One superpowered character was portrayed as an antiheroine, a rarity for its time: the Black Widow, a costumed emissary of Satan who killed evildoers in order to send them to Hell—debuted in Mystic Comics #4 (Aug. 1940), from Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Most of the other female costumed crime-fighters during this era lacked superpowers. Notable characters include The Woman in Red, introduced in Standard Comics' Thrilling Comics #2 (March 1940); Lady Luck, debuting in the Sunday-newspaper comic-book insert The Spirit Section June 2, 1940; the comedic character Red Tornado, debuting in All-American Comics #20 (Nov 1940); Miss Fury, debuting in the eponymous comic strip by female cartoonist Tarpé Mills on April 6, 1941; the Phantom Lady, introduced in Quality Comics Police Comics #1 (Aug. 1941); the Black Cat, introduced in Harvey Comics' Pocket Comics #1 (also Aug. 1941); and the Black Canary, introduced in Flash Comics #86 (Aug. 1947) as a supporting character. The most iconic comic book superheroine, who debuted during the Golden Age, is Wonder Woman. Modeled from the myth of the Amazons of Greek mythology, she was created by psychologist William Moulton Marston, with help and inspiration from his wife Elizabeth and their mutual lover Olive Byrne. Wonder Woman's first appearance was in All Star Comics #8 (Dec. 1941), published by All-American Publications, one of two companies that would merge to form DC Comics in 1944.
Alain Robert, nicknamed "Spider-Man", is a rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot (95 m) Lloyd's building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies.
Batman's cape is made of "memory cloth," also developed by Lucius Fox. It is essentially flexible in its normal state, but becomes semi-rigid in a fixed form when an electric current is passed through it from the microcircuits in his right glove. Bruce also adds metal gauntlets with angular fin blades on the forearms, a weapon kept from his experience as a pupil of Ra's al Ghul's organization, the League of Shadows. Mainly used to block against knives or other stabbing weapons, Bruce managed to surprise Ra's by breaking the blade of his ninjaken in multiple places with the gauntlets.
In 1992, Marvel revealed that Northstar, a member of the Canadian mutant superhero team Alpha Flight, was homosexual, after years of implication. This ended a long-standing editorial mandate that there would be no homosexual characters in Marvel comics. Although some minor secondary characters in DC Comics' mature-audience 1980s miniseries Watchmen were gay, and the reformed supervillain Pied Piper came out to Wally West in an issue of The Flash in 1991, Northstar is considered to be the first openly gay superhero appearing in mainstream comic books. From the mid-2000s onward, several established Marvel and DC comics characters (or a variant version of the pre-existing character) were outed or reintroduced as LGBT individuals by both publishers. Examples include the Mikaal Tomas incarnation of Starman in 1998; Colossus in the Ultimate X-Men series; Renee Montoya in DC's Gotham Central series in 2003; the Kate Kane incarnation of Batwoman in 2006; Rictor and Shatterstar in an issue of X-Factor in 2009; the Golden Age Green Lantern Alan Scott is reimagined as openly gay following The New 52 reboot in 2011; and in 2015, a younger time displaced version of Iceman in an issue of All-New X-Men.
Being a superhero doesn’t give you a ton of down time, but if you find your kids have a few moments to spare, it’s likely an opportune time for a candid shot. You’ve worked on making sure they know to look serious while they’re in costume, so let them show their stares towards the camera while they have their hands against their hips. The bold logos featured on the chest of the boy’s costume will be on full display and any onlookers will feel a surge of reassurance when they see that this trio of heroes are on the scene and ready for action!
When the Guardians of the Galaxy traveled to the 20th century on a mission to destroy the Badoon, the Uni-Power possessed a Badoon worker named L'Matto in order to prevent the planned genocide. L'Matto's newfound knowledge was able to keep the Guardians from attacking but the Brother Royal then used the Badoon Captain Universe as his champion in a gladiatorial challenge which he had coerced the Guardians into accepting. L'Matto easily overpowered Charlie-27 and was about to kill him when Vance Astro and Dr. Strange arrived and joined in the battle, with Nikki and Talon pitching in as well. Despite this, it was not until Aleta (who had become the new Starhawk) arrived and attacked alongside Dr. Strange that L'Matto was finally defeated, enabling Strange to exorcise the Uni-Power which L'Matto had abused and return it to Earth.
