One superpowered character was portrayed as an antiheroine, a rarity for its time: the Black Widow, a costumed emissary of Satan who killed evildoers in order to send them to Hell—debuted in Mystic Comics #4 (Aug. 1940), from Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Most of the other female costumed crime-fighters during this era lacked superpowers. Notable characters include The Woman in Red,[18][19] introduced in Standard Comics' Thrilling Comics #2 (March 1940); Lady Luck, debuting in the Sunday-newspaper comic-book insert The Spirit Section June 2, 1940; the comedic character Red Tornado, debuting in All-American Comics #20 (Nov 1940); Miss Fury,[20] debuting in the eponymous comic strip by female cartoonist Tarpé Mills on April 6, 1941; the Phantom Lady, introduced in Quality Comics Police Comics #1 (Aug. 1941); the Black Cat,[21][22] introduced in Harvey Comics' Pocket Comics #1 (also Aug. 1941); and the Black Canary, introduced in Flash Comics #86 (Aug. 1947) as a supporting character.[23] The most iconic comic book superheroine, who debuted during the Golden Age, is Wonder Woman.[24] Modeled from the myth of the Amazons of Greek mythology, she was created by psychologist William Moulton Marston, with help and inspiration from his wife Elizabeth and their mutual lover Olive Byrne.[25][26] Wonder Woman's first appearance was in All Star Comics #8 (Dec. 1941), published by All-American Publications, one of two companies that would merge to form DC Comics in 1944.


Samhain/Calan Gaeaf marked the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year.[43][44] Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí (/iːsˈʃiː/ eess-SHEE), the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more easily come into this world and were particularly active.[45][46] Most scholars see the Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods [...] whose power remained active in the people's minds even after they had been officially replaced by later religious beliefs".[47] The Aos Sí were both respected and feared, with individuals often invoking the protection of God when approaching their dwellings.[48][49] At Samhain, it was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí.[50][51][52] The souls of the dead were also said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality.[53] Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them.[54] The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world.[55] In 19th century Ireland, "candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. After this the eating, drinking, and games would begin".[56]
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 25. ISBN 978-0756692360. The Amazing Spider-Man #13 saw [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko return to the creation of new super villains. This issue marked the debut of Mysterio, a former special effects expert named Quentin Beck.
Spider-Man possesses the uncanny speed, agility and reflexes of a spider. He can move at a speed that surpasses that of the finest human athletes. This is particularly evident over short distances. He has frequently speed-blitzed many foes- including those with enhanced speed and reflexes, moving so fast that he leaves blurring after images. He has been described as moving with the speed of machine gun fire, moving faster than the eye can follow, and moved so fast that Daredevil (who has enhanced reflexes and senses) could barely register him, and was unable react to a punch he was knew Spider-Man was going to land. Over longer distances, his speed seems less pronounced, but he was still able to outrun Kraven and his cheetahs (both of whom can run at over 60 mph) and has easily outran speeding cars. However, this could be due to his preference of Web-Slinging over longer distances than due to an inability to maintain higher levels of speed over longer distances. Spider-Man can easily perform the most complicated acrobatic moves as his body is extremely flexible, giving him agility, balance and bodily coordination that surpass those of the finest human athletes. Spider-Man is considered the best when it comes to balance in the Marvel Universe, as he possesses excellent equilibrium allowing him to balance himself on any object. Even some of the most agile street-level heroes like Captain America, Daredevil and Wolverine are nowhere near Spider-Man's level of speed and agility. Spider-Man's reflexes are forty times greater than peak level humans, and when combined with his Spider-Sense, speed and agility, enable him to dodge bullets and other conventional projectiles with ease. During the Grim Hunt storyline, he even dodged sniper rifle fire at point blank range- after the bullet had been fired.
To create a zombie costume, first make your clothes look old and tattered. Try using a 1:1 bleach solution to fade clothes or make them look worn out by running a grater over areas to create small tears. Make some fake blood with corn syrup, red food coloring, and chocolate syrup to spatter on your clothes so you’ll look bloody and gory! Remember to zombify your face and hair, too, using dark purplish-brown makeup around your eye socket and eyelids so your eyes look sunken in, for example.
