In “The Coddling of the American Mind,” Greg Lukianoff and Jonathan Haidt argued that too many college students engage in “catastrophizing,” which is to say, turning common events into nightmarish trials or claiming that easily bearable events are too awful to bear. After citing examples, they concluded, “smart people do, in fact, overreact to innocuous speech, make mountains out of molehills, and seek punishment for anyone whose words make anyone else feel uncomfortable.”

In addition to the creation of new minority heroes, publishers have filled the identities and roles of once-Caucasian heroes with new characters from minority backgrounds. The African-American John Stewart appeared in the 1970s as an alternate for Earth's Green Lantern Hal Jordan, and would become a regular member of the Green Lantern Corps from the 1980s onward. The creators of the 2000s-era Justice League animated series selected Stewart as the show's Green Lantern. In the Ultimate Marvel universe, Miles Morales, a multiracial American youth who was also bitten by a genetically-altered spider, debuted as the new Spider-Man after the apparent death of the original. Kamala Khan, a Pakistani-American teenager who is revealed to have Inhuman lineage after her shapeshifting powers manifested, takes on the identity of Ms. Marvel in 2014. Her self-titled comic book series became a cultural phenomenon, with extensive media coverage by CNN, the New York Times and The Colbert Report, and embraced by anti-Islamophobia campaigners in San Francisco who plastered over anti-Muslim bus adverts with Kamala stickers.[57] Other such successor-heroes of color include James "Rhodey" Rhodes as Iron Man, Ryan Choi as the Atom, and Jaime Reyes as Blue Beetle.
Karen: The suit has a built-in A.I. named Karen, similar to Tony Stark ’s F.R.I.D.A.Y., that informs Spider-Man on changing tactical situations and provides diagnostic reports. This feature was initially set to activate after Parker completed the Training Wheels Protocol, but Ned Leeds unlocked it with the rest of the suit's abilities. Karen records and stores data while the suit is in use through the Baby Monitor Protocol, allowing Spider-Man to access a personal database and review information he may have overlooked previously, or to research people or events he has previously encountered. Karen also provides suggestions and activates features autonomously, such as when she enabled the suit's 'Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode' when Parker needed help surveying a couple of criminals.
Black Widow a.k.a. Natasha Romanova: During a HYDRA attempt to take over S.H.I.E.L.D., she is tortured to such an extent that she regresses back to an old cover identity of schoolteacher Nancy Rushman, but she is recovered by Spider-Man in time to help Nick Fury and Shang-Chi work out what had happened and restore her memory, with "Nancy" developing an attraction to Spider-Man before her memory is restored during the final fight against Madam Viper, Boomerang and the Silver Samurai.
Jump up ^ Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
What if someone else besides Spider-Man had been bitten by the radioactive spider explores what would have happened if Flash Thompson, Betty Brant or John Jameson were bitten by the spider, but all three prove to be failures as the 'new' Spider-Man. Each story ends with Peter extracting the residual radioactive venom from the dead spider and using it to create a serum to give himself powers, thus becoming Spider-Man.[47] Versions of all three appear in Spider-Verse where John is the only one that isn't killed by the Inheritors.[citation needed]
Peter Parker, the amazing Spider-Man, has made an astonishing discovery-he has a sister! Unfortunately, a manipulative super-villain known as the Gentleman-who had a hand in the deaths of Peter's parents-has somehow brainwashed her into becoming the deadly supervilainess known as Pity! Together with Doctor Octopus, Electro, the Vulture, and Mysterio, they've formed the newest incarnation of the super-villain group dedicated to destroy Spider-Man, the Sinister Six! But there is something more than just the death of Spider-Man on the Sinister Six's agenda; something that has caused Col. Sean Morgan and his high-tech anti-espionage agents of S.A.F.E. to become involved. Spider-Man teams up with Morgan to stop the Sinister Six before they can put their world-threatening plan in motion, and to save his sister before it's too late!
Sometime later, Spider-Man revealed his identity to the Black Cat who would end up breaking up with him. She was unable to bear the fact that Spider-Man liked to live a civilian life as Peter Parker instead of staying in costume. Mary Jane would return to New York and she visited Peter in his apartment. Meanwhile, the Puma had tracked down Spider-Man but Peter sensed his presence using his spider-sense.