“This year, we seem afraid that college students are unable to decide how to dress themselves on Halloween,” she wrote. “I don’t wish to trivialize genuine concerns about cultural and personal representation, and other challenges to our lived experience in a plural community. I know that many decent people have proposed guidelines on Halloween costumes from a spirit of avoiding hurt and offense. I laud those goals, in theory, as most of us do. But in practice, I wonder if we should reflect more transparently, as a community, on the consequences of an institutional (bureaucratic and administrative) exercise of implied control over college students.”
But none of that excuses the Yale activists who’ve bullied these particular faculty in recent days. They’re behaving more like Reddit parodies of “social-justice warriors” than coherent activists, and I suspect they will look back on their behavior with chagrin. The purpose of writing about their missteps now is not to condemn these students. Their young lives are tremendously impressive by any reasonable measure. They are unfortunate to live in an era in which the normal mistakes of youth are unusually visible. To keep the focus where it belongs I won’t be naming any of them here.
Upon approaching the Spider-Island arc, Peter felt vulnerable with the lack of his spider sense. He began training under Shang Chi to create his own unique martial arts style to make up for his lack of spider sense called the "Way of the Spider". It was then revealed that Shang Chi was instructed by the new Madam Web (Julia Carpenter the former Arachne and Spider-Woman) to secretly prepare Peter for a future threat (Spider-Island). This style consists of among other things, hitting pressure points with Spider Strength, and striking with Spider Speed. This new martial art has considerably improved Spider-Man's H2H capabilities, and so far he has stalemated Julia Carpenter and effortlessly defeated 3 spider-powered individuals in a few seconds during Spider-Island. When he regained his Spider-Sense, he defeated a mutated Kaine who was considerably stronger and quicker than him, and effortlessly trumped a mind controlled Spider-Woman, in handful of blows and kicks.
Doc Ock knows that he is soon going to die. Before his death, he wants to be remembered as the man who saved the world by stopping the Greenhouse effect. Spider-man doesn't believe Octavius, however, so he gathers the Avengers in order to discover Ock's true plan and put a stop to it. Unknown to Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus was well prepared for the fight and the Sinister Six subdue the Avengers. Doc Ock is about to kill Spider-Man, but Silver Sable comes to the rescue. She saves Peter and the Black Widow, and they set off to Octavius' manufacturing plants. There they encounter the Sandman, but they manage to beat him. Doc Ock asked the nations to capture Spider-Man (his position enabled him to do so) and he also called on many villains to take down Spider-Man. Parker knows that he can't stop Otto alone, so he asks other heroes to destroys Ock's facilities. When Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Silver Sable reach the main base in Romania, Doctor Octopus activates his satellites and every area that faces the sun explodes. It later turns out that this was only an illusion created by Mysterio, rather than reality. Spider-Man captures Mysterio and finds out that Doc Ock is hiding in Guatemala, but after Pete, Silver, and Natasha arrive at the site they're attacked by a group of mind controlled Avengers. Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Silver Sable gain an edge because the mind controlled Avengers are unable to fight as well as they would normally, and the Avengers are able to return to their senses thanks to Mysterio's technology. Black Widow was knocked out during the fight, however. Doctor Octopus launched several missiles so the Red Hulk, Iron Man, and Thor try to put an end to it. Mysterio reveals that Octavius' base is underwater, so Spider-Man and Sable resolve to put an end to Otto's plot once and for all. They unfortunately meet Rhino on their way, and he catches Sable and begins choking her in the water. With her final breath, Silver tells Peter to leave her and stop Otto. Spider-man is desperate to help her, but he knows that he's running out of time and is left with no choice. Spider-Man finally finds and battles Octavius, but he is eventually caught in the Doc's metal tentacles. With Parker trapped, Octavius reveals that his plan is to scar the earth, to be worse than Hitler and the other monsters, and in that way be remembered. Octopus removes his armor in order to activate his master plan, but Spider-Man tells Doc Ock that he had made an error in allowing himself to be distracted just long enough for Peter to break free. Spider-Man saves both Doctor Octopus and the world, but at the cost of Silver Sable's life.
