While out web-swinging, Spider-Man sees a brilliant purple light from a distant warehouse, and investigates it to find Mysterio ranting about how he missed out on one chance to kill Spider-Man already. Although Spider-Man quickly defeats him and ties him up, when examining Mysterio's equipment, he is shot by Mysterio, causing him to fall through the rift created by the equipment. When he regains consciousness, he discovers that it is daylight. Although he interrupts a mugging, he is shocked and confused when the would-be victim informs him that, while he is grateful for the rescue, it might be disrespectful to be seen wearing Peter Parker's suit after his death. Swinging away to think about what he has just heard, Spider-Man runs into another Spider-Man on a rooftop.[3]


As in the previous game, the main characters are divided into two main, competing factions, and the New Kid is first lured into the conflict by Eric Cartman's faction - this time, the iconic Coon and Friends franchise. Over the course of story, they are forced to team up with Freedom Pals in order to save the town from a greater foe, as well as the dreaded Professor Chaos himself.
In one possible future of the Marvel Universe, Advanced Idea Mechanics has examined the Uni-Power and attempted to duplicate it. The duplicate, referred to as the 'Alias-Power' or 'Uni-Alias', has the ability to animate the Death's Head 3.0 robot. While resident in Death's Head, it took the form of a conscience. On one occasion, when asked to rescue an evil scientist from a jail, it instead rescued a human rights activist. When the robot killed a UN researcher, the power brought him back to life. The researcher then confronted the robot, forcing it to acknowledge the conscience. Afterwards, Death's Head began working for the UN as an anti-terrorist hit-man.[26]
To fight the deranged villain known as Massacre, Peter built himself a dark colored bulletproof armored costume that deflects bullets, and equipped himself with magnetic webbing that can be used to disable the radio frequencies of Massacre's charges. It is also lightweight, but needs to recharge after a certain period of usage. Peter has also incorporated the technology in improving road safety.
The cowl's Kevlar panels provide a level of protection for his head against firearms. The front of the skull and the sides of the temples also have small armor inserts to increase the effectiveness of skull strikes and protect from concussive blows. Repeated encounters with the Mad Hatter also forced Batman to shield his cowl against the villain's mind control.
When it comes to choosing a hero costume, it seems like there’s an endless number of superheroes to choose from. You could be the kind of hero who comes from another planet, or maybe one who gains their super abilities from some extraordinary set of circumstances right here on Earth. Or you could even be the kind of hero who had their mutant powers from birth. Whatever kind of hero you’d like to be, our selection of men’s superhero costumes is sure to have a choice that will suit your tastes. Check out some of these curated choices for our favorite and most popular costume selections!
Jump up ^ "Halloween Pranks Keep Police on Hop", Oregon Journal (Portland, Oregon), 1 November 1934; and "The Gangsters of Tomorrow", The Helena Independent (Helena, Montana), 2 November 1934, p. 4. The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in 1934, although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'. "Front Views and Profiles" (column), Chicago Tribune, 3 November 1934, p. 17.
The dark Skull Man manga would later get a television adaptation and underwent drastic changes. The character was redesigned to resemble a grasshopper, becoming the renowned first masked hero of the Kamen Rider series. Kamen Rider is a motorcycle riding hero in an insect-like costume, who shouts Henshin (Transform) to don his costume and gain superhuman powers.

while witnessing a radiology experiment would be bitten on his hand by a radioactive spider. He then starts to find that he has amazing powers. He realizes that he has the spider's leaping, wall-crawling, spider sense, increased endurance, and super strength. He made himself a red and blue outfit and mask and produces a web-spinning fluid enabling him to swing from the buildings above the streets of Manhattan. Peter's first enemy would be the person who had killed his Uncle Ben. Uncle Ben would be killed by a burglar, a criminal that had ran past Peter earlier at the television studio. Peter didn't really care at the time and didn't help the police. This lead to Uncle Ben's death. Angry and upset, Peter sought his Uncle's murderer and webs him. After this tragedy, Peter would become a costumed crime fighter protecting New York. Peter Parker would be voiced by Bernard Cowan, Spider-Man would be voiced by Paul Soles, Len Carlson voiced Captain Stacy, Peg Dixon voiced Betty Brant, and Paul Kligman voiced J. Jonah Jameson. This series would also be well known for its theme song. It was performed by a vocal group with lyrics written by Paul Francis Webster and quick-tempo instrumentals performed by Bob Harris, published by Buddah Music, Inc. Lyrics "Spider-Man. Spider-Man. Does whatever a spider can. Spins a web, any size. Catches thieves- just like flies. Look out! Here comes the Spider-Man! Is he strong? Listen, bud. He's got radioactive blood. Can he swing, from a thread? Take a look overhead. Hey, there! There goes the Spider-Man! In the chill of night, at the scene of a crime. Like a streak of light, he arrives just in time! Spider-Man. Spider-Man. Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man. Wealth and fame? He's ignored. Action is his reward. To him, life is a great big bang-up. Wherever there's a hang-up, you'll find the Spider-Man!"
