The Spider-Mobile would first appear in The Amazing Spider-Man #130 in 1974. Spider-Man would be approached by Corona Motors who offers him a non-polluting vehicle in which they wanted him to promote. However, Peter turned it down and approaches his friend Johnny Storm to create their own vehicle. They customized a dune buggy to have web-launchers and a spider-signal. It could also be disguised as a regular car so that no one would suspect that he was Spider-Man. Spider-Man would put it into action but it is quickly wrecked because Mysterio tricked Peter into driving it off a pier. Later the Tinkerer would be able to recover the wrecked dune buggy and re-modify it to be able to drive up walls and to drive itself. The Tinkerer sent it to fight Spider-Man, in which he would barely defeat his own car.
But none of that excuses the Yale activists who’ve bullied these particular faculty in recent days. They’re behaving more like Reddit parodies of “social-justice warriors” than coherent activists, and I suspect they will look back on their behavior with chagrin. The purpose of writing about their missteps now is not to condemn these students. Their young lives are tremendously impressive by any reasonable measure. They are unfortunate to live in an era in which the normal mistakes of youth are unusually visible. To keep the focus where it belongs I won’t be naming any of them here.
Jump up ^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 9780313386541. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own. They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small packages featuring Bible verses, Scripture Candy's "Harvest Seeds"--candy corn in everything but name—are among many candies created for this purpose.
If your son lives and breathes sports, a baseball, hockey, basketball or football uniform costume is the perfect way for him to emulate his athletic idols. These authentic looking NFL, NHL and college team outfits will let him show that he’s a true fan. Whether he hopes to one day throw a touchdown, score a hockey goal, shoot a three-pointer or pitch a no-hitter, or he just adores the game, he’ll be thrilled to trick or treat in one of these sports team costumes.

Someone was probably smoking spinach when they suggested that Popeye was the first superhero. As the “Men of Tomorrow” book makes clear, the precursors to Superman and Batman were Doc Savage and The Shadow, created in the Street and Smith pulp magazines of the early ’30s. It is interesting to note that DC Comics currently plans to return its universe to its early roots and purge all magical powers from their characters, leaving Wonder Woman in limbo it would seem.
Catwoman has no shame about her preferred choice of action, stealing and being a top notch catburglar are at the top of her list. But when the times call for a hero, she has no problem standing side-by-side with Batman to team up and defeat the baddies. When she’s on the prowl for precious jewels, though, is sure to be the most opportune time for a quick picture. Once she takes out the vital controls of the security system, she’ll have no problem slipping into the joint and lining her pockets with a little extra cash or whatever she can find in the safety deposit box. Have her show her claws for the picture, and she can smile or look serious—either way this picture is going to be one to remember!
Janine Godbe a.k.a. Elizabeth Tyne The one great love of Ben's life. Ben found out Janine was living under an assumed name after she murdered the father who molested her. Ben confided in Janine that he was a clone of Spider-Man. Later Kaine forced Janine to fake her death to hurt Ben. Janine later turned herself into the police for killing her father. In the MC2 universe Darkdevil is Ben and Janine's son.
When it comes time for Halloween, there is a lot more to think about than picking out a costume. Plenty of strategizing comes with choosing the perfect outfit. For starters, you will need to know what size your child wears and check out some of our measurement charts to find the best fit. Trick-or-treating at night may be dangerous, so having reflectors or lights are definitely helpful. If you are buying for costumes and accessories for more than one person, be sure to check out any coupons and savings deals we have going on. 

Cosplay, a word of Japanese origin that in English is short for "costume play", is a performance art in which participants wear costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea that is usually always identified with a unique name (as opposed to a generic word). These costume wearers often interact to create a subculture centered on role play, so they can be seen most often in play groups, or at a gathering or convention. A significant number of these costumes are homemade and unique, and depend on the character, idea, or object the costume wearer is attempting to imitate or represent. The costumes themselves are often artistically judged to how well they represent the subject or object that the costume wearer is attempting to contrive.
Assigned as the sidekick of Captain Diabetes, the New Kid is forced to accompany him to infiltrate the Peppermint Hippo strip club and pose as a stripper in order to locate a woman with a penis tattoo, who may hold a clue to Scrambles' location... after questioning to wealthy regulars, and mixing up a fart-laden drink for the Peppermint Hippo DJ, they discover Classi is the woman in question. Chasing her to the back in pursuit, they are forced to battle many of the strippers, lead by Spontaneous Bootay, who aim to protect her.
Of course, Marty went to the past and then Back to the Future, and if you're all about this top franchise of the 80s, you're going to want to set your sights on this Marty costume from the first movie. With the shirt, jacket, and vest (that looks suspiciously like a life preserver to the people of 1955), this costume set also includes some cool prop accessories that are sure to make you feel like a resident of Hill Valley—in any era!
The earliest superhero I could find reference to was Mandrake the Magician, who debuted in 1934, four years before Superman, who was probably the first popular superhero. Mandrake’s super power was his ability to “make people believe anything, simply by gesturing hypnotically”. Does anyone out there know of any superheroes who made an earlier media appearance?