Spider-Man takes the fight to The Crime Master and busts up an operation of drinking, girls and drugs. In a back room he discovers a soundproof torture chamber. He goes to visit Felicia, but she is with someone else. Returning home, he is told that Robbie has disappeared. On Ellis Island, Octavius inspects the new test subjects, and Robbie is among them. Octavius, working for The Friends of New Germany (TFONG), intends to use them to prove that inferior races can be controlled by removing their willpower surgically. Spider-Man revisits the chamber for more information, but he is ambushed by The Crime Master and his men. With them is The Sandman who slams Spider-Man to the ground with ease.[6]

I actually do think The Incredibles explored this issue in a subtle way; the fact that the basis of Syndrome’s psychosis is that he was fixated on one element of the superhero making a person a “super” - special powers or abilities. That was evidenced in his plot to destory the ideas of “supers” by making everyone “super” eventually; as if giving everyone special powers is all it would take to eliminate the idea of heroes.
When it comes to choosing a hero costume, it seems like there’s an endless number of superheroes to choose from. You could be the kind of hero who comes from another planet, or maybe one who gains their super abilities from some extraordinary set of circumstances right here on Earth. Or you could even be the kind of hero who had their mutant powers from birth. Whatever kind of hero you’d like to be, our selection of men’s superhero costumes is sure to have a choice that will suit your tastes. Check out some of these curated choices for our favorite and most popular costume selections!
These are Batman's signature shuriken cut in the shape of his symbol. There is the standard larger version that can folded in half, but it seems these were almost never used. The small variants were used to shatter lightbulbs and windows early in his crusade. Later this seemed to evolve into an even smaller tranquilizer dart similar in shape and material.
Spider-Man's exposure to the mutated spider venom induced a mutagenic, cerebellum-wide alteration of his engrams resulting in the ability to mentally control the flux of inter-atomic attraction (electrostatic force) between molecular boundary layers. This overcomes the outer electron shell's normal behavior of mutual repulsion with other outer electron shells and permits the tremendous potential for electron attraction to prevail. The mentally controlled sub-atomic particle responsible for this has yet to be identified. This ability to affect the attraction between surfaces is so far limited to Spider-Man's body (especially concentrated in his hands and feet) and another object, with an upper limit of several tons per finger. Limits to this ability seem to be psychosomatic, and the full nature of this ability has yet to be established. Spider-man utilizes this ability in his locomotion across New-York, but also has the ability to use it offensively, in a manner resembling the Mark of Kaine. Spider-Man rarely uses this ability though, due to its brutal and disfiguring effects. It also works differently, ripping off layers of skin and muscle, rather than burning it as Kaine does via the HCL secreted through his palms.
Peter Parker, the amazing Spider-Man, has made an astonishing discovery-he has a sister! Unfortunately, a manipulative super-villain known as the Gentleman-who had a hand in the deaths of Peter's parents-has somehow brainwashed her into becoming the deadly supervilainess known as Pity! Together with Doctor Octopus, Electro, the Vulture, and Mysterio, they've formed the newest incarnation of the super-villain group dedicated to destroy Spider-Man, the Sinister Six! But there is something more than just the death of Spider-Man on the Sinister Six's agenda; something that has caused Col. Sean Morgan and his high-tech anti-espionage agents of S.A.F.E. to become involved. Spider-Man teams up with Morgan to stop the Sinister Six before they can put their world-threatening plan in motion, and to save his sister before it's too late!
Spider-Queen has now evolved into a massive, spider-like monster, drawing strength from all infected New Yorkers. Mary Jane realizes that, because of her long relationship to Peter, she has some immunity against the disease, gaining spider-powers but not the subsequent mutations. Peter gives Kaine the Stealth Suit (immune to the Queen's sonic attacks) and Kaine goes to attack the Queen. Peter and Mary Jane gather several octobots, outfitting each with several doses of the cure, making them go out to cure people. Peter then connects with the antennae on top of the Empire State Building, curing many people at once, while Mary Jane fights off the spider-like creatures attacking them. Kaine jumps inside the Queen's mouth, killing her by reflecting her sonic scream on her insides. The Jackal uses a disguise to get samples of the Queen's bone marrow for future experiments.