Sarah (last name unrevealed): Gwen's daughter by Norman Osborn. Norman convinced Sarah and her brother, Gabriel, that Peter Parker was their father and had killed their mother. Sarah becomes suspicious after she meets Spider-Man however. She is convinced of the truth when Spider-Man saves her life by giving her a blood transfusion after she is shot by police. Spider-Man later learns that the pain caused by her accelerated aging has led her to abuse painkillers, and her addiction has gotten her in trouble with the French authorities. However, she promises to seek help, and perhaps someday become a hero herself. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #509.
By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers or phenomena to be deemed superheroes. While the Dictionary.com definition of "superhero" is "a figure, especially in a comic strip or cartoon, endowed with superhuman powers and usually portrayed as fighting evil or crime", the longstanding Merriam-Webster dictionary gives the definition as "a fictional hero having extraordinary or superhuman powers; also: an exceptionally skillful or successful person". Terms such as masked crime fighters, costumed adventurers or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to characters such as the Spirit, who may not be explicitly referred to as superheroes but nevertheless share similar traits.
We also have plenty of bad guy costumes, so if he wants to dress up as Thanos from Avengers: Infinity War, in a padded shirt plus gauntlet, mask and pants with boot covers, he can. These detailed superhero costumes for boys will make him feel totally powerful. Whether he’s setting out on his own or wants to form a group costume with his friends, such as the Power Rangers Ninja Steel, our superhero costumes fit boys of all ages. From Batman to Guardians of the Galaxy to Big Hero 6, plus many more, Spirit is here to give your son a truly heroic Halloween!
Zapp Brannigan. Always ready to step in and save the day...or just get in the way of the beloved crew of the Planet Express. If you'd like to go as this memorable Futurama character, look no further than our authentic Zapp costume. Styled as a tunic and wig with gloves and boots, it will turn any man into a brave 25 star general. A popular choice for any guy who's a fan of Matt Groening!
In 2012, the 50th anniversary of Spider-Man and 10 years since the first Spider-Man movie, a reboot of the Spider-Man movie franchise was launched. The Amazing Spider-Man saw then-unknown British actor Andrew Garfield step into the role, with a supporting cast that included Emma Stone as Gwen Stacy, Rhys Ifans as Curst Connors/The Lizard, Dennis Leary as Captain George Stacy, Sally Field as Aunt May and Martin Sheen as Uncle Ben. Directed by Marc Webb, the film was the first Spider-Man movie to be filmed in 3D, and featured a new, heavily modified costume design that proved to be highly controversial among the fans.
Secret Identity Male Characters Clones Single Characters Hazel Eyes Brown Hair Earth-616 Characters J.M. DeMatteis/Creator Mark Bagley/Creator Characters Living Characters Modern-Age Characters 1995 Character Debuts Power Grid Added Power Grid Complete Gifted Intelligence Superhuman (800 lbs-25 ton) Strength Superhuman Speed Regenerative Durability No Energy Projection Fighting Ability - Experienced fighter Clones Created By Miles Warren Shapeshifters Strength Class 10 Wallcrawling Superhuman Durability Leaping Killed by Kaine Human/Spider Hybrids Clones of Peter Parker Precogs Stretching Density Manipulation Cellular Degeneration Regeneration
Holland also reprises his role in the third Avengers film, Avengers: Infinity War, where he joins the heroes in the fight against Thanos. He is first seen in action leaving a school bus during a field trip when he sees Thanos' forces invading New York before proceeding to help Stark, Doctor Strange and Wong in fighting off Cull Obsidian and Ebony Maw from kidnapping Strange. However, the Black Order succeeds in capturing Strange, leaving Parker and Stark to get inside the ship which the two Black Order members used to travel to Earth in order to rescue Strange. The two Avengers were able to send Maw into outer space and rescued Strange from being tortured when he refused to give up the Time Stone. The trio decide to head to Titan in order to deal with Thanos themselves only to meet Star-Lord, Mantis and Drax the Destroyer of the Guardians of the Galaxy who also went to Titan to fight Thanos and rescue Gamora. Thanos then arrives on Titan to attain the Time Stone from Strange which leads to him and the team having a fearsome battle and ends with Thanos being mentally incapacitated by Mantis while the others try to take off Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet from his hand. However, this plan fails after Quill attacks Thanos when he learns the former was responsible for Gamora's death which lets Thanos to break away from being mentally incapacitated.
