Unbeknownst to Thanos, while he and Gamora were off retrieving the Soul Stone, Nebula escaped from his ship and contacted the remaining guardians telling them to meet her Thanos' destroyed homeworld, Titan. Iron Man and Spider-Man eventually track down Maw's ship and successfully rescue Doctor Strange after killing his captor Ebony Maw. Taking their newly acquired ship to Titan, Spider-Man, Iron-Man and Doctor Strange meet up with Nebual, Star-Lord, Drax, and Mantis. After getting to know and appraising each other on the situation, group forms a plan to remove Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet after Doctor Strange uses the Time Stone to view millions of possible futures, seeing only one in which Thanos loses. Shortly after forming this plan, Thanos arrives on Titan and, in an attempt convince the heroes to surrender the Time Stone to him, Thanos explains his reasons for wanting to wipe out half the population of the universe in a vain attempt to justify his plan as a necessary evil in order to ensure the survival of a universe threatened by overpopulation. His attempts at peaceful negotiation falling on deaf ears, the heroes attack Thanos and appear to have successfully subdued the mad titan until Nebula deduces that Thanos has killed Gamora. Enraged at the thought of the woman he loved being gone, Star-Lord attempts to kill Thanos which unfortunately allows Thanos to break the group's hold and overpower them. Iron Man is seriously wounded by Thanos, but is spared after Doctor Strange surrenders the Time Stone to Thanos.
It is unknown what changes, if any, were made to the game in the final year of release after the release of the show's twentieth season and Herbert Garrison's surprising and unforseen election as President, although some development videos depicted him being used for scale. The game does contain references to the twentieth season in the form of the Member Berries collectible and the Mechanic who farms them.

Today's comic books are descendants of 19th-century "penny dreadful" serials. They were multi-part sensational stories printed on cheap paper and sold for, what else, a penny each. These stories became popular among the lower and working classes. They couldn't afford, and weren't interested in, the "important" literary novels of the day. Penny dreadfuls and the "dime novels" that followed them had clear-cut good-vs.-evil themes. And they weren't short on action or melodrama, either! By the early 20th century, we had such enduring characters as Tarzan and Zorro in "pulp" fiction. (So-called because of the inexpensive paper on which it was printed.) The first of the modern superheroes was Superman, who launched the Golden Age of Comics in 1938.  
In a parking lot, Spider-Man webbed Davis's hand onto his car bonnet, but Davis poked fun at Spider-Man for using a voice filter. Flustered, Spider-Man disabled the Enhanced Interrogation Protocol and asked for Vulture's location. Davis, grateful for Spider-Man's intervention several nights earlier, informed him of another weapons deal to be made on Staten Island Ferry.[2]
Have you ever wanted to have super powers? Sure you have. It’s one of the most common (and satisfying) daydreams there ever was. While we can’t say you’ll have superpowers when you dress yourself in one of our superhero outfits, we do think you’ll feel super, look incredible, and inspire others to pursue truth, justice, and the American partying way. A good hero starts at a good costume and that’s exactly where we come in! We carry adult superhero costumes as well as styles for kids and toddlers, so you can find superhero family costumes for the whole clan. If you’re already impressed by our staggering collection of superhero suits and gear and need just a little extra help in making your decision, we’ve gone the extra mile to assemble a few tips and tricks to help you come to the right conclusion. This guide will give you a run down on taking the best photos with your little ones and finding the best superhero or superheroine to be this year. We have all of the top choices for female superhero costumes for the ladies, and styles that will transform any man into a muscled do-gooder. And for good measure. we’ve included the top hero groups if you’ve got a team in mind for your mission. Just check out the best superhero costumes and get some ideas below for the ultimate costume inspiration!

who lives a life as Peter and Spider-Man. They also used the same characters as before, such as: Peter's Aunt May, J. Jonah Jameson: Editor of the Daily Bugle, Betty Brant: Jameson's secretary and classic damsel in distress, and later on during the series, Robbie Robertson, Jameson's assistant. Spidey also faces some of his usual foes such as: Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio and the Chameleon. This also included a six part story arc where Spidey goes up against Doctor Doom throughout the series. Spidey was voiced by Ted Schwartz in this series.
The police, led by Jean DeWolff, arrive too late to save Spider-Man from a massive beating but in time to kill Sandman. The Crime Master escapes, but Spider-Man has managed to link him with TFONG. A severely injured Spider-Man goes to Felicia to recover. The following day she forces him to leave before the arrival of her other man — the unmasked Crime Master. Felicia questions him too much, and he determines that she has been seeing Spider-Man. In fury, he attacks her with a shard of mirror. He gets a call from the leader of TFONG, telling him to shut Ellis Island down before they all get caught. Spider-Man goes to Ellis Island himself and finds Robbie, but was too late as Octavius had already drilled into his frontal lobe, leaving him motionless.[7]

Jump up ^ Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span portrayed...is the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge. But the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics."


