During her career, she had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for re-animation from the Hand. She also appears in Loners as an assassin smuggling MGH.[113][114][115][116]


On All Hallows' Eve, Christians in some parts of the world visit cemeteries to pray and place flowers and candles on the graves of their loved ones.[81] The top photograph shows Bangladeshi Christians lighting candles on the headstone of a relative, while the bottom photograph shows Lutheran Christians praying and lighting candles in front of the central crucifix of a graveyard.
As with Spider-Man, the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology and also tend to have animal-themed costumes or powers (Vulture, Doctor Octopus, Beetle, Lizard, Rhino, Scorpion, Jackal and Black Cat). There also are supervillains with the powers over the elements (Sandman, Shocker, Electro, Molten Man and Hydro-Man), some that are horror-themed (the Goblins, Morbius, Morlun, and the Symbiotes) some that are crime lords (Kingpin, Tinkerer, Tombstone, Hammerhead, Silvermane and Mister Negative),[1] and some that are masters of trickery (Chameleon and Mysterio).[2] These villains oftentimes form teams such as the Sinister Six to oppose the superhero.
Jump up ^ "Here's to the Soulcakers going about their mysterious mummery". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2012. One that has grown over the past decade is the so-called Night of Light, on All Hallows' Eve, October 31. It was invented in 2000, in leafy Chertsey, Surrey, when perhaps 1,000 people took part. Now it is a worldwide movement, popular in Africa and the United States.

Spider-Man later tracked down and confronts Osborn, having dispatched all of his henchmen in turn. During their fight, it is revealed that Osborn is a former circus freak himself who hides his goblin-like visage behind one of the Chameleon’s masks. After Spider-Man refuses to kill Osborn, the spider-infested and barely still alive body of Kraven appears and attacks the Goblin, killing him.[4]


