New Zealand,[244] (most) continental Europe, Japan, and other parts of East Asia.[245] In the Philippines, during Halloween, Filipinos return to their hometowns and purchase candles and flowers,[246] in preparation for the following All Saints Day (Araw ng mga Patay) on 1 November and All Souls Day —though it falls on 2 November, most of them observe it on the day before.[247] In Mexico and Latin American in general, it is referred to as " Día de los Muertos " which translates in English to "Day of the dead". Most of the people from Latin America construct altars in their homes to honor their deceased relatives and they decorate them with flowers and candies and other offerings.[248]

^ Jump up to: a b c "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church.... All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself. The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en. ...However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain ...
The Marvel Zombies universe features a Spider-Man who has been turned into a flesh-eating zombie after being infected by Zombie Captain America.[12] Although Spider-Man is just as ravenous as the other zombies when hungry, when he has eaten, Spider-Man is racked with guilt at what he has done, especially for having eaten Mary Jane and Aunt May, but unable to change his nature.[13] At the conclusion of the original series, Spider-Man is one of the heroes who become The Galacti, having consumed the original Galactus and subsequently acquiring his cosmic powers.[14]
I’d venture that a “super hero” as opposed to an ordinary hero, is someone who essentially devotes their life to being a hero as their foundation. In this sense, I *would* consider quasi-mythological figures such as Zorro or Robin Hood to be effectively superheroes, though they lack a lot of the stereotypes we’ve come to associate with superheroes. (Or perhaps not… depending on how you look at it.)
Captain America and Iron Man have no trouble teaming up to save the day, but as we found out in Captain America Civil War , sometimes they find themselves at odds, too. When the threat to humanity is real though, Captain Steve Rogers and billionaire Tony Stark are sure to set aside their differences and suit up to defeat the bad guys. The only question is, are your children ready to do the same? Will they pass muster when they put on their hero costume? Let’s find out by decking them out in one of these red hot Avengers costumes. When Iron Man and Cap hit the scene, they’ll be ready to recreate all of their favorite action sequences. With the Captain boldly holding his shield, and Iron Man ready to fire his repulsor blasts at the baddies, these two are suited and ready. Have them stand in this pose for a really great photo!
Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers".[62] A romantic relationship eventually develops, with Parker proposing to her in issue #182 (July 1978), and being turned down an issue later.[63] Parker went on to graduate from college in issue #185,[49] and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat,[64] whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).[49]
Genesys, wereldwijd leider in omnichannel oplossingen voor experience en contact centers, hoort bij de top vijf leveranciers op basis van omzet in het recente rapport van Gartner ‘Market Share Analysis: Customer Experience and Relationship Management (CERM) Software, Worldwide, 2017’. Genesys ziet dit als erkenning van hun positie als topspeler in deze markt en benadrukt het...
According to Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why, in Judaism, Halloween is not permitted by Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18:3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile customs. Many Jews observe Yizkor, which is equivalent to the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, as prayers are said for both "martyrs and for one's own family".[227] Nevertheless, many American Jews celebrate Halloween, disconnected from its Christian origins.[228] Reform Rabbi Jeffrey Goldwasser has said that "There is no religious reason why contemporary Jews should not celebrate Halloween" while Orthodox Rabbi Michael Broyde has argued against Jews observing the holiday.[229] Jews do have the Purim holiday, where the children dress up in costumes to celebrate.[230]
Diamond Collectibles has been released a number of Spider-Man figures for the Marvel Select line. They initially released an Ultimate Spider-Man figure, and subsequently released a Symbiote-suit Spider-Man, Iron Spider, Zombie Spider-Man, a classic Spider-Man, a Spider-Man from The Amazing Spider-Man (with unmasked and metallic variants), an Amazing Spider-Man 2 figure (with an unmasked variant), a Spectacular Spider-Man, and a Spider-Man: Homecoming Spider-Man figure.
If you have any questions about selecting your boys Halloween costume for 2018, whether about the sizing, fit, material or anything else, we’re here to assist you. We want your son to have his best Halloween yet. You can reach the Spirit Halloween costume experts in our Customer Service department by calling 866-586-0155 or clicking the “Help” button above. We also carry treat bags to match his costume’s theme, so he can store all his goodies when he goes trick or treating.
The Batsuit is the costume Batman wears to conceal his identity and to frighten criminals. Unable to create it by himself, Bruce Wayne needed Lucius Fox to provide him some sort of armor. Fox presented him a prototype armor suit that was rejected by the army due to cost. After receiving the suit, Bruce sprays it with black rubber and adds a bat symbol.
An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.[9]:239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills. When Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal. The issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut and the Code was subsequently revised.[9]:239