Spider-Man takes the fight to The Crime Master and busts up an operation of drinking, girls and drugs. In a back room he discovers a soundproof torture chamber. He goes to visit Felicia, but she is with someone else. Returning home, he is told that Robbie has disappeared. On Ellis Island, Octavius inspects the new test subjects, and Robbie is among them. Octavius, working for The Friends of New Germany (TFONG), intends to use them to prove that inferior races can be controlled by removing their willpower surgically. Spider-Man revisits the chamber for more information, but he is ambushed by The Crime Master and his men. With them is The Sandman who slams Spider-Man to the ground with ease.[6]
On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin, drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest.[123]
Pursuing the Vulture once again, Peter Parker went to grab his homemade suit from beneath the school lockers. After changing hastily into his suit, Spider-Man went outside only to be ambushed by the Shocker, who subsequently knocked Spider-Man's Web-Shooters off his wrists, putting him at a disadvantage. Shocker relentlessly kept attacking Spider-Man, smashing him through school buses. Before Shocker could strike Spider-Man again, Ned used one of the Web-Shooters to distract the Shocker, and Spider-Man bound him to a school bus.[2]
^ The Amazing Spider-Man #299 is the first appearance of Eddie Brock as Venom. The alien costume debuted from The Amazing Spider-Man #252 and the symbiote bonded to Spider-Man in Secret Wars #8.[8] Venom's creators are determined by pre-alien costume by not counting the creators/designers of the alien costume, David Michelinie or Mike Zeck, or the Marvel Comics fan who originally though of the concept for the creators.[8][159][160]

Jump up ^ Hutton, Ronald (15 February 2001). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 369, 373. ISBN 9780191578427. Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony ... families still assembled at the midnight before All Saints' Day in the early nineteenth century. Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork. The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en. He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution, and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.

Once you’ve found all your favorite Halloween goodies you can feel safe placing your order with us knowing that we use SSL and Threatmatrix for your security, and we’re even BBB accredited. Credit card? You got it! We accept all major credit cards. So, no matter if you need your Halloween costumes in a hurry or need them shipped internationally (we ship to more than 200 countries across the globe!), you’ll have lots of shipping options to choose from. Still have questions? Ask our next-level customer service team—they’re renowned Halloween Experts ready to make your Halloween the best EVER.
Planet of the Symbiotes (1995) Spider-Man: Chapter One (1998) Spider-Man: Blue (2002) Spider-Man/Black Cat: The Evil that Men Do (2002) Trouble (2003) Venom vs. Carnage (2004) Spider-Man: House of M (2005) Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four (2007) Spider-Man: With Great Power (2008) Astonishing Spider-Man & Wolverine (2010) Spider-Man and the X-Men (2014)
Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 9781438110370. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015. They were both respected and feared. "Their backs towards us, their faces away from us, and may God and Mary save us from harm," was a prayer spoken whenever one ventured near their dwellings.

Peter Parker originally decided to use his powers to make money but after Uncle Ben's death he decided to use his powers for good. In many ways, this makes Spider-Man less of the 'boy scout' character people think; the fact that he used his powers to have fun in the first place is something people can relate to. Initially, Peter Parker is shy and timid, but the Spider-Man alter-ego was a form of liberation and heroism, and he used it to gain confidence. However, he found the moral urge later, though some of his confidence and liberation remains, making him a sarcastic wise-guy.