In Marvel Zombies Return Spider-Man is teleported to a new world, where he consumes and infects the Sinister Six (except for Sandman). As his cosmic abilities did not come with him, and his webshooters have dried up, the zombified superhero is forced to make do with his own veins and arteries. Following the death of the Spider-Man of this universe (killed by Sandman in revenge for the deaths of the Sinister Six)[16] the zombie Spider-Man works on developing a cure for the plague with the aid of the Kitty Pryde of this universe, using nanites and the blood of this world's Wolverine.[17] With the zombie Giant-Man having followed Spider-Man to this new reality, Spider-Man resolves to stop Giant-Man.[18] Spider-Man releases the Sandman, now infused with nanites, and wipes out every zombie hero and villain. Zombie Spider-Man dies from being exposed to his own weapon.[volume & issue needed]
Since the school's decathlon team were heading to Washington, D.C. for the national tournament, Parker rejoined the team. Once the decathlon team arrived, Parker prepared to pursue the Vulture's gang once more. While removing the tracker from his suit, Leeds learned that the Training Wheels Protocol monitored his suit. Eager to prove himself to Tony Stark, Parker convinced Leeds to disable the protocol before pursuing the criminals.
From Tom De Haven and Dean Wesley Smith's look at Spidey's early career, to David Michelinie's portrait of a dying reporter who wants his last story to be the revelation of Spider-Man's true identity, to Lawrence Watt-Evan's tale of a bot whose web-slinger hero-worship leads to tragedy, plus stories by Craig Shaw Gardner, Ann Nocenti, Robert L. Washington III, Greg Cox, Christopher Golden, and many more-- here are spectaclar new tales of Spider-Man adventure!
With world-altering research to support, graduates who assume positions of extraordinary power, and a $24.9 billion endowment to marshal for better or worse, Yale administrators face huge opportunity costs as they parcel out their days. Many hours must be spent looking after undergraduates, who experience problems as serious as clinical depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and sexual assault. Administrators also help others, who struggle with financial stress or being the first in their families to attend college.
I’d venture that a “super hero” as opposed to an ordinary hero, is someone who essentially devotes their life to being a hero as their foundation. In this sense, I *would* consider quasi-mythological figures such as Zorro or Robin Hood to be effectively superheroes, though they lack a lot of the stereotypes we’ve come to associate with superheroes. (Or perhaps not… depending on how you look at it.)
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0756692360. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man to be written by someone other than Stan Lee...Thomas also managed to introduce a major new player to Spidey's life – the scientifically created vampire known as Morbius.
Jump up ^ Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 9781610694124. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
Jump up ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.
Not until 2000 would Spider-Man return in his own game. Spider-Man made his triumphant video game return in 2000, with not one, but two games, as a character in a fighting game and a special guest appearance that year. Spider-Man for the Game Boy Color was published by Activision and met with moderate success. Later that year Spider-Man, developed by NeverSoft, for the PlayStation was released. The game was met with critical and commercial success. The game was ported over to the Nintendo 64 the following year, but lacked the full motion cut scenes due the systems hardware. Spider-Man was also one of the playable character in the arcade game Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (which later was released on the Sega Dreamcast, Sony PlayStation 2, Xbox). In September of that year, Spider-Man made a special appearance in Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2 as a hidden character. In 2001, sequels to the successful Activision titles were released. Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro for the PlayStation and Spider-Man 2: Sinister Six for the Gameboy Color. Spider-Man made an early appearance on Nintendo's new handheld system, the Gameboy Advance with Spider-Man: Mysterio's Menace. Spider-Man was also featured as a guest character in the fighting game X-Men: Mutant Academy 2.
First, many of the original superhero creators were immigrants or children of immigrants — Americans but not quite like other Americans. Much has been made of the “Jewishness” of Superman — an immigrant from an Old World whose geeky, mild-mannered, weakling exterior hides his inner superiority to everyone around him, who even chose an American name to hide his secret foreign-sounding one.
Reaction to Spider-Man's rogues gallery has been overwhelmingly positive with many journalists citing it as one of the greatest comic book rogues galleries of all time,[133][134][135] with Batman's rogues gallery being its most rivaled contender.[136][137] Although editors such as The Hollywood Reporter's Graeme McMillan felt that only Flash's rogues gallery can compete with Spider-Man's rogues.[134] Kyle Schmidlin of What Culture! described the superhero's rogues gallery as "one of the most colorful in comics" explaining that Batman could only be debated as having a great number of enemies as good as Spider-Man.[138] IGN staff editors, Joshua Yehl and Jesse Schedeen, described the Spider-Man villains as "one of the most iconic and well-balanced in comics". They opined that the scope of their schemes, how cool their powers are, and how dramatically they have affected Spider-Man's life is what makes the Spider-Man villains so great.[1] Newsarama ranked Spider-Man's rogues gallery as number one out ten as the greatest rogues gallery of all time.[137]
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
Boy's Costumes are proportioned for the appropriate age, from toddler all the way to teenager. Some of our costumes are in a jumpsuit style, which has the legs, torso and arms all attached in one piece. Others costumes have multiple pieces, such as shirt, jacket, pants, and more. These separate pieces give the wearer more freedom of movement, and offer a realistic look due to a layered effect. Our costumes for boys are great for trick or treating, but don't forget that they are also useful long after for purposes of make believe and healthy personal growth. 
Is your child already the coolest kid you know? Our Zombie Sk8r Child's Costume is the epitome of cool! He or she will be pulling sick skate tricks, scaring people and taking names! Who would have thought that of all things possible, Zombies would make the cut as the “it” thing of the century? Not us! But hey, it happened so we should embrace it and what better way than letting your little guy or girl dress up as a grungy little sk8r zombie child!
After the " Other" story arc, Tony Stark designed for Peter a specialized Red & Gold costume that is similar to Tony Stark's Iron Man costume. It was designated as Spider-Man Armored Fighting suit Version 1.1 which was made of a liquid nano-fiber. It provided Peter with the added functions of a short-ranged gliding function, increased strength, heat-resistant Kevlar microfiber that provided resistance to small caliber bullets, built-in fire, police and emergency scanners, visual amplifications such as infrared and ultraviolet, carbon filter in the mouth to prevent inhalation of airborne toxins, and a short-range GPS microwave communication system. All of which are controlled in the computerized control system in the titanium chest piece in the costume. Another very useful addition was a stealth mode which allowed Spider-Man to blend with the environment or even disappear completely in some backgrounds. Along with this came the customization option to instantly switch between any former style he's worn (Spidey suit, black suit, normal clothes, etc); all on the same suit. It also contained three retractable spider legs called "waldoes" which can be used as offensive weapons. Spidey wore this costume before and during the Civil War but Tony, in order to keep an eye on Peter, had the costume feed him with information about Peter, notably the Spider-Sense. When Peter revealed that he was going to switch sides and fought Iron Man, the latter used a voice activated override which incapacitated Peter for a while. He had already known about this and used his computer expertise to disable the override and managed to defeat Iron Man with a surprise attack. He then discarded the costume and returned to wear his original costume when he joined Captain America's team during the Civil War. The members of the initiative team known as the Scarlet Spiders would start wearing costumes of similar design and functions.
Remember Alf? He's back! For any guy old enough to remember the 80s, watching the hilarious alien, Alf, series is sure to be a fond memory. Try your turn as the TV character when you go in this HalloweenCostumes.com exclusive costume for men. Whether reliving your favorite moments or just looking for a fun throwback look, the furry plush jumpsuit and oversized character mask will turn any human into the lovable alien from Melmac!

