Jump up ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 77. ISBN 978-0756692360. With every bit of order in Spider-Man's life came a fair amount of disorder, and in this [Gerry] Conway/[Ross] Andru issue, that chaos came in the form of another new Spider-Man villain, the Grizzly.
The reporter Eddie Brock had accused the Sin-Eater as one man. He then became very angry with Spider-Man, when the webslinger unmasked Sin-Eater and it turned out to be a different person. This caused Brock professional humiliation and the loss of his job. When Eddie bonded with the symbiote and became Venom, Eddie launched several attacks on Peter's life, even scaring MJ. Peter stopped wearing the black suit following MJ's request. Eddie's symbiote had an offspring which bonded with Cletus Kasady, a psychotic murderer, to become Carnage. Venom and Spider-Man were forced to team-up to defeat this new foe. Some time later, Peter and Eddie formed a truce, promising never to interfere with each others lives ever again.
While trying to stop a robbery, Spider-Man is blamed for the accidental shooting of an innocent bystander. This makes the web-slinger the perfect target for anti-super hero mayoral candidate Brian Timilty. However, Timilty is secretly the pawn of Tyler Stewart, a wealthy businessman seeking to take over New York's crime syndicates. Wanted by police and forced into hiding, Spider-Man must find a way to clear his name without being shot on sight. And that's when Electro and Rhino--two of his deadliest foes--arrive on the scene to complicate matters.
Captain Universe was the starring feature in issues #9-11 of the tryout series Marvel Spotlight. Marvel Spotlight editor Al Milgrom recalled being taken away by the concept of a Captain Universe serial: "You could come up with three issues, three disparate individuals - each one very different from the other - and see how they use their powers. They wouldn't necessarily be superheroic types; they'd be regular people who fell into the powers for just one issue. ... But Captain Universe never got his own title, so I'm guessing it didn't sell terribly well."[1] The character appeared sporadically through the remainder of the 1980s in titles such as Marvel Fanfare and Contest of Champions.

In Old Man Logan, Spider-Man was killed during or sometime after the event where the villains rose to power and the heroes fell. In this timeline, he is implied to have married an unknown African-American woman and had a daughter who eventually married Hawkeye and had a child of their own. Hawkeye won in a poker game and customized the Spider-Mobile after his death.[89]
Mockingbird a.k.a. Barbara "Bobbi" Morse: As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel, Bobbi is S.H.I.E.L.D.'s liaison with Parker Industries. She and Peter build a relationship slowly, with he providing her a new costume and working together to defeat Norman Osborn in Symkaria. After Peter shut down Parker Industries to stop Hydra from using his company for their own devices, she learns of his secret identity and allows him to stay at her apartment. After having stopping crime together to help Peter's self-esteem, they share a wonderful kiss. Peter lives in her apartment while recovering from the dismantling of Parker Industries. They end their relationship after realizing that outside of work and crime fighting, they don't have anything in common.

Being a superhero doesn’t give you a ton of down time, but if you find your kids have a few moments to spare, it’s likely an opportune time for a candid shot. You’ve worked on making sure they know to look serious while they’re in costume, so let them show their stares towards the camera while they have their hands against their hips. The bold logos featured on the chest of the boy’s costume will be on full display and any onlookers will feel a surge of reassurance when they see that this trio of heroes are on the scene and ready for action!

Jump up ^ Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added".