Spider-Man became a force for good, from stopping muggings to rescuing workers at a construction site. These heroic activities also gained him positive media attention but he still didn’t want to get back in show business. Even after Shiffman told him they could make millions, Peter chose responsibility over money. His heroism had also earned Spider-Man a certain fan named Flash Thompson. Spider-Man soon encountered another teenager with superpowers of her own and he and Joey Pulaski became friends. However it turned out that Joey was working for The Kingpin and the friends inevitably clashed, resulting in Joey’s defeat and arrest. Although portrayed as just a misguided kid, chronologically Joey Pulaski was the first super powered being Spider-Man had encountered.
Black Widow a.k.a. Natasha Romanova: During a HYDRA attempt to take over S.H.I.E.L.D., she is tortured to such an extent that she regresses back to an old cover identity of schoolteacher Nancy Rushman, but she is recovered by Spider-Man in time to help Nick Fury and Shang-Chi work out what had happened and restore her memory, with "Nancy" developing an attraction to Spider-Man before her memory is restored during the final fight against Madam Viper, Boomerang and the Silver Samurai.
It is unknown what changes, if any, were made to the game in the final year of release after the release of the show's twentieth season and Herbert Garrison's surprising and unforseen election as President, although some development videos depicted him being used for scale. The game does contain references to the twentieth season in the form of the Member Berries collectible and the Mechanic who farms them.
Following decades of false starts and numerous unused scripts, Spider-Man finally made it to the big screen in the year 2000. Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007) comprised a trilogy of films starring Tobey Maguire as the title character, with Sam Raimi directing each installment. The trilogy featured a large host of characters from the comics, including Kirsten Dunst as Mary Jane Watson, James Franco as Harry Osborn, Willem Dafoe as Norman Osborn/Green Goblin, J.K. Simmons as J. Jonah Jameson, Alfred Molina as Otto Octavius/Doc Ock, Thomas Haden Church as Flint Marko/Sandman, Topher Grace as Eddie Brock/Venom, Rosemary Harris as Aunt May, Cliff Robertson as Uncle Ben, Dylan Baker as Dr. Curt Connors, Elizabeth Banks as Betty Brant and Bryce Dallas Howard as Gwen Stacy.
In keeping with their origins as representing the archetypical hero stock character in 1930s American comics, superheroes are predominantly depicted as white Anglo-Saxon American middle- or upper-class heterosexual young adult males who are typically tall, athletic, educated, physically attractive and in perfect health. Beginning in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States, and increasingly with the rising concern over political correctness in the 1980s, superhero fiction centered on cultural, ethnic, national, racial and language minority groups (from the perspective of US demographics) began to be produced. This began with depiction of black superheroes in the 1960s, followed in the 1970s with a number of other ethnic superheroes.[51] In keeping with the political mood of the time, cultural diversity and inclusivism would be an important part of superhero groups starting from the 1980s. In the 1990s, this was further augmented by the first depictions of superheroes as homosexual. In 2017, Sign Gene emerged, the first group of deaf superheroes with superpowers through the use of sign language.[52]
^ Despite first appearing in Spider-Man comic books, the Kingpin is more notable of being a Daredevil adversary. The character that represents the opposite of what Daredevil stands for. Despite this he is a major antagonist of both superheroes in the Marvel comic books just as recurringly.[9][156] He also is a major recurring villain in the rest of the Marvel Universe crossing over as major antagonists to superheroes/antiheroes (such as the Punisher) in certain comic books of the many based universes of Marvel. (PunisherMAX. etc.)[157]
Some of our top rated classic boys costumes include our Red and Gold Ninja Warrior costume, the Mad Hatter, a skeleton skin suit and our Blimpz Green Light Up Inflatable costume. Other classics on the more scary side include a mummy (practice making those spooky noises!) and a demon. These trusty costumes are wonderful for boys of all ages will definitely be in style.
I’d venture that a “super hero” as opposed to an ordinary hero, is someone who essentially devotes their life to being a hero as their foundation. In this sense, I *would* consider quasi-mythological figures such as Zorro or Robin Hood to be effectively superheroes, though they lack a lot of the stereotypes we’ve come to associate with superheroes. (Or perhaps not… depending on how you look at it.)
Anna Maria Marconi: Girlfriend of Peter when he was possessed by Dr. Octopus. Anna Maria met Peter as a student at Empire State University. The two hit it off and started dating. They started living together, and the relationship got so serious that Anna Maria found an engagement ring hidden in their apartment. After Peter regained control of himself, Anna became his friend.
Jump up ^ Skog, Jason (2008). Teens in Finland. Capstone. p. 31. ISBN 9780756534059. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church. It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering. In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri, or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased.
Spider-Man possesses his father's automatic camera which zones in on the spider symbol on Spider-Man's chest. It takes photos whenever movement is made in front of it. He would place the camera in a certain spot and springs into action in front of it, allowing him to take photos of himself. As Spider-Man he uses the camera to capture his heroic exploits to then sell the photos to the Daily Bugle.