In 1972, a second monthly ongoing series starring Spider-Man began: Marvel Team-Up, in which Spider-Man was paired with other superheroes and villains. From that point on there have generally been at least two ongoing Spider-Man series at any time. In 1976, his second solo series, Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man began running parallel to the main series. A third series featuring Spider-Man, Web of Spider-Man, launched in 1985 to replace Marvel Team-Up. The launch of a fourth monthly title in 1990, the "adjectiveless" Spider-Man (with the storyline "Torment"), written and drawn by popular artist Todd McFarlane, debuted with several different covers, all with the same interior content. The various versions combined sold over 3 million copies, an industry record at the time. Several limited series, one-shots, and loosely related comics have also been published, and Spider-Man makes frequent cameos and guest appearances in other comic series. In 1996 The Sensational Spider-Man was created to replace Web of Spider-Man.
If your son wants to showcase his warrior side, a boys ninja Halloween costume is a fabulous way to look super cool. Our red, green, blue and black ninja costumes harken back to those fighters of ancient Japan, with a thoroughly modern twist that’s perfect to wear while trick or treating or to any costume party. We carry everything from officially licensed Power Rangers Ninja Steel costumes to our Blackstone Ninja, Ice Dragon Ninja and Ghost Dragon Ninja costumes.
The film was a hit at the box office, and as a result, The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was released in 2014. The film featured the return of most of the original cast, as well as new faces like Jamie Foxx as Max Dillon/Electro, Dane DeHaan as Harry Osborn/Green Goblin and Paul Giamatti as Aleksei Sytsevich/The Rhino. While the movie was a modest financial success, it was heavily panned by critics and made less at the box office than its predecessor. Despite plans for a third movie and a host of spin-offs (including a solo Venom movie, a female-led team movie featuring characters like Silver Sable, Black Cat, Spider-Gwen, Stunner and Lightbrght, and a Sinister Six movie) , the decision was made to discontinue the franchise.
While you’re browsing our selection of Halloween costumes for kids or baby costumes, don’t forget to treat yourself to a little Halloween fun. We have a large selection of adult costumes, sexy costumes, and even pet costumes. If you are feeling brave and want to hit the Halloween events with your beau in tow, might we suggest you take a look at our couples costume ideas or our group Halloween costumes for a larger crew. Many of our styles are exclusive to us and we are confident that you will find something you like in our costume store. Even though we carry cheap Halloween costumes, that doesn’t mean that our quality suffers. We pride ourselves on superiority and believe our customers deserve the best costume experience at a reasonable price.
This distraction was all the Vulture needed to equip his suit and began attacking Spider-Man and the FBI. While Spider-Man saved the agents from the arms dealer's attacks, Vulture freed his men and urged them to escape. Another fierce fight ensued between the Vulture and Spider-Man, who used his Web-Shooters' combinations to enhance his fighting ability against the winged menace.
Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes. As Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in countless forms of media, including several animated and live action television series, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and in a series of films. The character was first portrayed in live action by Danny Seagren in Spidey Super Stories, a The Electric Company skit which ran from 1974 to 1977. In films, Spider-Man has been portrayed by actors Tobey Maguire (2002–2007), Andrew Garfield (2012–2014), and Tom Holland (2016–present), who has portrayed the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe since 2016. Reeve Carney starred as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. Spider-Man has been well received as a superhero and comic book character, and he is often ranked as one of the most popular comic book characters of all time, alongside DC Comics' most famous superheroes, Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman.