Superman soon had lots of company, and lots of competition! What do they have in common? All superheroes have some type of extraordinary power or ability. Their "super power" can be something they're born with: Superman, Wonder Woman, Thor. It can be the result of an accident or mutation: Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, Wolverine. Or, it can be simply a skill they have learned, honed and perfected beyond the average: Batman, Hawkeye. They all have a strong moral code and a motivation to rid the world of some menace.  
In subsequent decades, popular characters like Dazzler, She-Hulk, Elektra, Catwoman, Witchblade, Spider-Girl, Batgirl and the Birds of Prey became stars of long-running eponymous titles. Female characters began assuming leadership roles in many ensemble superhero teams; the Uncanny X-Men series and its related spin-off titles in particular have included many female characters in pivotal roles since the 1970s.[33] Volume 4 of the X-Men comic book series featured an all-female team as part of the Marvel NOW! branding initiative in 2013.[34] Superpowered female characters like Buffy the Vampire Slayer[35] and Darna[36][37] have a tremendous influence on popular culture in their respective countries of origin.

In Target’s Halloween store, you’ll find tons of wicked-cool Halloween costume ideas for boys. Spiderman costume? Check. Batman costume? Check. Pirate costume? Check. Cowboy costume? Check. We’re not kidding. With hundreds of fun Halloween costumes for boys, we’re sure to have the perfect pick for your little guy. Our huge selection of boys’ Halloween costumes includes superhero costumes, funny Halloween costumes, animal costumes, vampire costumes, zombie costumes and much, much more. If sci-fi is his thing, he’ll be stoked by our Star Wars costumes. Is he into horror? You’ll want to check out our scary costumes. If he’s not that into Halloween, take a look at our easy Halloween costumes. They make dressing up for trick-or-treating a cinch. With so many boys’ costumes to choose from, you’ll find just the thing before you can say “trick-or-treat.”