Detective Terri Lee (appeared in Spider-Man): She is a detective for the New York Police Department. Naturally, she investigates cases that involve Spider-Man and to an extent to Peter Parker, though she never found out Peter and Spider-Man are the same person. She didn't trust Spider-Man at first, but overtime she began accepting Spider-Man as an ally. She has ties to Carnage and she had a relationship with the vampire hunter Blade.
In 2005, after a four-year break from comic appearances, Captain Universe returned in the second series of Amazing Fantasy.[2] Also in 2005, a series of one-shot specials linked together by the Uni-Power/Captain Universe were released featuring different characters from the Marvel Universe as the Uni-Power each imbues them with power of Captain Universe. These titles were Captain Universe/Hulk, Captain Universe/Daredevil, Captain Universe/X-23, Captain Universe/Invisible Woman and Captain Universe/Silver Surfer. The Uni-Power made a brief appearance in Nextwave, he also made a "cameo" as Cosmic Spider-Man for the variant cover of Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #3 and played an important part in the Death's Head 3.0 saga chronicled in Amazing Fantasy.
Our boys TV character costumes have something for kids of all ages, from the youngest up through teens. Younger fans of Toy Story will love dressing up as Woody, complete with his colorful jumpsuit along with boot covers, hat and bandana, so he’ll totally look the part. This totally authentic-looking attire will have your teen boy looking like Rick and Morty or Dustin Henderson from Stranger Things, among other beloved favorites. From Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles to Pirates of the Caribbean, Lego, Avengers and many more, your son can make a big splash with a 2018 TV or movie Halloween costume that will make him look and feel like a star.
In 1966, Marvel Comics introduced the Black Panther, an African monarch who became the first non-caricatured black superhero.[53] The first African-American superhero, the Falcon, followed in 1969, and three years later, Luke Cage, a self-styled "hero-for-hire", became the first black superhero to star in his own series. In 1989, the Monica Rambeau incarnation of Captain Marvel was the first female black superhero from a major publisher to get her own title in a special one-shot issue. In 1971, Red Wolf became the first Native American in the superheroic tradition to headline a series.[54] In 1973, Shang-Chi became the first prominent Asian superhero to star in an American comic book (Kato had been a secondary character of the Green Hornet media franchise series since its inception in the 1930s.[55]). Kitty Pryde, a member of the X-Men, was an openly Jewish superhero in mainstream American comic books as early as 1978.[56]
After suffering numerous defeats at the hands of Spider-Man, the Green Goblin vowed to destroy his foe once and for all. Using a special gas that blocks Peter's Spider-Sense, the Goblin followed Peter around and discovered his secret identity. Now knowing Peter was Spider-Man, the Green Goblin kidnapped him, and although he has the chance to kill Peter, the Goblin instead revealed his own secret identity. He was Norman Osborn, a ruthless businessman who was also Harry's father. Norman released Spider-Man from his restraints to defeat him in combat and prove his superiority. The Web-Slinger managed to defeat him and knocked him into some chemicals, resulting in Norman having amnesia and no recollection of both his and Peter's alternate egos.
(function(){"use strict";function s(e){return"function"==typeof e||"object"==typeof e&&null!==e}function a(e){return"function"==typeof e}function u(e){X=e}function l(e){G=e}function c(){return function(){r.nextTick(p)}}function f(){var e=0,n=new ne(p),t=document.createTextNode("");return n.observe(t,{characterData:!0}),function(){t.data=e=++e%2}}function d(){var e=new MessageChannel;return e.port1.onmessage=p,function(){e.port2.postMessage(0)}}function h(){return function(){setTimeout(p,1)}}function p(){for(var e=0;et.length)&&(n=t.length),n-=e.length;var r=t.indexOf(e,n);return-1!==r&&r===n}),String.prototype.startsWith||(String.prototype.startsWith=function(e,n){return n=n||0,this.substr(n,e.length)===e}),String.prototype.trim||(String.prototype.trim=function(){return this.replace(/^[\s\uFEFF\xA0]+|[\s\uFEFF\xA0]+$/g,"")}),String.prototype.includes||(String.prototype.includes=function(e,n){"use strict";return"number"!