After returning from Berlin, Stark allowed Parker to keep the suit, although he advised the young hero not do anything he would or would not do and to remain on the ground, a tip which Parker accepted. Parker then asked when the next mission was, and Stark replied that if they needed him then someone would contact him, and appointed Happy Hogan to be their liaison.[2]
In 1952, Osamu Tezuka's manga Tetsuwan Atom, more popularly known in the West as Astro Boy, was published. The series focused upon a robot boy built by a scientist to replace his deceased son. Being built from an incomplete robot originally intended for military purposes Astro Boy possessed amazing powers such as flight through thrusters in his feet and the incredible mechanical strength of his limbs.
. The story begins with Peter already having his Spider powers and is a part-time photographer for the Daily Bugle. Spider-Man would battle many classic villains and newer villains such as Green Goblin (Norman and Harry Osborn), Hobgoblin, the Chameleon, the Lizard, the Scorpion, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio, Rhino, the Kingpin of Crime, the Shocker, Vulture, Venom, and Carnage. Peter would eventually get into a romantic relationship with Felicia Hardy/Black Cat, and eventually fall for Mary Jane Watson. Although Gwen Stacy was never in the series, Marvel gave us a little teaser in the series finale story arc, having Spider-Man go to an alternate universe and meeting Gwen Stacy herself. A very important story arc in this series began as the finale of Season 3 in the episode entitled "Turning Point." In which the Green Goblin kidnaps Mary Jane and throws her off the George Washington Bridge, similar to the story arc "The Night Gwen Stacy Died." However, with the heavy censorship in the 1990s not allowing television to have heavy violence, death being a part of it. Marvel decided to have Mary Jane and the Green Goblin fall into an inter-dimension vortex instead. Season 4 was mostly about the guilt that Spider-Man has to carry for losing Mary Jane. He tries to rebound with the Black Cat, but Mary Jane eventually mysteriously returns to life. Season 5 starts off with the much anticipated Wedding of Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson-Parker. With season 5 being the last season, Marvel dropped a bomb on us by revealing that Mary Jane was actually a clone created by Dr. Miles Warren.
In the intercompany crossovers with DC Comics, Spider-Man has worked alongside Superman twice, once to defeat Dr. Octopus and Lex Luthor and the other to stop Doctor Doom from providing the Parasite with long-term access to the power of the Hulk and Wonder Woman. He also worked alongside Batman to defeat Carnage and the Joker, the two later collaborating to defeat the Kingpin and Ra's al Ghul, with Fisk eventually aiding the heroes in the end.
Though only a few classes are available to the player at the start of the game, a total of twelve classes can be unlocked altogether, and the player has the option of occasionally changing their class or eventually being able to dual-class or further. Abilities can be upgraded individually, allowing the player to establish a custom, one-of-a-kind hero unlike any other that fits their playing style.
At the behest of a deadly benefactor known only as the Gentleman, the Chameleon must assemble a new Sinister Six: Dr. Octopus, the Vulture, Electro, Mysterio, and the Gentleman's mysterious ward, Pity. But Mysterio, the master of illusion, has a plan of his own! A number of Hollywood people has been targeted for murder, and the Webhead must halt Mysterio's deadly rampage before more lives are claimed.
Jump up ^ Marvel Characters, Inc.; DC Comics; United States Patent and Trademark Office (November 16, 2004). "Trademark Status & Document Retrieval". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved October 30, 2013. US Serial Number: 78356610 [...] Standard Character Claim: Yes. The mark consists of standard characters without claim to any particular font style, size, or color.
During her career, she had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for re-animation from the Hand. She also appears in Loners as an assassin smuggling MGH.[113][114][115][116]
If you are looking for the best Halloween costume ideas for this year’s festivities, you’ve come to the right place. Whether you are searching for a costume for Halloween night or need the perfect outfit to wear to your upcoming murder mystery party, our costume selection is larger than any other Halloween store in the industry. It’s our mission to provide an unmatched experience when you are shopping for your Halloween costumes, accessories, décor, and costume apparel. We carry high-quality costumes and accessories such as wigs, hats, masks, and costume boots sure to provide costume ideas for everyone and all at a price that will fit even the tightest of budgets. The perfect Halloween costume is only a couple clicks away!
It is Spider-Man's original and main look that has defined Spider-Man since his first appearance. Although it has seen many variations, it has remained one of Spider-Man's essential traits. During Spidey's early appearances, the costume was black & red with blue shadings. In later issues, the colors change and they become red & blue with black shading but some artists use the black color to give the character more depth. Also, Spider-Man was portrayed having webbing underneath his armpits that extended from his wrist to his waist. Over time, the under-arm webbing has shrank and some artists decided to draw Spidey without the webbing although it still appeared in some modern appearances.
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0756692360. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man to be written by someone other than Stan Lee...Thomas also managed to introduce a major new player to Spidey's life - the scientifically created vampire known as Morbius.
On Hallowe'en (All Hallows' Eve), in Poland, believers were once taught to pray out loud as they walk through the forests in order that the souls of the dead might find comfort; in Spain, Christian priests in tiny villages toll their church bells in order to remind their congregants to remember the dead on All Hallows' Eve.[196] In Ireland, and among immigrants in Canada, a custom includes the Christian practice of abstinence, keeping All Hallows' Eve as a meat-free day, and serving pancakes or colcannon instead.[197] In Mexico children make an altar to invite the return of the spirits of dead children (angelitos).[198]
You don’t have to be a feminist to understand that the superhero game isn’t exclusively for men. Ladies have been busting up the bad guys for years in the pages of the comics, and they’ve started making a splash on the screen in a big way. If you have your eye on women’s superhero costumes , we’re sure you’ll be amazed with our selection. Check out some of these top picks and see if they give you inspiration in making your choice!
Rapper Kanye West makes a return to the South Park world, having fully teansformed into a "Gay Fish" (his only identification in the game) and seeking Sea-Man and the player's help to guide his "momma" to Heaven aboard a unicorn that farts rainbows. This is a reference to 'Only One', a real mobile game West is making about his real mother's ascension to Heaven.