Jump up ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.
Both major publishers began introducing new superheroines with a more distinct feminist theme as part of their origin stories or character development. Examples include Big Barda, Power Girl, and the Huntress by DC comics; and from Marvel, the second Black Widow, Shanna the She-Devil, and The Cat. Female supporting characters who were successful professionals or hold positions of authority in their own right also debuted in the pages of several popular superhero titles from the late 1950s onward: Hal Jordan's love interest Carol Ferris was introduced as the Vice-President of Ferris Aircraft and later took over the company from her father; Medusa, who was first introduced in the Fantastic Four series, is a member of the Inhuman Royal Family and a prominent statesperson within her people's quasi-feudal society; and Carol Danvers, a decorated officer in the United States Air Force who would become a costumed superhero herself years later.
In 1963, Astro Boy was adapted into a highly influential anime television series. Phantom Agents in 1964 focused on ninjas working for the Japanese government and would be the foundation for Sentai-type series. 1966 saw the debut of sci-fi/horror series Ultra Q created by Eiji Tsuburaya this would eventually lead on to the sequel Ultraman, spawning a successful franchise focused upon the Giant Hero subgenre where the Superheroes would be as big as giant monsters (Kaiju) that they fought.
There are so many Halloween costumes for boys based on some popular characters. Turn into heroes and villains from Avengers: Infinity War. Stomp around as the dinosaurs seen in Jurassic World: The Fallen Kingdom. Make the Kessel Run in time as characters from Solo: A Star Wars Story. Your child can enter a pixelated world and become some of their favorite video game characters from Super Mario Bros., Pokemon, and Minecraft.
^ The Amazing Spider-Man #299 is the first appearance of Eddie Brock as Venom. The alien costume debuted from The Amazing Spider-Man #252 and the symbiote bonded to Spider-Man in Secret Wars #8. Venom's creators are determined by pre-alien costume by not counting the creators/designers of the alien costume, David Michelinie or Mike Zeck, or the Marvel Comics fan who originally though of the concept for the creators.
Hundreds of Yale students have now signed an open letter to Erika Christakis that is alarming in its own right, not least because it is so poorly reasoned. “Your email equates old traditions of using harmful stereotypes and tropes to further degrade marginalized people, to preschoolers playing make believe,” the letter inaccurately summarizes. “This both trivializes the harm done by these tropes and infantilizes the student body to which the request was made.” Up is down. The person saying that adult men and women should work Halloween out among themselves is accused of infantilizing them. “You fail to distinguish the difference between cosplaying fictional characters and misrepresenting actual groups of people,” the letter continues, though Erika Christakis specifically wrote in her Halloween email, “I suppose we could agree that there is a difference between fantasizing about an individual character vs. appropriating a culture, wholesale, the latter of which could be seen as (tacky)(offensive)(jejeune)(hurtful), take your pick.”
If Melmac's not far out enough for you, why not try a whole other galaxy (one that's far, far away!). The Wampa on the Ice Planet Hoth might have gotten *this close* to eating poor Luke Skywalker for breakfast, but this furry costume captures the animal's appearance before he had a run in with Luke's lightsaber. This intricately designed faux fur and vinyl detailed costume is Star Wars officially licensed, and ready for action right here on planet Earth!
Family owned and operated for over 65 years, Rubie’s Costume Company is the largest designer, manufacturer and distributor of Halloween costumes and accessories in the world! We remain true to our founders’ vision by continually offering innovative products and a variety of styles for the whole family to enjoy, including pets! With the 3rd generation playing such an integral role in our future, we’re confident Halloween with Rubie’s will continue to flourish for years to come.
After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy, daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man. Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife. Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's girlfriend and partner at one point.