=typeof n&&(n=0),!(n+e.length>this.length)&&-1!==this.indexOf(e,n)})},"./shared/require-global.js":function(e,n,t){e.exports=t("./shared/require-shim.js")},"./shared/require-shim.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/errors.js"),i=(this.window,!1),o=null,s=null,a=new Promise(function(e,n){o=e,s=n}),u=function(e){if(!u.hasModule(e)){var n=new Error('Cannot find module "'+e+'"');throw n.code="MODULE_NOT_FOUND",n}return t("./"+e+".js")};u.loadChunk=function(e){return a.then(function(){return"main"==e?t.e("main").then(function(e){t("./main.js")}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe):"dev"==e?Promise.all([t.e("main"),t.e("dev")]).then(function(e){t("./shared/dev.js")}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe):"internal"==e?Promise.all([t.e("main"),t.e("internal"),t.e("qtext2"),t.e("dev")]).then(function(e){t("./internal.js")}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe):"ads_manager"==e?Promise.all([t.e("main"),t.e("ads_manager")]).then(function(e){undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined,undefined}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe):"publisher_dashboard"==e?t.e("publisher_dashboard").then(function(e){undefined,undefined}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe):"content_widgets"==e?Promise.all([t.e("main"),t.e("content_widgets")]).then(function(e){t("./content_widgets.iframe.js")}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe):void 0})},u.whenReady=function(e,n){Promise.all(window.webpackChunks.map(function(e){return u.loadChunk(e)})).then(function(){n()})},u.installPageProperties=function(e,n){window.Q.settings=e,window.Q.gating=n,i=!0,o()},u.assertPagePropertiesInstalled=function(){i||(s(),r.logJsError("installPageProperties","The install page properties promise was rejected in require-shim."))},u.prefetchAll=function(){t("./settings.js");Promise.all([t.e("main"),t.e("qtext2")]).then(function(){}.bind(null,t))["catch"](t.oe)},u.hasModule=function(e){return!!window.NODE_JS||t.m.hasOwnProperty("./"+e+".js")},u.execAll=function(){var e=Object.keys(t.m);try{for(var n=0;n=c?n():document.fonts.load(l(o,'"'+o.family+'"'),a).then(function(n){1<=n.length?e():setTimeout(t,25)},function(){n()})}t()});var w=new Promise(function(e,n){u=setTimeout(n,c)});Promise.race([w,m]).then(function(){clearTimeout(u),e(o)},function(){n(o)})}else t(function(){function t(){var n;(n=-1!=y&&-1!=v||-1!=y&&-1!=g||-1!=v&&-1!=g)&&((n=y!=v&&y!=g&&v!=g)||(null===f&&(n=/AppleWebKit\/([0-9]+)(?:\.([0-9]+))/.exec(window.navigator.userAgent),f=!!n&&(536>parseInt(n[1],10)||536===parseInt(n[1],10)&&11>=parseInt(n[2],10))),n=f&&(y==b&&v==b&&g==b||y==x&&v==x&&g==x||y==j&&v==j&&g==j)),n=!n),n&&(null!==_.parentNode&&_.parentNode.removeChild(_),clearTimeout(u),e(o))}function d(){if((new Date).getTime()-h>=c)null!==_.parentNode&&_.parentNode.removeChild(_),n(o);else{var e=document.hidden;!0!==e&&void 0!==e||(y=p.a.offsetWidth,v=m.a.offsetWidth,g=w.a.offsetWidth,t()),u=setTimeout(d,50)}}var p=new r(a),m=new r(a),w=new r(a),y=-1,v=-1,g=-1,b=-1,x=-1,j=-1,_=document.createElement("div");_.dir="ltr",i(p,l(o,"sans-serif")),i(m,l(o,"serif")),i(w,l(o,"monospace")),_.appendChild(p.a),_.appendChild(m.a),_.appendChild(w.a),document.body.appendChild(_),b=p.a.offsetWidth,x=m.a.offsetWidth,j=w.a.offsetWidth,d(),s(p,function(e){y=e,t()}),i(p,l(o,'"'+o.family+'",sans-serif')),s(m,function(e){v=e,t()}),i(m,l(o,'"'+o.family+'",serif')),s(w,function(e){g=e,t()}),i(w,l(o,'"'+o.family+'",monospace'))})})},void 0!==e?e.exports=a:(window.FontFaceObserver=a,window.FontFaceObserver.prototype.load=a.prototype.load)}()},"./third_party/tracekit.js":function(e,n){/**
When it comes time for Halloween, there is a lot more to think about than picking out a costume. Plenty of strategizing comes with choosing the perfect outfit. For starters, you will need to know what size your child wears and check out some of our measurement charts to find the best fit. Trick-or-treating at night may be dangerous, so having reflectors or lights are definitely helpful. If you are buying for costumes and accessories for more than one person, be sure to check out any coupons and savings deals we have going on. 