Indira "Indy" Daimonji (appeared in Spider-Man: The New Animated Series): She is Peter Parker's potential love interest and a rival of Mary Jane Watson. She works at a news network down in Manhattan. She is seriously injured by Spider-Man in the series finale when Spider-Man is tricked by the Gaines Twins into injuring Indy. This led to Peter giving up being Spider-Man
The Uni-Power is an extra-dimensional force that possesses an individual (or on one occasion, twins) in a time of crisis, transforming that person into Captain Universe. As Captain Universe, the transformed person typically retains his or her original personality and appearance, though with Captain Universe's costume and heroic traits superimposed over the original. The Uni-Power itself emanates from the Enigma Force, the exact nature of which, naturally, remains an enigma. It is believed, however, to be connected to the Microverse, home of the Micronauts. Although the Uni-Power typically empowers normal, non-super-powered humans, it has in the past empowered Doctor Strange, Spider-Man, Commander Arcturus Rann of the Micronauts, a toddler, and a dog, among others. Its counterparts in various alternate timelines have also possessed Mar-Vell, Mr. Fantastic, a member of the alien Badoon race, a Doombot and Quasar. Because of its never-ending supply of energy it has been the target of many individuals, terrorist groups and peacekeeping agencies such as AIM, the Psycho-Man, Doctor Doom and even S.H.I.E.L.D.
The time between Spider-Man capturing the burglar that killed Uncle Ben and him becoming a superhero was told over 30 years after his origin when the Amazing Fantasy series was continued in 1995 by writer Kurt Busiek (#16-18, Dec. 1995 – Mar. 1996). After catching the burglar that killed Ben, Peter had given up being Spider-Man as it reminded him of his irresponsible behavior that ultimately led to his uncle’s death. Even though Maxie Shiffman, the agent he had hired when he was a costumed wrestler, was putting out ads to track down Spider-Man, Peter didn’t want anything to do with that life. Ben had been the only earner in the family and after his death Peter and his Aunt May were struggling for money. A salesman tried to con May into buying furniture that Ben had apparently left a deposit on before his death. Although the salesman had seemed genuine at the time, Peter caught Mr. Vale pulling the same stunt on an old widower when he was swinging through the city in his Spider-Man costume to clear his head. Spider-Man followed Mr. Vale to a warehouse where he discovered a whole gang of organized criminals led by The Undertaker. Spider-Man challenged the gang and soon had them rounded up for the police. Chronologically this was the first time Spider-Man had been threatened with a gun. More significantly, during the fight he discovered his Spider-Sense for the first time. Capturing these criminals lead Peter to believe that this is how he has to make up for Uncle Ben’s death, by using his powers to help others.
You know what's really cool? Unique stuff. That why we take our exclusive line of costumes very seriously. With industry leading quality and materials, our exclusive men's Halloween costumes are a cut above. And since we know that you're all about the classic and memorable pop culture characters, we have brand licenses from some of the top franchises around. Check out our favorite officially licensed exclusive men's costumes to help jump start your decision making!

After being defeated on two more occasions by Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus became more determined to defeat his foe and formed the Sinister Six, a group consisting of five other villains who all share the same grudge against the young hero. Ock had each villain face Spider-Man individually so that every member could reap the glory of Spider-Man's death, but he secretly devised this plan to ensure the other villains' defeat each time. After rendering Spider-Man tired, Otto lured him to a fight by kidnapping Aunt May and Betty Brant. Despite everything, Spider-Man came out victorious and saved the two hostages. On his high school graduation, Spider-Man battled the Molten Man, who would turn out to be the stepbrother of Liz Allen. During his early career, Spider-Man would frequently team up with other heroes such as Daredevil, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, and the Human Torch in particular. Peter and Betty broke up after her brother was killed. She couldn't bear the thought of losing another loved one as she feared that Peter would die while taking pictures of Spider-Man. She later settled in with Ned Leeds.