Something is turning ordinary people into zombie like bank robbers. One of which is a friend of Mary Jane. In Spider-Man’s search for answers, he comes across the aid of Private Detective Barb Lightner, whose partner was killed over a mysterious trinket. These events lead to a new crime boss calling himself the ‘The Jewel’. How he is connected to all this is discovered as the detective and superhero pool their resources to find answers.
To make matters worst, the Mary Jane clone was water based and was made for Hydro-Man. Next, Marvel did a tribute to the Secret Wars. Madame Webb was going to help Spider-Man find the real Mary Jane, who was still alive somewhere. As Spider-Man continued his search for Mary Jane, Madame Web and the Beyonder set up a chain of events where Spider-Man faced different versions of himself from different universes. One was him, where he is a rich multi-millionaire, and wears a metallic Spider-Suit, and has publicly made his identity known to the world. This version was made to mirror Marvel's popular super hero multi-billionaire, Tony Stark, a.k.a. Iron Man. Spider-Man in another reality he went to, found out he was married to a woman he never met in his life, Gwen Stacey. Gwen had never appeared in the series until now. Gwen revealed information of another Parker alternate reality. This one was strongly grieving of the death of Aunt May, he cut his hair, died it blonde, and went out as Spider-Man. However, he met a foe he could not beat, the Carnage symbiote. The symbiote felt the pain of Ben Reilly as he changed his name to negate any Parker ties. The symbiote and Reilly bond to become Spider-Carnage. All of the different Spider-Man realities, including the real Spider-Man, battled Spider- Carnage. They could not defeat him however. When he sees Gwen Stacey, his love of killing is put on hold, since he has romantic feelings for Gwen he has never gotten over. He thus realized what he had become, and committed suicide. After all was said and done, one Spider-Man had to take him with him to his reality. This one is our world. He is astounded at the fact of being an international symbol in our world, and before he leaves, he meets with the man who created him, Stan Lee.
Originally, Peter Parker wore a homemade suit consisting of cheap red and blue clothing, particularly a blue longjohns under a red sleeveless hoodie with a black spider chest emblem, red fingerless gloves with black webbing designs on them, and black goggles to fight crime in New York City. He hid this suit from his aunt May in a loft above his room, which came down on a rope whenever someone opened it.
When we were still kids, we always wanted to become superheroes. So, choosing a costume shouldn’t be a tough decision. Yet, if you can’t decide on an easy superhero costume to make from scratch, we have a list of suggestions for you! We ranked these superhero costumes on how easily you can make them at home. The list goes from requiring you to build and craft your costume to effortlessly wearing whatever you have at home readily that would transform you to a superhero that you are!
Jump up ^ Mader, Isabel (30 September 2014). "Halloween Colcannon". Simmer Magazine. Archived from the original on 5 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. All Hallow's Eve was a Western (Anglo) Christian holiday that revolved around commemorating the dead using humor to intimidate death itself. Like all holidays, All Hallow's Eve involved traditional treats. The church encouraged an abstinence from meat, which created many vegetarian dishes.
In an unidentified alternate reality, the Man-Spider is Peter Parker who has an allergic reaction to the bite of the radioactive spider and is hospitalized. Because both Uncle Ben and Aunt May are at Peter's side in the hospital when their house is broken into, Ben is not killed by the burglar as in the main timeline. He is discovered by the Six-Armed Spider-Man and Spider-Man Noir, who cure him of his spider powers.[77]
It was a basic convention of comic books at the time of Batman's creation that black needed a highlight color (usually blue) in order to show detail and give the illusion of three-dimensionality. Over time, the initial blue highlight spread out over the previously black cape and cowl to become the dominant color. Thus artists renditions depict the costume as black and gray or blue and gray.
Your son can be the ultimate fighter for justice in one of our boys superhero Halloween costumes! Superhero movies continue to dominate at the box office because we just can’t get enough of their ability to save the world. For Halloween 2018, your son can dress up as his favorite protectors of society (although, sorry to disappoint, these costumes don’t actually come with superpowers). What they do offer are officially licensed superhero looks that are precise down to the last detail. If he’s a Marvel fan, our Black Panther costume is a surefire winner for his trick or treating outfit.
Jump up ^ Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 9781610694124. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
You know what's really cool? Unique stuff. That why we take our exclusive line of costumes very seriously. With industry leading quality and materials, our exclusive men's Halloween costumes are a cut above. And since we know that you're all about the classic and memorable pop culture characters, we have brand licenses from some of the top franchises around. Check out our favorite officially licensed exclusive men's costumes to help jump start your decision making!
Jump up ^ Skelly, Tim. "Interview II: 'I created an army of characters, and now my connection to them is lost.'" (Initially broadcast over WNUR-FM on "The Great Electric Bird", May 14, 1971. Transcribed and published in The Nostalgia Journal #27.) Reprinted in The Comics Journal Library Volume One: Jack Kirby, George, Milo ed. May 2002, Fantagraphics Books. p. 16
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Upon approaching the Spider-Island arc, Peter felt vulnerable with the lack of his spider sense. He began training under Shang Chi to create his own unique martial arts style to make up for his lack of spider sense called the "Way of the Spider". It was then revealed that Shang Chi was instructed by the new Madam Web (Julia Carpenter the former Arachne and Spider-Woman) to secretly prepare Peter for a future threat (Spider-Island). This style consists of among other things, hitting pressure points with Spider Strength, and striking with Spider Speed. This new martial art has considerably improved Spider-Man's H2H capabilities, and so far he has stalemated Julia Carpenter and effortlessly defeated 3 spider-powered individuals in a few seconds during Spider-Island. When he regained his Spider-Sense, he defeated a mutated Kaine who was considerably stronger and quicker than him, and effortlessly trumped a mind controlled Spider-Woman, in handful of blows and kicks.
Unseen scientist Mister Fantastic constructed large, transforming battle armour for various superhumans; Spider-Man received two, one based on each of his costumes, both of which could transform into a high-speed motorcycle. It is likely Richards gained the idea from Spider-Man, as it is inconceivable the encounter with the Transformers wouldn't have a lasting impact on the vigilante.[1]
Pursuing the Vulture once again, Peter Parker went to grab his homemade suit from beneath the school lockers. After changing hastily into his suit, Spider-Man went outside only to be ambushed by the Shocker, who subsequently knocked Spider-Man's Web-Shooters off his wrists, putting him at a disadvantage. Shocker relentlessly kept attacking Spider-Man, smashing him through school buses. Before Shocker could strike Spider-Man again, Ned used one of the Web-Shooters to distract the Shocker, and Spider-Man bound him to a school bus.[2]
To fight the deranged villain known as Massacre, Peter built himself a dark colored bulletproof armored costume that deflects bullets, and equipped himself with magnetic webbing that can be used to disable the radio frequencies of Massacre's charges. It is also lightweight, but needs to recharge after a certain period of usage. Peter has also incorporated the technology in improving road safety.
Urich encounters Peter Parker during an oration by Peter’s Aunt May Parker in Central Park. The socialist slant of Aunt May’s words does not sit well with the Enforcers, and Urich is forced to intervene in order to prevent serious injury to either Peter or May. Urich subsequently takes Peter under his wing,[1] and after Peter mistakenly receives a tip-off meant for the Spider, the young man ventures to a warehouse where the Goblin’s men are unloading a shipment of stolen antiques. A particular antique — a spider statue — breaks open and releases a horde of spiders. One of the spiders bites Peter, causing him to pass out and dream of a spider god. When he awakes, he is upside-down in a black web.[2]
After Octavius tries to retrieve some of Parker’s memories in an attempt to solve a revirbium related problem, Peter's consciousness begins to re-emerge, having somehow escaped the mind-purge. When Otto is possessed by the Venom Symbiote and is unable to free himself of it, Peter's consciousness again emerges and breaks the Symbiote's hold over Dr. Octopus, enabling Flash Thompson to call it back to him.