What sets the superhero apart from the “everyday” hero such as the fireman who’s job is to do things that might be seen is perfectly heroic, is that the Superhero generally is symbolic. The superhero does what nobody else is doing, in a way that most people can’t, at least not readily. Batman has, in some incarnations, rationalized that he does what he does because nobody else can. Notice if you will, that most if not all superheroes are beyond (but not neccessarily above) what regular people think of as the law. Superman regularly does things that would, if you think about it, break scores of laws. And the activities of Batman - or Robin Hood - go without saying. Part of what makes the superhero super, perhaps, is his ability to perform these duties and not abuse the fact that he must operate outside the normal bounds of citizens.


On All Hallows' Eve, Christians in some parts of the world visit cemeteries to pray and place flowers and candles on the graves of their loved ones.[81] The top photograph shows Bangladeshi Christians lighting candles on the headstone of a relative, while the bottom photograph shows Lutheran Christians praying and lighting candles in front of the central crucifix of a graveyard.

Alain Robert, nicknamed "Spider-Man", is a rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot (95 m) Lloyd's building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies.
Vacuum Seal: By pressing the emblem on the chest, Parker can expand the suit several sizes larger, allowing him to slip out of the suit easily. He can still wear undergarments under the suit because of its vacuum seal, which can also compress the suit to appear as though he is wearing nothing underneath.[2] Once the vacuum seal compresses the suit properly, the suit's A.I. initiates and performs a diagnostics check.
Although supposedly designed for maximum flexibility and movement, the Nomex armor does restrict Batman's movement somewhat, slowing him down in combat. The design of the mask and cape also restricted his neck movement, making it impossible for him to turn his head, and forcing him to rely on peripheral vision. For these reasons, Bruce asked Lucius to design a new suit with faster, freer movement in mind.
A Captain Universe costume pack, such as the classic Captain Universe Spider-Man costume and a brand new ones for the three other playable Spider-Men (Noir, 2099 and Ultimate Symbiote) appeared in Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions as downloadable content in PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 for limited time until 2014's digital store removal, and a bonus exclusive to PC.[citation needed] The costume pack contain an exclusive charge attack to all Spider-Men, but weak against a certain bosses.
J. Jonah Jameson is depicted as the publisher of the Daily Bugle and is Peter Parker's boss and as a harsh critic of Spider-Man, always saying negative things about the superhero in the newspaper. Despite his role as Jameson's publishing editor and confidant Robbie Robertson is always depicted as a supporter of both Peter Parker and Spider-Man.[47]
. The story begins with Peter already having his Spider powers and is a part-time photographer for the Daily Bugle. Spider-Man would battle many classic villains and newer villains such as Green Goblin (Norman and Harry Osborn), Hobgoblin, the Chameleon, the Lizard, the Scorpion, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio, Rhino, the Kingpin of Crime, the Shocker, Vulture, Venom, and Carnage. Peter would eventually get into a romantic relationship with Felicia Hardy/Black Cat, and eventually fall for Mary Jane Watson. Although Gwen Stacy was never in the series, Marvel gave us a little teaser in the series finale story arc, having Spider-Man go to an alternate universe and meeting Gwen Stacy herself. A very important story arc in this series began as the finale of Season 3 in the episode entitled "Turning Point." In which the Green Goblin kidnaps Mary Jane and throws her off the George Washington Bridge, similar to the story arc "The Night Gwen Stacy Died." However, with the heavy censorship in the 1990s not allowing television to have heavy violence, death being a part of it. Marvel decided to have Mary Jane and the Green Goblin fall into an inter-dimension vortex instead. Season 4 was mostly about the guilt that Spider-Man has to carry for losing Mary Jane. He tries to rebound with the Black Cat, but Mary Jane eventually mysteriously returns to life. Season 5 starts off with the much anticipated Wedding of Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson-Parker. With season 5 being the last season, Marvel dropped a bomb on us by revealing that Mary Jane was actually a clone created by Dr. Miles Warren.
At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States.[193] While there is evidence of such incidents,[194] relative to the degree of reporting of such cases, actual cases involving malicious acts are extremely rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy.[195]
Spider-Man Noir appears in Ultimate Spider-Man, voiced by Milo Ventimiglia. In the episode "The Spider-Verse: Part 2", after Green Goblin appears on the Noir reality to collect the DNA of that universe Spider-Man, he is confronted by both the "Noir" and the "Ultimate" Spider-Man, who had followed the Goblin to this universe. However, after rejecting an alliance proposed by his counterpart, Noir is forced to work together with him after the Green Goblin hijacks an airship to draw out Spider-Man Noir, taking a group of civilians present hostage, including Mary Jane. While the Ultimate Spider-Man is saving the hostages, Spider-Man Noir fights the Goblin on his own, but the Goblin manage to take the DNA of a distracted Spider-Man Noir and then departs. Spider-Man Noir admits to both Ultimate Spider-Man and Mary Jane that he should drop the "lone wolf" act, and as his counterpart follows the Goblin to another dimension, the two Spider-Men depart as friends. Spider-Man Noir later returns In "The Spider-Verse: Part 4", summoned by "Ultimate" Spider-Man along with other Spider-Man counterparts to form a team known as the Web-Warriors in order to combat the Green Goblin and Electro. After the villains are defeated, the Web-Warriors return to their respective dimensions. Spider-Man Noir makes a cameo in the fourth season episode "Miles from Home".