Following this, Holland reprised his role in Spider-Man: Homecoming, a 2017 co-production between Marvel Studios and Sony. The film also starred Michael Keaton as Adrian Toomes/Vulture, Marissa Tomei as Aunt May, Jacob Batalon as Ned Lee, Zendaya as MJ, Laura Harrier as Liz Allan, Bokeem Woodbine as Herman Schultz/Shocker, Michael Chernus as Phineas Mason/Tinkerer, Tony Revolori as Flash Thompson, Jon Favreau as Harold "Happy" Hogan and Robert Downey, Jr. as Tony Stark.
On Earth-50701 Spider-Man is abducted by an alien scientist and injected with a mysterious drug that corrupts him and causes him to attack fellow abductee The Thing. He is attacked by the Human Torch and Storm, both also corrupted, and in the scuffle is wounded, causing him to bleed the drug out of his system, returning him to normal. He is returned home, and later joins other heroes in fighting the scientist's Imperfects and their invasion attempts.

Peter discovers that he is suffering from an unknown disease that is killing him. He seeks the help of the Marvel Universe's best scientists but none of them could help him so he decides to accept the inevitable. He is later attacked by the powerful Morlun, and after a brutal fight, the totem eater rips off Peter's eye, eats it and continues to beat Spider-Man to his apparent death. After his body is sent to the hospital, Morlun attempts to consume him, but after an intervention from Mary Jane, whom Morlun was about to kill, Spider-Man's form suddenly changed. His eyes glow red, his teeth become razor sharp and two poison stingers sprout from his arms. Peter attacks Morlun, stabs him in the shoulder with one of his stingers and bites him in the neck. He then apparently dies in MJ's arms. He finds himself face to face with a Spider monster who tells Peter that he has to either accept his spider side and evolve or die. Spider-Man embraces his "other" and recovers. He reunites with his friends and family and reveals that he has received new powers.