Doc Ock knows that he is soon going to die. Before his death, he wants to be remembered as the man who saved the world by stopping the Greenhouse effect. Spider-man doesn't believe Octavius, however, so he gathers the Avengers in order to discover Ock's true plan and put a stop to it. Unknown to Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus was well prepared for the fight and the Sinister Six subdue the Avengers. Doc Ock is about to kill Spider-Man, but Silver Sable comes to the rescue. She saves Peter and the Black Widow, and they set off to Octavius' manufacturing plants. There they encounter the Sandman, but they manage to beat him. Doc Ock asked the nations to capture Spider-Man (his position enabled him to do so) and he also called on many villains to take down Spider-Man. Parker knows that he can't stop Otto alone, so he asks other heroes to destroys Ock's facilities. When Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Silver Sable reach the main base in Romania, Doctor Octopus activates his satellites and every area that faces the sun explodes. It later turns out that this was only an illusion created by Mysterio, rather than reality. Spider-Man captures Mysterio and finds out that Doc Ock is hiding in Guatemala, but after Pete, Silver, and Natasha arrive at the site they're attacked by a group of mind controlled Avengers. Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Silver Sable gain an edge because the mind controlled Avengers are unable to fight as well as they would normally, and the Avengers are able to return to their senses thanks to Mysterio's technology. Black Widow was knocked out during the fight, however. Doctor Octopus launched several missiles so the Red Hulk, Iron Man, and Thor try to put an end to it. Mysterio reveals that Octavius' base is underwater, so Spider-Man and Sable resolve to put an end to Otto's plot once and for all. They unfortunately meet Rhino on their way, and he catches Sable and begins choking her in the water. With her final breath, Silver tells Peter to leave her and stop Otto. Spider-man is desperate to help her, but he knows that he's running out of time and is left with no choice. Spider-Man finally finds and battles Octavius, but he is eventually caught in the Doc's metal tentacles. With Parker trapped, Octavius reveals that his plan is to scar the earth, to be worse than Hitler and the other monsters, and in that way be remembered. Octopus removes his armor in order to activate his master plan, but Spider-Man tells Doc Ock that he had made an error in allowing himself to be distracted just long enough for Peter to break free. Spider-Man saves both Doctor Octopus and the world, but at the cost of Silver Sable's life.
Gabriel : Gwen's son by Norman Osborn. Norman convinced Gabriel and his sister, Sarah, that Peter Parker was their father and had killed their mother. Although Sarah is persuaded otherwise, Gabriel continues to believe so and takes on the identity of the "Gray" Goblin. After a confrontation with Spider-Man, he crashed into the river on his glider and lost his memories. Sarah took him to their home in France to recover. After failing to convince Sarah to join him, he flies off on a different glider. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #509.
Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel breakdowns from Stan's synopsis". It was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man".[26] Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did".[27] Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]".[28] He has further commented that Ditko's costume design was key to the character's success; since the costume completely covers Spider-Man's body, people of all races could visualize themselves inside the costume and thus more easily identify with the character.[17]
Several of the traditional activities from Ireland and Britain involve foretelling one's future partner or spouse. An apple would be peeled in one long strip, then the peel tossed over the shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name.[167][168] Two hazelnuts would be roasted near a fire; one named for the person roasting them and the other for the person they desire. If the nuts jump away from the heat, it is a bad sign, but if the nuts roast quietly it foretells a good match.[169][170] A salty oatmeal bannock would be baked; the person would eat it in three bites and then go to bed in silence without anything to drink. This is said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst.[171] Unmarried women were told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror.[172] However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards[173] from the late 19th century and early 20th century.
With Halloween just around the corner, it is time to find the best costume for all sorts of spooky, trick-or-treating and fun times. We offer a wide variety of boy’s costumes, fit for everyone’s needs. Delve through our entire catalog of cool costumes for upcoming events. Go for a blast from the past in various decades or historic ensembles. There are new additions such as Black Panther and Ant-Man, based on the huge 2018 blockbuster hits.
Similar to a grappling hook, the line launching gun uses a strong clamp attached to a high-tensil wire for scaling surfaces and/or traversing gaps. It can be recovered by releasing the clamp and rewinding the cable. It was based from one that is designed as compact climbing gear for commando units. It is propelled with compressed air, and works with a magnetic grappling iron. The thin climbing cable was tested on a load-carrying capacity of 350 lbs. The line can be attached to a reel in the buckle in the utility harness, but this was only used to escape after being defeated by the Scarecow in The Narrows.
Jump up ^ Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of Traditional Irish Food & Drink. Poolbeg Press. p. 138. ISBN 9781853711428. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
Writers and artists over the years have established a rogues gallery of supervillains to face Spider-Man. In comics and in other media. As with the hero, the majority of the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, and many have animal-themed costumes or powers.[note 6] Examples are listed down below in the ordering of their original chronological appearance:      Indicates a group.