In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea. He said the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.[16]:1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter the Spider as a great influence,[15]:130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[note 1] Although at the time teenage superheroes were usually given names ending with "boy", Lee says he chose "Spider-Man" because he wanted the character to age as the series progressed, and moreover felt the name "Spider-Boy" would have made the character sound inferior to other superheroes.[17] At that time Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval. In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[note 2] Goodman eventually agreed to a Spider-Man tryout in what Lee in numerous interviews recalled as what would be the final issue of the science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (cover-dated August 1962, on sale June 5, 1962).[18] In particular, Lee stated that the fact that it had already been decided that Amazing Fantasy would be cancelled after issue #15 was the only reason Goodman allowed him to use Spider-Man.[17] While this was indeed the final issue, its editorial page anticipated the comic continuing and that "The Spiderman [sic] ... will appear every month in Amazing."[18][19]
Many new openly gay, lesbian and bisexual characters have since emerged in superhero fiction, such as Gen¹³'s Rainmaker, Apollo and Midnighter of The Authority, and Wiccan and Hulkling of the Young Avengers. Notable transgender or gender bending characters are fewer in number by comparison: the alter ego of superheroine Zsazsa Zaturnnah, a seminal character in Philippine popular culture,[63] is an effeminate gay man who transforms into a female superhuman after ingesting a magical stone. Desire from Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series and Xavin from the Runaways are both characters who could (and often) change their gender at will. Alysia Yeoh, a supporting character created by writer Gail Simone for the Batgirl ongoing series published by DC Comics, received substantial media attention in 2011 for being the first major transgender character written in a contemporary context in a mainstream American comic book.[64]
Possessing mental command over power tools, Toolshed is an extremely handy member of Freedom Pals. To the kids at school he is Stan Marsh but when darkness falls, Toolshed rushes into battle armed with contents of his dad’s workbench. The accident that give him the ability to control tools has sadly rendered his father an idiot, but he hopes one day to save him.
In 1962, Stan Lee and Steve Ditko took to creating a story for what would be the final issue of a soon to be cancelled comic, and in it they created one of the biggest pop culture juggernauts ever: Spider-Man. That classic look has stayed with the character throughout his 50+ years of consistent publication, and as iconic as it may be there have been some alterations to the Spider-Man costumes over the years.