When Peter learns that his old enemy the Rhino is on a rampage in Times Square, he suits up as Spider-Man to stop the destructive villain in his tracks. But he's unexpectedly foiled in his attempts by the Black Cat, a former ally and old flame. The Cat informs Peter that the Rhino is just a distraction -- the real threat comes from a group of Ancients, members of the same race as the being called Morlun, who Spidey defeated in battle years earlier. The Ancients are now looking to exact revenge -- and hope to steal Spider-Man's life force in the process.
It's been three weeks since spider-man foiled Doc Ock's plan and now Peter is invited to MJ's, which is Mary Jane's Club, but he is still under the weather because he was not able to prevent Silver Sables death, but while Peter is "having fun" at the party Carlie calls and tells Spider-man to come meet her at the cemetery. Spider-Man arrives and Carlie tells him that the grounds keeper saw a pale man digging the grave of Billie Connors with his bare hands and then vanishing into the dark with the body. Spider-Man instantly realized that this pale powerful man was Morbius and he goes to face him at Horizon labs. Spider-Man, disgusted by Morbius' actions, starts to attack him, but eventually stops when Michael explains that the reason he dug up the grave was to find a cure for the Lizard, and he tells Peter that he has already accomplished his goal. Spider-Man, hearing this, plans an attack on the Lizard and the confronts him in the sewers and fights him for a long period for time, but finaly Morbius and Spider-Man stab the Lizard with enough hypodermic harpoons for Max to bring Connor's back. But the Lizard is still in control, even in Kurt's body. The Lizard awakens Morbius' violent vampire side, with the smell of blood. And while Spider-Man was distracted with Morbius, Connors created the new serum that will turn him into the Lizard again, but this serums turns everyone into lizards except Connors himself, so while testing this serum Connors turns the entire Horizon Labs crew into Lizards. When he finally created the serum for himself, it turned him into a new version of the Lizard. When Spider-Man comes after capturing Morbius, Carlie tells him what has happened. Spidey creates a new cure and a battle ensures between Spider-Man and the Lizard. When Spider-Man stabs the Lizard with a harpoon filled with the cure, nothing happens, the cure doesn't work. Only at the end we see that the cure has actually worked and now Connors' mind is secretly in control of the Lizard's body.
You can start with a simple costume base like a skin suit or a few pieces of clothing, and build your look out of whole cloth – so to speak – with cool accessories like capes, hats, gloves, boots. You can make whatever kind of costume you feel like, and you're sure to have an amazing time at your next costume party or other Halloween event with a unique look!