Halloween is a wonderful time to tickle everyone’s funny bones with a boys humor costume! If you’re son is the type who’s always cracking jokes and is the life of the party, he’ll want to put his sense of humor on full display. He can dress up as a pizza slice, a man-eating shark or even a whoopee cushion, all guaranteed to make people stop in their tracks and give in to the giggles.
In the face of hateful personal attacks like that, Nicholas Christakis listened and gave restrained, civil responses. He later magnanimously tweeted, “No one, especially no students exercising right to speech, should be judged just on basis of short video clip.” (He is right.) And he invited students who still disagreed with him, and with his wife, to continue the conversation at a brunch to be hosted in their campus home.
In the Amalgam Comics continuity, Spider-Man was combined with DC's Superboy to create Spider-Boy. He was featured in Spider-Boy #1 (April 1996) and Spider-Boy Team-Up #1 (June 1997). In this continuity, Spider-Boy is the clone of researcher Peter Parker, created during an explosion in the Project Cadmus Labs. Adopted by Cadmus director General Thunderbolt Ross, he is given the name "Pete Ross". Spider-Boy's power is the ability to redirect his own personal gravity, giving him the ability to climb walls, and to increase his strength. He is able to shoot webs using a special "Web Gun" developed by Cadmus. Spider-Boy is an honorary member of the Legion of Galactic Guardians 2099 (an amalgamation of DC's Legion of Super-Heroes and Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy plus the Marvel 2099 timeline). He is seen in the background during Spider-Verse to fight the Inheritors.
In one possible future of the Marvel Universe, Advanced Idea Mechanics has examined the Uni-Power and attempted to duplicate it. The duplicate, referred to as the 'Alias-Power' or 'Uni-Alias', has the ability to animate the Death's Head 3.0 robot. While resident in Death's Head, it took the form of a conscience. On one occasion, when asked to rescue an evil scientist from a jail, it instead rescued a human rights activist. When the robot killed a UN researcher, the power brought him back to life. The researcher then confronted the robot, forcing it to acknowledge the conscience. Afterwards, Death's Head began working for the UN as an anti-terrorist hit-man.[26]
^ Jump up to: a b c "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church.... All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself. The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en. ...However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain ...
The Batsuit is the costume Batman wears to conceal his identity and to frighten criminals. Unable to create it by himself, Bruce Wayne needed Lucius Fox to provide him some sort of armor. Fox presented him a prototype armor suit that was rejected by the army due to cost. After receiving the suit, Bruce sprays it with black rubber and adds a bat symbol.
As for the reason for Superhero’s; I think her’s (or ‘super’ heros) were always needed. It’s jsut earlier superhero’s like cowboys are not seen as super now. However, they were much better than the average at gunslinging and all had colerfull names and personalities. I think we the dawn of the 30s and in even earlier in the post World War I era, people realized that a gun slinging cowboy could not save them. People demanded (or wanted) hero’s with more powers. Hero’s that would not be plowed down by machine guns and rifles. Hense superman was made. As street crime began to dominate people’s fears, less super-human heros like Batman appeared.

Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.


In The Creation of Spider-Man, comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".[157]:5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama". Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems". This idea spawned a "comics revolution".[157]:6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them.[158] Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.[159]
If your son lives and breathes video games, he’ll love Spirit’s boys gaming Halloween costumes for 2018! If he can’t get enough of Assassin’s Creed, he can dress as Ezio, in his hooded jacket along with chest belt, cape, glove and gauntlet. He’ll be able to connect with his fellow gamers and tell who’s also a fan when he wears a costume that looks like it walked out of the game, like our blue and yellow Fallout Vault Boy costume. No matter how many parties he goes to or how many houses he stops at to get candy, he’ll always look the best when he’s wearing one of Spirit’s officially licensed Fortnite Halloween costumes! Dressing in a Stormtrooper costume or Brite Bomber costume will really make him stand out in the crowd. Accessorize this awesome Halloween costume with tons of Fortnite weapons and accessories. The Pumpkin Launcher and Boogie Bomb both light up and have sounds, so you’ll really be able to bring the video game to life!

Jump up ^ As late as 1900, an article on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities. "The Day We Celebrate: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially" Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 24 November 1895, p. 27. "Odd Ornaments for Table" Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 21 October 1900, p. 12.


The Batsuit is the costume Batman wears to conceal his identity and to frighten criminals. Unable to create it by himself, Bruce Wayne needed Lucius Fox to provide him some sort of armor. Fox presented him a prototype armor suit that was rejected by the army due to cost. After receiving the suit, Bruce sprays it with black rubber and adds a bat symbol.
Writers and artists over the years have established a rogues gallery of supervillains to face Spider-Man. In comics and in other media. As with the hero, the majority of the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, and many have animal-themed costumes or powers.[note 6] Examples are listed down below in the ordering of their original chronological appearance:      Indicates a group.
Jump up ^ Cleene, Marcel. Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. Man & Culture, 2002. p.108. Quote: "Soul cakes were small cakes baked as food for the deceased or offered for the salvation of their souls. They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead. The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice".
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