Most of the supervillains of Spider-Man would be introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man comic book starting with the Chameleon. The early villains would be introduced in the 1960s in the Silver Age of Comic Books, and created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. John Romita, Sr. replaced Ditko starting with the Rhino. Gerry Conway later replaced Stan Lee and helped create new adversaries for the web-slinger and also helped pave the way to the Bronze Age of Comic Books with the death of Spider-Man's long time romantic interest, Gwen Stacy. Many collaborators would soon take over The Amazing Spider-Man title. One of the more popular examples included Todd McFarlane's Venom in the Modern Age of Comic Books.
With Leeds's help, Spider-Man tracked Toomes to an old warehouse. Parker questioned Toomes's criminal activity and what he was doing to his family, but Toomes simply waited to activate his Exo-Suit; once it did, he began attacking Spider-Man. Peter dodged every attack and quipped at Toomes, but later realized that Toomes sought to destroy the beams of the warehouse. The wings smashed through the last supporting beam of the warehouse, and debris collapsed upon Spider-Man. Vulture equipped his suit and left Spider-Man to die.
With help from the Invisible Woman and some of her husband's technology, Spider-Man kidnaps and imprisons Mac Gargan, (they ambushed him in an alleyway, caught him in an invisible force-field, all while Bullseye picks and eats a bogey) then poses as him to infiltrate Avengers Tower, donning a special suit made by Reed Richards, allowing him to appear as Mac Gargan with the Venom symbiote. Norman has revealed a nefarious plot to his Avengers involving his son Harry entitled "American Son". While alone, Spider-Man was ambushed by Daken, who claims that Peter smells too clean for Gargan. Daken attacks and uses his pheromones to shut down Peter's senses, however Peter focuses on his spider-sense alone, and eventually defeats Daken by throwing him into an electrical machine that electrocutes and knocks out Daken. However, Harry reveals Spider-Man's disguise in front of Osborn's Avengers,(even though Norman had known it all along, and only wanted to ensure he had his son's trust) and he was held captive and tortured by Bullseye. Identity intact thanks to his unstabilized mask, he escaped (subduing Norman and Bullseye in succession out of anger). Unfortunately Spider-Man was weakened by captivity, saved from Norman by a guilt-ridden and angry Harry, who now knew the truth about his father's relationship with Lily Hollister (Harry's girlfriend,) and began using the American Son Armor to beat up Norman. Peter watched the Osborns fight until Menace became involved, whom he incapacitated. With Harry victorious, Spider-Man convinced him not to kill Norman as it was exactly what the madman wanted.
In Scotland, Midnight and Glaive ambush Scarlet Witch and the Vision in an attempt to forcibly remove the Mind Stone located in the Vision's head. Since removing the stone would also kill the Vision, the two heroes attempt to resist, but are overwhelmed by Thanos' children. When it looks like that they will succeeded in taking the Mind Stone; Steve, Black Widow and Falcon swoop in and resuce their comrades from Midnight and Glaive before regrouping with War Machine and Bruce at the New Avengers Facility in upstate New York. Realizing that their assailants won't rest till they have the stone and not wanting to see any of his friends or loved ones get hurt trying to stop them, the Vision offers to sacrifice himself by having Scarlet Witch destroy the Mind Stone to keep it out of the hands of Thanos' children. Rather then sacrifice his friend, Steve suggests that they go to Black Panther for help citing that Wakandan science might have a way to remove the stone without killing the Vision.
Critics in the legal community dispute whether the "Super Hero" marks meet the legal standard for trademark protection in the United States: distinctive designation of a single source of a product or service. Controversy exists over each element of that standard: whether "Super Hero" is distinctive rather than generic, whether "Super Hero" designates a source of products or services, and whether DC and Marvel jointly represent a single source. Some critics further characterize the marks as a misuse of trademark law to chill competition. To date, aside from a failed trademark removal action brought in 2016 against DC Comics' and Marvel Comics' United Kingdom registration, no dispute involving the trademark "Super Hero" has ever been to trial or hearing.
From at least the 16th century, the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales. This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them. It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune". In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune. In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed. F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire. In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod. In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.