Other features include short-distance gliding capability, limited bulletproofing, built-in fire/police/emergency scanner, audio/visual amplification (including infrared and ultraviolet), cloaking device, carbon filters to keep out airborne toxins, and a short-range GPS microwave communication system. It grants the ability to breathe under water, and can morph into different shapes due to its "'smart' liquid metal" form. It can also "more or less disappear" when not needed due to reactions to neurological impulses as Tony Stark revealed. The new costume is able to look like other styles of costumes Spider-Man has worn over the years or turn into his street clothes. Part of the costume can detach itself from Spider-Man to cover an object too dangerous to touch, such as a radioactive asteroid. All these features are controlled by a computer system in the chest piece. The suit responds to mental control.[9]

Captain Universe later returned, and the Uni-Power possesses various heroes (the Hulk; X-23; Daredevil, who regained his sight while possessed; the Invisible Woman; Gladiator; and the Silver Surfer); all in a mission to restore its power which has been severely weakened from a mysterious force emanating from the darkest corners of the Microverse. Using the copied powers of each hero, it took paraplegic war veteran Gabriel Vargas as its host to face the one responsible for its weakening.


Alain Robert, nicknamed "Spider-Man", is a rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot (95 m) Lloyd's building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies.
Spider-Man has the proportionate strength of a spider, thus allowing him to press 10 tons without effort and much more when under stress. His attacks are so strong; they could kill a normal person- Spider-Man has to pull his punches or kicks when not fighting foes with similar or higher strength levels to avoid fatalities. His strength also extends to his feet, allowing him to leap great lengths and attain a heights of much greater three stories with one powerful jump. Spidey's strength has made him capable of going toe-to-toe with opponents including Doctor Octopus, Venom and Rhino. He has even held his own against powerful heroes such as Iron Man and the Hulk. It's also shown that Spider-Man can break free from Doctor Octopus's nearly indestructible arms albeit with much effort, although this was due to the Sinister Six suit enhancing his strength. Spidey's strength and durability also give him incredible stamina allowing him to exert himself beyond the limits of humans as his body produces less fatigue toxins. He was able to fight Morlun continually for many hours, and has stated an ability to hold his breath for at least twice as long as non-enhanced humans. After his encounter with the Queen, Spider-Man's strength had been increased to the point where he has become able to lift over 15 tons without effort and after the Other story arc he was able to lift at least 20 tons without effort. During that time, he wore an Iron Spider costume designed for him by Tony Stark which increased his strength further allowing him to lift over 25 tons without effort. He has stopped wearing the Iron Spider costume after the Civil War and his enhanced strength was erased by Mephisto after the One More Day storyline. Spider-man's best strength feats tend to come during periods of emotional duress- for example in a fight with Iron Man 2020, where when a boy was injured mid fight, an enraged Spider-Man jumped up to his flying height and hit him with such force the foe was sent flying hundreds of feet into a building, which was destroyed on impact. Another instance was when he lifted a segment of the Daily Bugle, after the building was attacked by the Green Goblin. In both cases, he didn't have any enhancements from the Queen or the Other.