This series debuted in March 8, 2008 and is still in continuation, airing on the CW 4Kids at 10:00 a.m on Saturday mornings. This series would also make the 10th television series about Spider-Man. This series starts with Spider-Man (voiced by Josh Keaton) talking about how he spent his summer vacation and introducing himself as the Spectacular Spider-Man. The day before school starts he wants his piece of the action. He ends up stopping Flint Marko and Alex O' Hirn. Spidey says that this was his third time stopping them and he pulls out his new device, the spider-signal. Norman Osborn acquires a new enemy in The Vulture. Before he became The Vulture, he was a man who worked for Oscorp and created an invention known as the tech. flight. He demands that Norman publicly apologize to him for stealing his inventions and to say that it was all his idea. Norman won't apologize stating that no one would believe that he had created it. But all is not lost, as he is soon saved by Your Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man. The series artwork was created by Sean "Cheeks" Galloway. The same person responsible for some character design work for the Hellboy animated movies. The character designs resemble those of The Batman TV series, as they have been designed by the same people who worked on that show. This series is supposed to be like the 1960's version of Spider-Man. It doesn't start off like all of the other incarnations of Spider-Man, starting off with Peter getting bitten by a radioactive spider but with a twist. Peter just starts his junior yeah of high school and gets pushed around by jocks. He made friends in Harry Osborn and Gwen Stacy. Gwen Stacy is also Peters intellectual equal, getting a job working for Doctor Connors. Gwen and Peter also see their old friend Eddie Brock who Peters call bro because their parents were best friends. Both Eddie's and Peter's parents died in a plane crash. Ever since then, Eddie and Peter have had a close friendship. Peter betrays Doctor Connors trust by taking pictures of Spider-Man and Doctor Connors as the Lizard. This puts a strain on their friendship and their "brotherhood". Eddie knows about Gwen liking him but after all the things that he did wrong, it was the final straw when Peter goes to the prom with Mary Jane. This series is full of twists and turns. It ends its first season with Eddie being taken over by the symbiote and turning into Venom. After almost being beaten by Venom, he saves Gwen and continues to have a Thanksgiving dinner. Aunt May has come out of hospital after recovering from a heart attack, Peter cooks the thanksgiving dinner, Gwen brings over her family dinner and they all enjoy a nice meal. Peter washes the dishes and goes outside thanking Gwen for what she has done and for always being there. As Gwen is about to leave, she runs back, taking the advice MJ gave her, and gives Peter a kiss. Peter then realizes what Venom was talking about when he said that he is going to take away the person who means the most to him.
^ Jump up to: a b Morrow, Ed (2001). The Halloween Handbook. Kensington Publishing Corporation. p. 19. ISBN 9780806522272. Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events. These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows. The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night.
^ Jump up to: a b c DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 93: "Dr. Octopus shared many traits with Peter Parker. They were both shy, both interested in science, and both had trouble relating to women...Otto Octavius even looked like a grown up Peter Parker. Lee and Ditko intended Otto to be the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility.
As in the previous game, the main characters are divided into two main, competing factions, and the New Kid is first lured into the conflict by Eric Cartman's faction - this time, the iconic Coon and Friends franchise. Over the course of story, they are forced to team up with Freedom Pals in order to save the town from a greater foe, as well as the dreaded Professor Chaos himself.
Monty Walsh Montgomery Walsh Marvel Spotlight Vol. 2 #11 (1981) A cat burglar. He became Captain Universe after he was shot when trying to rob the house of a former Maggia boss named Guido Carboni. After Montgomery defeated Guido Carboni, the Enigma Power left him as Montgomery dies and the police find Guido raving that the dead man was Captain Universe.
The title follows almost the entire original timeline of the character up until the first attempt at a "relaunch" by the company, 1999, where it deviates and provides an alternative ending to the Final Chapter storyline. Peter's wayward daughter May is revealed to be alive and well, and is returned to both Parkers by Peter's first clone, the redeemed Kaine. Despite now being a father, Peter continues to fight crime as Spider-Man, and begins to cope with the new responsibilities brought by his baby daughter.[volume & issue needed]
At his headquarters, Mysterio is preparing to cement his victory by destroying the portal and trapping Spider-Man in the Ultimate universe forever. But unable to resist the temptation to see how his enemy is faring, he keeps the portal open long enough for Peter and the Ultimates to capture him. Despite his best efforts to throw them off with his usual weapons, Mysterio is quickly defeated and Fury decides to keep him prisoner on their side of the rift due to his knowledge of Peter's secret identity. With the portal closing, Peter departs for his world after giving Miles his blessing as the new Spider-Man of this world, an acknowledgment that makes Fury and Miles very satisfied. Back in his world, Peter runs a search for Miles' counterpart in his world and is shocked at the result.[7]
At Horizons Labs, the combination of a well paying job and access to numerous tech has allowed Peter to expand on the equipment he uses. So far he has developed a Spider-Glider, Thermodynamic Foam, Cryo Pellets, voice activated web-shooters and various types of webbing, including magnetic and acidic variants. Many of the equipment have usage in day-to-day usage as well- for example the cryo pellet technology was used to help keep organs and limbs viable for longer periods of time. The Thermodynamic foam also has use in the stopping and prevention of fires.
Don’t just let the boys have all the fun on Halloween. Take a look at all of our costumes to find matching outfits for the whole family. There are some great choices available, based on some famous families. The Incredibles are a family of superheroes. You could go out to parties and trick-or-treat as a group of crime fighters such as the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles or stick with something more professional like cop costumes. Your family is going to have such an enjoyable time matching in their costumes. They will make for cool photo opportunities as well. There are ensembles for him to match mom and dad or his sisters and brothers. Look through all of our men’s, women’s, girl’s, and boy’s Halloween costumes.
The title follows almost the entire original timeline of the character up until the first attempt at a "relaunch" by the company, 1999, where it deviates and provides an alternative ending to the Final Chapter storyline. Peter's wayward daughter May is revealed to be alive and well, and is returned to both Parkers by Peter's first clone, the redeemed Kaine. Despite now being a father, Peter continues to fight crime as Spider-Man, and begins to cope with the new responsibilities brought by his baby daughter.[volume & issue needed]
Created in 1190 during the Crusades, the Suit of Sorrows was bestowed upon Batman by Talia al Ghul as a gift, and although it made him significantly stronger and faster, he was forced to stop using it when he began to believe it was somehow corrupting him and making him more violent. However, Batman was unable to bring himself to destroy the artifact and instead chose to store it on display in the Batcave.
Peter Benjamin Parker is a photographer for the Daily Bugle newspaper under Editor-in-Chief Joe Robertson. Parker is also the friendly costumed hero Spider-Man. Spider-Man possesses the abilities of Earth arachnids, allowing him to fire thread-like projectiles from his wrists. These threads may be used to spin webs of near-limitless size, as well as to capture thieves and other assorted rogues in the selfsame manner as a spider entraps traditional insects. Those who wonder about his boundless strength would be advised to listen closely, as his spectacular might is the result of radioactive energy flowing through his very veins. The aforementioned web-like materials fired from his wrists can also be used as a means of swinging to and fro, meaning that those who wish to observe the Spider-Man in action can best do so by simply looking overhead. In addition, he is known to be primarily a nocturnal adventurer, appearing in the deep of night wherever evil is afoot. His alacrity is so great, his timing so amazing, he has been compared to a flash of light. Despite his best efforts and good intentions, it seems that his attempts at justice are often overlooked, and while other heroes may find celebrity and fortune, poor Parker is constantly in one hang-up or another. Regardless, the Spider-Man soldiers on; wherever there is a fight or ruckus or tussle, the Spider-Man can be found!