Captain Universe was the starring feature in issues #9-11 of the tryout series Marvel Spotlight. Marvel Spotlight editor Al Milgrom recalled being taken away by the concept of a Captain Universe serial: "You could come up with three issues, three disparate individuals - each one very different from the other - and see how they use their powers. They wouldn't necessarily be superheroic types; they'd be regular people who fell into the powers for just one issue. ... But Captain Universe never got his own title, so I'm guessing it didn't sell terribly well."[1] The character appeared sporadically through the remainder of the 1980s in titles such as Marvel Fanfare and Contest of Champions.
A bite from a radioactive spider triggers mutations in Peter Parker's body, granting him superpowers.[86] In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him to danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility.[86] The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but later writers have depicted his intellect at genius level.[87] Academically brilliant, Parker has expertise in the fields of applied science, chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, mathematics, and mechanics. With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and he constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters to help navigate and trap his enemies along with a spider-signal as an flashlight and a warning beacon to criminals.[86]

The Iron Spider armor appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series. It is initially used by Peter Parker in the episodes "Flight of the Iron Spider", "The Iron Octopus" and "Venom Bomb". Subsequent seasons depict the armor in the hands of Amadeus Cho under the Iron Spider mantle. Additionally the episode "Rampaging Rhino" features a variant Iron Spider Hulkbuster created by Curt Connors at the time when the Hulk fights with the Rhino.
Icon Location - North of the Oscorp building there is an L-shaped park. In the park's west side is a pagoda. Inspect the pagoda and on the structure's ceiling is a Black Spider-Man logo. If you take a picture of the logo, you unlock the Classic Black Suit. This costume is the Spider-Man 3 movie black costume with minor changes. Cosmetic damage is possible with this costume.
In an unidentified alternate universe, Peter and Ben Parker live together in a Latin & Spanish neighborhood and Ben is married to a Spanish Aunt May. When Ben got shot by a mugger, he had a blood transfusion with Peter and got his nephew's Spider-powers. When Ben became Spider-Man, he was a ruthless hero where he once severely beat up Kraven the Hunter. He along side Peter battled crime until Peter and May died from unknown reason.[81]
In Forest Hills, Queens, New York,[44] Midtown High School student Peter Benjamin Parker is a science-whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May. As depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider (erroneously classified as an insect in the panel) at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid".[45] Along with heightened athletic abilities, Parker gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, Parker dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben." Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"[46]

Answering the call of justice, Call Girl disconnects criminals and places their evil ambitions on hold. Extending her influence from social media to the town of South Park, Wendy Testaburger is a gadgeteer and a white-hat hacker with a heart of gold who uses technology and an army of followers to unfriend evil. If you need information, just know that you can rely on... Call Girl!


Several of the traditional activities from Ireland and Britain involve foretelling one's future partner or spouse. An apple would be peeled in one long strip, then the peel tossed over the shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name.[167][168] Two hazelnuts would be roasted near a fire; one named for the person roasting them and the other for the person they desire. If the nuts jump away from the heat, it is a bad sign, but if the nuts roast quietly it foretells a good match.[169][170] A salty oatmeal bannock would be baked; the person would eat it in three bites and then go to bed in silence without anything to drink. This is said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst.[171] Unmarried women were told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror.[172] However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards[173] from the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Sophia "Chat" Sanduval: A mutant known as Chat from the Marvel Adventures Spider-Man who appeared in issue 53 and is best friends with this version's Emma Frost. She has the power to talk to animals. She is one of the few people who knows Spider-Man's identity and has developed deep feelings for him. She and Peter begin dating, meanwhile Emma (with her own crush on Peter) shakes their relationship. Eventually, Chat becomes Peter's girlfriend.

As the embittered webslinger faces further robot attacks, each deadlier than the last, his spider-sense warns that Jameson himself is behind them, possibly colluding with Electro, Alistaire Smythe, or another of Spider-Man's mortal foes. Convinced that his worst critic has become a mortal enemy, Spider-Man declares war on Jameson -- a war the publisher is eager to wage. But in their relentless pursuit of victory, they both risk losing everything that matters to them -- and may both fall victim to the cataclysmic secret behind the robots.