During the Spider-Verse storyline which featured Spider-Men from various alternate realities, Spider-Man Noir starred in one-shot comic Edge of Spider-Verse #1, at the end of which he was recruited by The Superior Spider-Man into his army of Spiders.[9] He was also featured prominently in Spider-Verse Team-Up #1, alongside a six-armed Spider-Man.[10] In Spider-Woman Vol. 5 #1, Spider-Man Noir found himself defending the lives of Silk and Spider-Woman (Jessica Drew) and got wounded in the process, after which he was returned to his home reality to heal and recuperate.[11]
Rwarrrrr! You might not have the wookiee growl down pat, but you'll instantly be ready to co-pilot the Millennium Falcon when you slip on this hoodie. Probably the easiest of all ways to rock a Star Wars costume, it features luxurious wookiee faux fur and an embroidered bandoleer. And that extra fur is sure to keep you toasty if you live in a colder climate, like Hoth.
Maybe they need a full size Dark Knight to help them take on their task? Whether it’s trick-or-treating the toughest neighborhood or they’re preparing for an epic showdown with a top villain, we’re confident having an adult Batman will make sure they come out victorious. He’ll probably have all kinds of extra gadgetry in his adult-sized utility belt, and with his authentic Dawn of Justice Batman costume, your children’s costumes will achieve their full effect. For posing, Wonder Woman can show her muscles while Superman prepares to take flight, and no matter what the mission is, Batman will be there to look over the young ones, but he’s going to look pretty fantastic in his own right, too. This will definitely be a superhero costume team for the history books!
Jump up ^ Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".
Het kolossale glazen gebouw is vanaf Amsterdam Sloterdijk nauwelijks te missen. In de interactieve aankomsthal waar een fors touch-beeldscherm de ruimte vult en waar klanten het KPN Experience Lab kunnen betreden, worden we opgewacht door Jorn Vriend (product owner MijnKPN). Het telecombedrijf lanceerde in mei een vernieuwde Mijn-omgeving. De pilot had een ‘op maat gemaakt selfservicekanaal’ als doel. Voldoende aanleiding dus om dit keer niet de klantenserviceafdeling, maar het technologische hart van KPN een bezoek te brengen. Vol enthousiasme en bevlogenheid leidt hij ons rond over de afdeling, waar we een voetbalveld, een Playstation en surfborden aantreffen.
"I had blinders on, I didn't want to see it," Luann said. She told Dorinda that Tom D'Agostino got worse when they got married. He was going out, meeting with old girlfriends—basically everything he was doing before he got married. "After a certain amount of time, everything the girls were saying was kind of true," Luann said. "Ultimately for me the last straw was the lack of respect…It didn't stop and I couldn't breathe…I was drowning. I suffered a lot, I really suffered a lot."
When Peter learns that his old enemy the Rhino is on a rampage in Times Square, he suits up as Spider-Man to stop the destructive villain in his tracks. But he's unexpectedly foiled in his attempts by the Black Cat, a former ally and old flame. The Cat informs Peter that the Rhino is just a distraction -- the real threat comes from a group of Ancients, members of the same race as the being called Morlun, who Spidey defeated in battle years earlier. The Ancients are now looking to exact revenge -- and hope to steal Spider-Man's life force in the process.
It was during the 1930s, about the same time as trick-or-treating, that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America. It was in the late 1950s that haunted houses as a major attraction began to appear, focusing first on California. Sponsored by the Children's Health Home Junior Auxiliary, the San Mateo Haunted House opened in 1957. The San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. Home haunts began appearing across the country during 1962 and 1963. In 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened, as well as the Children's Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis.[178]
Dr. Watts (appeared in Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro): Dr. Watts (first name unknown) is a prominent scientist. She is the creator of the Bio-Nexus Device and a world-renowned scholar of biology. In the game, she is kidnapped by Hammerhead while attending the Science Industry Ball. During Spider-Man's fight with Hammerhead, Dr. Watts disappears, which led Spider-Man to believe that the Sandman took her. Due to an anonymous tip, Spider-Man tracks Dr. Watts to a museum, where she is taken hostage by Electro. After Electro leaves the museum, Dr. Watts tells Spider-Man that Electro went to the Twin Towers.