Set during Peter Parker's first year with powers, the series draws from multiple sources, including the modern comics (such as the Spider-Island storyline). Early on, Peter is accepted into Horizon High, an extremely prestigious scientific school run by Max Modell. He encounters several of his future foes in the school, and battles his familiar cast of villains like the Green Goblin, the Vulture, the Jackal and Doctor Octopus. He also meets and teams up with several members of the Avengers, such as Iron Man, Hulk and Black Widow.
^ Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain. He has also been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comics books (mostly due to being introduced as the original Frightful Four[142]) along with being on the heroic side (being a Avengers member[143]) until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again.[144]
Erika Christakis was questioning that practice when she composed her email, adding nuance to a conversation that some students were already having. Traditionally, she began, Halloween is both a day of subversion for young people and a time when adults exert their control over their behavior: from bygone, overblown fears about candy spiked with poison or razorblades to a more recent aversion to the sugar in candy.

^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
If you have any questions about selecting your boys Halloween costume for 2018, whether about the sizing, fit, material or anything else, we’re here to assist you. We want your son to have his best Halloween yet. You can reach the Spirit Halloween costume experts in our Customer Service department by calling 866-586-0155 or clicking the “Help” button above. We also carry treat bags to match his costume’s theme, so he can store all his goodies when he goes trick or treating.
Silk a.k.a. Cindy Moon: In the Original Sin storyline, When Spider-Man was exposed to the energies of the Watcher's eye, he recalled the first time the spider that bit him, but not before the radioactive spider that bit him managed to bite another before it died, Cindy Moon. Cindy shows remarkable abilities that are quicker and faster than Peter's. She felt a primal connection to Peter as they show an animalistic attraction to one another, and that bond was seen in a more tender, caring way throughout the Spider-Verse series. However, Cindy seems determined to keep Peter at a distance, as though attempting to come to terms with her own identity without the input of her famous ally.
Object-oriented programming provides a clear and modular structure for creating programs. It uses abstraction to hide away implementation details so that users and fellow programmers can use the code without getting weighed down by details — all that matters is that the code takes a given input and outputs an agreed upon output. It is easy to maintain and modify existing code using the class structure. The easy adaptation of code makes object-oriented code a good way to approach making software libraries since the software can be easily manipulated to suit the needs of a given programmer. [4]

From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
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