The following activities were a common feature of Halloween in Ireland and Britain during the 17th–20th centuries. Some have become more widespread and continue to be popular today. One common game is apple bobbing or dunking (which may be called "dooking" in Scotland)[165] in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the participants must use only their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. A variant of dunking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drive the fork into an apple. Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity that inevitably leads to a sticky face. Another once-popular game involves hanging a small wooden rod from the ceiling at head height, with a lit candle on one end and an apple hanging from the other. The rod is spun round and everyone takes turns to try to catch the apple with their teeth.[166]

Critics in the legal community dispute whether the "Super Hero" marks meet the legal standard for trademark protection in the United States: distinctive designation of a single source of a product or service. Controversy exists over each element of that standard: whether "Super Hero" is distinctive rather than generic, whether "Super Hero" designates a source of products or services, and whether DC and Marvel jointly represent a single source.[48] Some critics further characterize the marks as a misuse of trademark law to chill competition.[49] To date, aside from a failed trademark removal action brought in 2016 against DC Comics' and Marvel Comics' United Kingdom registration, no dispute involving the trademark "Super Hero" has ever been to trial or hearing.[50]


Spider-Man Noir or just Spider-Man (Peter Parker) is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. This alternate version of Spider-Man is a darker take on Spider-Man and the mythos is set in 1933 – during the Great Depression and is a part of the Marvel Noir universe. An inexperienced but idealistic apprentice of a respected yet troubled reporter, Peter Parker is accidentally bitten by an illegally imported and highly-venomous spider, while secretly investigating a smuggling ring of ancient spider statues. Instead of killing him, the bite gave him super-human abilities, similar to that of a spider. Taking advantage of his new abilities, Parker begins to wage a one-man war against the criminal underworld in New York City as a brutal and feared vigilante, known as the "Spider-Man", partly to avenge the deaths of his uncle Ben Parker and his mentor: Ben Urich, at the hands of the city's major crime lord: Norman Osborn.
If your son wants to showcase his warrior side, a boys ninja Halloween costume is a fabulous way to look super cool. Our red, green, blue and black ninja costumes harken back to those fighters of ancient Japan, with a thoroughly modern twist that’s perfect to wear while trick or treating or to any costume party. We carry everything from officially licensed Power Rangers Ninja Steel costumes to our Blackstone Ninja, Ice Dragon Ninja and Ghost Dragon Ninja costumes.
As Nick Fury and Tony Stark analyze Mysterio's equipment, Fury notes that he is allowing this Peter so much leeway as a way to make up for his failure to protect the Peter he knew. Peter attempts to explain himself to Gwen and May, but it takes Miles arriving to back up his story and convincing them that he is not an impostor or out to play a sick joke on them. Talking with Gwen and Miles in his attic, Peter confirms that Gwen exists in his world without mentioning that her counterpart is dead and also mentions his relationship with Mary Jane, while he in turn is shocked to hear that his counterpart dated Kitty Pryde, although Miles is left curious whether he has a counterpart in Peter's world. As Fury arrives to pick Peter up, Peter sees Mary Jane watching him in the street, but she runs away before he can talk to her. Returning to the Helicarrier, Peter learns that Stark is having trouble determining how he can identify Peter's world of origin amid the multitude of alternate universes in existence. With Miles' help, the Ultimates determine the location of Mysterio's headquarters based on the energy generated by his equipment, prompting the heroes led by Peter to suit up and head for the base.[6]
It begins with an orphan named Peter Parker, raised by his beloved Aunt May and Uncle Ben in Queens, New York. A quiet student, he works diligently at his studies and pines for the beautiful Mary Jane Watson. But this ordinary teenage boy is about to have his life turned upside down, when he is bitten by a genetically altered spider. Suddenly, he finds himself possessed of spectacular powers. He is now and forever Spider-Man!

Turn up the fun for your son’s night of trick-or-treating with one of Spirit’s boys TV and movie Halloween costumes. These officially licensed outfits will have him looking like he stepped straight off the big or small screen as one of pop culture’s most popular characters. These costumes are some of the most coveted because everyone at school and in the neighborhood will know exactly who he’s dressed as, from The Cat in the Hat to Kylo Ren. Our children’s Godzilla inflatable costume has a tail and appropriately angry face that will delight everyone who sees it. Dress as a hero in a classic Ghostbusters jumpsuit that will have you ready to take care of any kind of pesky paranormal activity going on. Finish the look by carrying around your handy P.K.E. Meter and wearing your Ecto Goggles!
Captain Universe later returned, and the Uni-Power possesses various heroes (the Hulk; X-23; Daredevil, who regained his sight while possessed; the Invisible Woman; Gladiator; and the Silver Surfer); all in a mission to restore its power which has been severely weakened from a mysterious force emanating from the darkest corners of the Microverse. Using the copied powers of each hero, it took paraplegic war veteran Gabriel Vargas as its host to face the one responsible for its weakening.