The Spider-Tracer is a typical tracker that is shaped liked a spider and is aerodynamic for flight. The tracers are very small so it will not be noticed when attached to a person. The tracers contain a special radio frequency that his Spider-Sense can detect. He usually uses the tracers to track objects or people via his Spider-Sense within a 100 mile radius. Spider-Man fires the tracers at high velocity using his web-shooters and he has them coated with webbing in order for them to be firmly attached to their target. Since Peter lost his Spider-Sense, the use of the Spider-Tracers is rendered obsolete since he can only track them using his enhanced senses.
The most recent incident occurred over the weekend. During a conference on freedom of speech, Greg Lukianoff reportedly said, “Looking at the reaction to Erika Christakis’s email, you would have thought someone wiped out an entire Indian village.” An attendee posted that quote to Facebook. “The online Facebook post led a group of Native American women, other students of color and their supporters to protest the conference in an impromptu gathering outside of LC 102, where the Buckley event was taking place,” the Yale Daily News reported.

Hundreds of Yale students have now signed an open letter to Erika Christakis that is alarming in its own right, not least because it is so poorly reasoned. “Your email equates old traditions of using harmful stereotypes and tropes to further degrade marginalized people, to preschoolers playing make believe,” the letter inaccurately summarizes. “This both trivializes the harm done by these tropes and infantilizes the student body to which the request was made.” Up is down. The person saying that adult men and women should work Halloween out among themselves is accused of infantilizing them. “You fail to distinguish the difference between cosplaying fictional characters and misrepresenting actual groups of people,” the letter continues, though Erika Christakis specifically wrote in her Halloween email, “I suppose we could agree that there is a difference between fantasizing about an individual character vs. appropriating a culture, wholesale, the latter of which could be seen as (tacky)(offensive)(jejeune)(hurtful), take your pick.”


When fighting Electro, Spidey had to modify his costume to defeat his foe. He once made a costume from a rubber air mattress that made victory over Electro possible. On another occasion, when Electro's powers were amplified, Spider-Man used an improved version of the insulated costume that was resistant to Electro's attacks. With the help of X-Man, Spider-Man once again defeated Electro.
Depending on how you classify these things, it’s probably either Superman (the character who gave his name to the concept), Gilgamesh (powers beyond those of ordinary men!), or the Scarlet Pimpernel (who seems to be the first example, or at least the first that I can find, of the rich dandy who dons a mask to fight crime; Orczy’s book predates Zorro by a smidge, and Zorro was pretty clearly an influence on Batman). Tarzan, Doc Savage, Mandrake, and other pulp characters don’t seem to have some of the characteristics I’d look for.

From at least the 16th century,[64] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[65] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[66] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[67] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[68] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[65] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[64] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod.[65] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.[65]
×