Sheikh Idris Palmer, author of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam, has argued that Muslims should not participate in Halloween, stating that "participation in Halloween is worse than participation in Christmas, Easter, ... it is more sinful than congratulating the Christians for their prostration to the crucifix".[231] Javed Memon, a Muslim writer, has disagreed, saying that his "daughter dressing up like a British telephone booth will not destroy her faith as a Muslim".[232]
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0756692360. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man to be written by someone other than Stan Lee...Thomas also managed to introduce a major new player to Spidey's life - the scientifically created vampire known as Morbius.
The best things from the 80s never went away, and like all of our favorites, Hulk Hogan brought Hulkamania back in the 2000s. If you feel ready to hit the ring just like the Hulkster himself, our WWE officially licensed costume will have you ready to rumble! With authentic Hulkamania graphics on the shirt and weight belt, you'll have the style to rise to the top ranks of the WWE. If you have a blonde beard, just trim in into a perfectly golden horseshoe mustache. And if the bleached blonde mustache and long hair aren't quite doable, just add our wig and mustache accessory kit. Whatchya gonna do, brother?
Parker appears in numerous What If? universes. Among these are realities in which he is a member of the Fantastic Four; in which he was not bitten by the spider but some other supporting cast member was; in which he chose not to go into superheroics; in which he joins with Wolverine and takes up black ops work; and in which he becomes a mutated spider creature.
The modern imagery of Halloween comes from many sources, including Christian eschatology, national customs, works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy).[128][129] Imagery of the skull, a reference to Golgotha in the Christian tradition, serves as "a reminder of death and the transitory quality of human life" and is consequently found in memento mori and vanitas compositions;[130] skulls have therefore been commonplace in Halloween, which touches on this theme.[131] Traditionally, the back walls of churches are "decorated with a depiction of the Last Judgment, complete with graves opening and the dead rising, with a heaven filled with angels and a hell filled with devils", a motif that has permeated the observance of this triduum.[132] One of the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne, who, in 1780, made note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns' "Halloween" (1785).[133] Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks, and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. Halloween imagery includes themes of death, evil, and mythical monsters.[134] Black, orange, and sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors.
These boys horror Halloween costumes will make people scream in 2018. Some our newest spooky outfits include a Light Up Alien Costume, which will give them an otherworldly appearance, and an attention-getting Voodoo Hex costume. Our Ghastly Gargoyle Costume, with appropriately spooky jumpsuit, mask, and wings will have him looking like he stepped out of a haunted mansion, ready to wreak terror on those around him. We carry 2018 boys horror Halloween costumes for kids of all ages so they can embody all the most frightful looks of the season.
Captain Universe later returned, and the Uni-Power possesses various heroes (the Hulk; X-23; Daredevil, who regained his sight while possessed; the Invisible Woman; Gladiator; and the Silver Surfer); all in a mission to restore its power which has been severely weakened from a mysterious force emanating from the darkest corners of the Microverse. Using the copied powers of each hero, it took paraplegic war veteran Gabriel Vargas as its host to face the one responsible for its weakening.
In addition to the creation of new minority heroes, publishers have filled the identities and roles of once-Caucasian heroes with new characters from minority backgrounds. The African-American John Stewart appeared in the 1970s as an alternate for Earth's Green Lantern Hal Jordan, and would become a regular member of the Green Lantern Corps from the 1980s onward. The creators of the 2000s-era Justice League animated series selected Stewart as the show's Green Lantern. In the Ultimate Marvel universe, Miles Morales, a multiracial American youth who was also bitten by a genetically-altered spider, debuted as the new Spider-Man after the apparent death of the original. Kamala Khan, a Pakistani-American teenager who is revealed to have Inhuman lineage after her shapeshifting powers manifested, takes on the identity of Ms. Marvel in 2014. Her self-titled comic book series became a cultural phenomenon, with extensive media coverage by CNN, the New York Times and The Colbert Report, and embraced by anti-Islamophobia campaigners in San Francisco who plastered over anti-Muslim bus adverts with Kamala stickers.[57] Other such successor-heroes of color include James "Rhodey" Rhodes as Iron Man, Ryan Choi as the Atom, and Jaime Reyes as Blue Beetle.

His rescue attempt caught local authorities' attention. Spider-Man tried to explain the situation to them, but they threatened to shoot him if he did not leave the monument. Despite the threats, Spider-Man ignored them and broke into the monument, barely catching the elevator and its occupants — his schoolmates and Roger Harrington — with a ricochet web.[2]

From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
×