When Classi reaches the back door of Buca de Faggoncini to hide, a mobster kills Captain Diabetes, who is only revived by a sudden "glitch" in time initiated by the New Kid. Calling in backup, they are joined by their allies in fighting the chefs of the restaurant, soon discovering a room full of cats in cat carriers and another group of mobsters, who are only taken out by Red Wine Drunk Randy Marsh, desperately looking for his keys. As Randy is defeated, Coon and Friends manages to capture Classi.
Sarah (last name unrevealed): Gwen's daughter by Norman Osborn. Norman convinced Sarah and her brother, Gabriel, that Peter Parker was their father and had killed their mother. Sarah becomes suspicious after she meets Spider-Man however. She is convinced of the truth when Spider-Man saves her life by giving her a blood transfusion after she is shot by police. Spider-Man later learns that the pain caused by her accelerated aging has led her to abuse painkillers, and her addiction has gotten her in trouble with the French authorities. However, she promises to seek help, and perhaps someday become a hero herself. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #509.
The Peter Parker of the daily Spider-Man newspaper strip continues his career as a struggling photographer constantly facing down the abuse of his less-than-satisfied boss J. Jonah Jameson, whilst battling crime in his disguise as Spider-Man. In addition to opposing classic enemies, much of the strip sees Peter battle new enemies. He has also teamed up with various heroes through the strip's run, such as Daredevil and Wolverine. He is married to Mary Jane in this continuity, and has often been aided by her in his battles with his enemies. This universe was visited by Morlun during the Spider-Verse event, but due to time distortions constantly resetting things so that the simplest actions take weeks to progress, Morlun finds his efforts to consume this version of Peter fruitless. The Master Weaver of the Inheritors elects to rebel against his masters for once and seals this universe away in a pocket dimension where it will remain safe from any further attacks.[22]
The Iron Spider armor also has a secret override that can be activated by Iron Man in case of emergencies or if Spider-Man ever switches sides (which he does in Civil War #5). However, unknown to Stark, Peter was already aware of the safety measure and had bypassed it with his own override, Password Surprise. Perhaps most sinister, Stark discovered a way to give his own Iron Man armor a "spider-sense" based on Peter's, and the ability to give Spider-Man's sense red herrings.
Though only a few classes are available to the player at the start of the game, a total of twelve classes can be unlocked altogether, and the player has the option of occasionally changing their class or eventually being able to dual-class or further. Abilities can be upgraded individually, allowing the player to establish a custom, one-of-a-kind hero unlike any other that fits their playing style.

During the Character Creation process, a "difficulty slider" allows the player to adjust their skin color, with white, Caucasian skin being 'easy' and dark black skin being 'very hard', though the Coon reminds the player, "this doesn't affect combat, just about every other aspect of your whole life." The slider was nonetheless picked up in many news outlets as genuine, with many subsequently expressing displeasure that its effects in the final game are relatively small.
Halloween is a wonderful time to tickle everyone’s funny bones with a boys humor costume! If you’re son is the type who’s always cracking jokes and is the life of the party, he’ll want to put his sense of humor on full display. He can dress up as a pizza slice, a man-eating shark or even a whoopee cushion, all guaranteed to make people stop in their tracks and give in to the giggles.
We also have plenty of bad guy costumes, so if he wants to dress up as Thanos from Avengers: Infinity War, in a padded shirt plus gauntlet, mask and pants with boot covers, he can. These detailed superhero costumes for boys will make him feel totally powerful. Whether he’s setting out on his own or wants to form a group costume with his friends, such as the Power Rangers Ninja Steel, our superhero costumes fit boys of all ages. From Batman to Guardians of the Galaxy to Big Hero 6, plus many more, Spirit is here to give your son a truly heroic Halloween!
By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor souls."[82] "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls,[83] has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating.[84] The custom dates back at least as far as the 15th century[85] and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria.[55] Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends and relatives.[85][86][87] Soul cakes would also be offered for the souls themselves to eat,[55] or the 'soulers' would act as their representatives.[88] As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating that they were baked as alms.[89] Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[90] On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[91]
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