We get it, we get it. You want to participate in the costume fun, but most Halloween costumes for men just require too much effort. If you're looking to coast on through your Halloween night, fortunately, we have a ton of quick and easy options for your party! Whether you just want to rock a funny t-shirt or a character hoodie, our quick and easy options will have you ready for the big party with minimal preparation required!
After the war, Peter remains a fugitive and his Aunt May is shot by a sniper hired by the Kingpin. Peter finds himself in a place he has never been before. He dons his black costume and goes on a rampage to find his aunt's shooter. May has fallen into a coma and is in critical condition. Eventually Peter discovers that the Kingpin is the man responsible and tracks the crime-lord to Riker's Island Prison. He savagely beats Fisk to a bloody pulp but decides to leave him with his humiliating defeat as it's worse than death for Fisk. Peter warns the other inmates to stay away from his family and tells Fisk that when May dies, Peter will come back and finish him. Since Spider-Man is a fugitive, he is unable to get proper help for May and is forced to commit felonies to try and save her, before realizing that he has finally become what he has spent his life fighting, a criminal.
Jump up ^ Bannatyne, Lesley Pratt (1 August 1998). Halloween: An American Holiday, an American History. Pelican Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 1565543467. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2012. Polish Catholics taught their children to pray out loud as they walked through the woods so that the souls of the dead could hear them and be comforted. Priests in tiny Spanish villages still ring their church bells to remind parishioners to honor the dead on All Hallows Eve.
It was a basic convention of comic books at the time of Batman's creation that black needed a highlight color (usually blue) in order to show detail and give the illusion of three-dimensionality. Over time, the initial blue highlight spread out over the previously black cape and cowl to become the dominant color. Thus artists renditions depict the costume as black and gray or blue and gray.
After escaping through the Bifröst, the Hulk crash-lands into the Sanctum Sanctorum before reverting to his alter ego Bruce Banner. After being discovered by the Sanctorum's guardian Doctor Strange and his assistant Wong, he warns them that Thanos and his forces are coming to Earth to find the remaining Infinity Stones as part of plan to use the stone's combined power in conjunction with the Infinity Gauntlet to kill half of all life in the universe. In response to Bruce's warning, Doctor Strange calls Bruce's former teammate Iron Man the Sanctorum in order to get his assistance in thwarting Thanos' plan. Shortly after Iron Man arrives, Thanos' children Maw and Obsidian arrive to retrieve the Time Stone located inside amulet around Doctor Strange's neck. The ensuing battle draws the attention of Iron Man's protégé Spider-Man who assists his mentor and Doctor Strange in fighting off the alien invaders. After subduing their target, Maw and Obsidian retreat with back to their ship where Maw attempts to remove the stone from the Eye of Agamotto, but an enchantment placed on the amulet prevents Maw from removing the Time Stone. Iron Man and Spider-Man decide to pursue Maw's spaceship to rescue their comrade while Wong stays behind to guard the Sanctorum and Bruce leaves to contact Steve Rogers for help.

In Judaism, a common practice is to dress up on Purim. During this holiday, Jews celebrate the change of their destiny. They were delivered from being the victims of an evil decree against them and were instead allowed by the King to destroy their enemies. A quote from the Book of Esther, which says: "On the contrary" (Hebrew: ונהפוך הוא‎) is the reason that wearing a costume has become customary for this holiday.