Debra Whitman: a fellow Empire State University student and secretary whom Peter dates for a period of time, though his frequent disappearances complicate their relationship. She is eventually diagnosed with mild schizophrenia, ironically exacerbated by her "delusional" belief that Peter is Spider-Man. With Peter's help, she overcomes that idea. Soon afterward, she leaves New York after another man, Biff Rifkin, confesses his strong feelings for her.


Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages.[20] Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[20]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
We get it, we get it. You want to participate in the costume fun, but most Halloween costumes for men just require too much effort. If you're looking to coast on through your Halloween night, fortunately, we have a ton of quick and easy options for your party! Whether you just want to rock a funny t-shirt or a character hoodie, our quick and easy options will have you ready for the big party with minimal preparation required!
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.

Within the context of the stories, Jessica Drew, the original Spider-Woman, had retired from super heroics, and gotten married. She gives birth to a baby boy, Gerry, who was diagnosed with a strange blood-borne disorder due to radiation exposure in the womb. With doctors and medicines unable to help her son, Jessica recreates the experiment that cured her of her radiation poisoning, the experiment that made her Spider-Woman. The experiment imbues Gerry with spider-like powers, but did not cure him. Gerry's illness strains his parents' marriage and leads to their divorce. Feeling responsible for the break-up, Gerry becomes withdrawn. Jessica tries to alleviate his pain by telling him stories from her past, his favorites involving Spider-Man.[volume & issue needed]
^ Norman Osborn using the alias as Green Goblin is Spider-Man's archenemy.[123][127][128] Mostly after he is responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[123] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[129]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as Norman and not just only as the Green Goblin.[130]
^ Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's worst enemies and archenemy. He has been cited as the man Peter might have become if he had not been raised with a sense of responsibility.[16][141] He is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is the core leader of the Sinister Six and has also referred himself as the "Master Planner". ("If This Be My Destiny...!")[142] Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while.[141]
In South Park: The Fractured but Whole, players will delve into the crime-ridden underbelly of South Park with Coon and Friends. This dedicated group of crime fighters was formed by Eric Cartman whose superhero alter-ego, The Coon, is half man, half raccoon. As the New Kid, players will join Mysterion, Toolshed, The Human Kite, Mosquito, Mint-Berry Crunch and a host of others to battle the forces of evil while Coon strives to make his team the most beloved superheroes in history.

Assigned as the sidekick of Captain Diabetes, the New Kid is forced to accompany him to infiltrate the Peppermint Hippo strip club and pose as a stripper in order to locate a woman with a penis tattoo, who may hold a clue to Scrambles' location... after questioning to wealthy regulars, and mixing up a fart-laden drink for the Peppermint Hippo DJ, they discover Classi is the woman in question. Chasing her to the back in pursuit, they are forced to battle many of the strippers, lead by Spontaneous Bootay, who aim to protect her.
In parts of Britain, these customs came under attack during the Reformation as some Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatible with their notion of predestination. Thus, for some Nonconformist Protestants, the theology of All Hallows' Eve was redefined; without the doctrine of purgatory, "the returning souls cannot be journeying from Purgatory on their way to Heaven, as Catholics frequently believe and assert. Instead, the so-called ghosts are thought to be in actuality evil spirits. As such they are threatening."[101] Other Protestants maintained belief in an intermediate state, known as Hades (Bosom of Abraham),[107] and continued to observe the original customs, especially souling, candlelit processions and the ringing of church bells in memory of the dead.[71][108] Mark Donnelly, a professor of medieval archæology, and historian Daniel Diehl, with regard to the evil spirits, on Halloween, write that "barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effect of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveled the earth."[109] In the 19th century, in some rural parts of England, families gathered on hills on the night of All Hallows' Eve. One held a bunch of burning straw on a pitchfork while the rest knelt around him in a circle, praying for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames went out. This was known as teen'lay.[110] The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland.[111] There and in Ireland, they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween since at least the early Middle Ages, and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic approach to Halloween, seeing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passage of communities and thus ensuring its survival in the country.[111]
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