Vacuum Seal: By pressing the emblem on the chest, Parker can expand the suit several sizes larger, allowing him to slip out of the suit easily. He can still wear undergarments under the suit because of its vacuum seal, which can also compress the suit to appear as though he is wearing nothing underneath.[2] Once the vacuum seal compresses the suit properly, the suit's A.I. initiates and performs a diagnostics check.
However, Parker still existed within Doctor Octopus's mind in the memories that he absorbed. The consciousness intent on stopping the villain and reclaiming his life, tries to influence Octavius, but fails to do so in any more than the slightest of ways. Parker's remnant also inadvertently causes Otto to share Peter's genuine love for Mary Jane Watson, and so pushes her away for her own safety. After Otto used a brain scanner to treat a young girl's brain injury, he decided to use the device on himself to discover Parker's presence within his mind. A mental battle ensues between himself and Parker, which Otto seemingly wins, erasing Peter's memories.
The true identity of this Captain Universe was never revealed but the host had more than likely had the Uni-Power for several years. During the battle that ensued between the Law Enforcement Squad and the Fantastic Four; Captain Universe and Dr. Druid ganged up on Reed Richards in order to destabilize the Fantastic Four's cohesion as a team. With only seconds to spare, Reed convinces Captain Universe that something is out of place and that the Fantastic Four are not his enemies. Captain Universe reveals to Druid that Reed is telling the truth, but before he can convince the others to stop fighting, he is struck down by Nova.

B-ankh! · Wrap Battler · Futankhamun ·  Idiot Box · Infernal Impaler · Steel Pipes · Shoestring Budget ·  Blazing Bull · Fallen Angel · Tail From the Crypt · Apparition's Aspect · Last Breath · Hair of the Dog · Scottish Snarl · Pickled Paws ·  Can Opener · Soviet Stitch-Up · Steel-Toed Stompers ·  Buzz Killer · Frontier Flyboy · Legend of Bugfoot ·  Dr. Gogglestache · Emerald Jarate · Einstein ·  Holy Hunter · Silver Bullets · Garlic Flank Stake ·  Griffin's Gog · Intangible Ascot · Under Cover · Bombinomicon · MONOCULUS! · Ghastlierest Gibus · Seal Mask · Spine-Chilling Skull 2011


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On top of his spider-given powers Peter is of genius level intelligence. It has even been stated that Peter scored as high on some of the same testing scores as Reed Richards did when he was Peter's age. He is especially gifted in the sciences such as mechanics, biology and physics. This has become particularly apparent during his time working at Horizon Labs, where he was able to create a device to drain Alpha of his powers in less than 24 hours.

In keeping with their origins as representing the archetypical hero stock character in 1930s American comics, superheroes are predominantly depicted as white Anglo-Saxon American middle- or upper-class heterosexual young adult males who are typically tall, athletic, educated, physically attractive and in perfect health. Beginning in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States, and increasingly with the rising concern over political correctness in the 1980s, superhero fiction centered on cultural, ethnic, national, racial and language minority groups (from the perspective of US demographics) began to be produced. This began with depiction of black superheroes in the 1960s, followed in the 1970s with a number of other ethnic superheroes.[51] In keeping with the political mood of the time, cultural diversity and inclusivism would be an important part of superhero groups starting from the 1980s. In the 1990s, this was further augmented by the first depictions of superheroes as homosexual. In 2017, Sign Gene emerged, the first group of deaf superheroes with superpowers through the use of sign language.[52]
Jump up ^ Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 9781610694124. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
The cowl's basic design has remained unchanged; however, it has been frequently updated to advance Batman's crusade. The one aspect of the cowl that does undergo variations is the ears, although the length and pointiness of the ears are supposedly primarily due to the style of the artist drawing Batman, and tends not to be tied to the functionality of the cowl in any way. However, artist, Karl Kerchl has drawn Batman's costume vault showing that he has a wide selection of cowls with ears of different lengths (Adventures of Superman #643).
From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University.... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man. As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.[9]:234–235

Lesley Bannatyne and Cindy Ott both write that Anglican colonists in the Southern United States and Catholic colonists in Maryland "recognized All Hallow's Eve in their church calendars",[114][115] although the Puritans of New England maintained strong opposition to the holiday, along with other traditional celebrations of the established Church, including Christmas.[116] Almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th century give no indication that Halloween was widely celebrated in North America.[117] It was not until mass Irish and Scottish immigration in the 19th century that Halloween became a major holiday in North America.[117] Confined to the immigrant communities during the mid-19th century, it was gradually assimilated into mainstream society and by the first decade of the 20th century it was being celebrated coast to coast by people of all social, racial and religious backgrounds.[118] "In Cajun areas, a nocturnal Mass was said in cemeteries on Halloween night. Candles that had been blessed were placed on graves, and families sometimes spent the entire night at the graveside".[119]
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