His rescue attempt caught local authorities' attention. Spider-Man tried to explain the situation to them, but they threatened to shoot him if he did not leave the monument. Despite the threats, Spider-Man ignored them and broke into the monument, barely catching the elevator and its occupants — his schoolmates and Roger Harrington — with a ricochet web.[2]
Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.
Run Forrest, run! So, you might not be ready to run across the country (and then back again) but that's no reason you can't rock the shaggy bearded look of Forrest Gump when he "just felt like running." With gym shorts and a shirt styled directly from the movie, this costume also includes an ever-popular Bubba Gump hat, along with the signature long beard and wig set. This officially licensed set is perfect for any movie buff.
Take a regular football uniform, then add fake blood and face paint and your child becomes a zombie quarterback. That is just one example from thousands of possibilities. Visit our website’s blog to find more ideas. We show you how to do it yourself as well as provide detailed steps to make it look great. Make a Halloween costume for boys with your own special touch by creating your own!
The title follows almost the entire original timeline of the character up until the first attempt at a "relaunch" by the company, 1999, where it deviates and provides an alternative ending to the Final Chapter storyline. Peter's wayward daughter May is revealed to be alive and well, and is returned to both Parkers by Peter's first clone, the redeemed Kaine. Despite now being a father, Peter continues to fight crime as Spider-Man, and begins to cope with the new responsibilities brought by his baby daughter.[volume & issue needed]
Following the disappointing response to The Amazing Spider-Man 2, it was announced that Sony would be partnering with Marvel studios to incorporate the Spider-Man franchise into the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The rebooted Spider-Man debuted in Captain America: Civil War, before being spun off into his own movie in 2017, with Peter portrayed by Tom Holland.
Not until 2000 would Spider-Man return in his own game. Spider-Man made his triumphant video game return in 2000, with not one, but two games, as a character in a fighting game and a special guest appearance that year. Spider-Man for the Game Boy Color was published by Activision and met with moderate success. Later that year Spider-Man, developed by NeverSoft, for the PlayStation was released. The game was met with critical and commercial success. The game was ported over to the Nintendo 64 the following year, but lacked the full motion cut scenes due the systems hardware. Spider-Man was also one of the playable character in the arcade game Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (which later was released on the Sega Dreamcast, Sony PlayStation 2, Xbox). In September of that year, Spider-Man made a special appearance in Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2 as a hidden character. In 2001, sequels to the successful Activision titles were released. Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro for the PlayStation and Spider-Man 2: Sinister Six for the Gameboy Color. Spider-Man made an early appearance on Nintendo's new handheld system, the Gameboy Advance with Spider-Man: Mysterio's Menace. Spider-Man was also featured as a guest character in the fighting game X-Men: Mutant Academy 2.
The following day, Peter learns from Doctor Strange that the psychic blindspot put in place to defend his secret identity has been destroyed, because of a viral video of spider-powered Peter defending people. Carlie deduces who Peter is and promptly breaks up with him for lying to her. Mary Jane admits her love for Peter, and Peter administers an antidote to her. The two look up at the Empire Stats Building, which is projecting a red and blue light, thanking Spider-Man for his heroic deeds.
Knowing that Thanos will soon be coming for the Mind Stone, the remaining Avengers alongside Black Panther and Wakanda's military forces, prepare to defend Wakanda while Black Panther's sister Shuri works to extract the Mind Stone from Vision. Finding himself unable to transform into the Hulk after his last fight with Thanos, Bruce equips himself with Iron Man's newest Hulkbuster armor, so that he might fight alongside his friends. As Thanos invasion of Wakanda begins; Thor, Rocket, and Groot arrive to reinforce the Avengers. With the help of their newly arrived allies and Wakanda's military might, the Avengers are able to route Thanos' army and kill Proxima Midnight, Cull Obsidian, and Corvus Glaive. Unfortunately, while the Avengers were preoccupied fighting Thanos' children, Thanos was able to breach Wakanda's defenses and make his way to Shuri's lab where he encounters the Scarlet Witch who stayed behind to protect the Vision. Realizing there was no way she could defeat Thanos on her own or buy Shuri enough time to finish the extraction process, Scarlet Witch attempts to destroyed the stone while it is still inside the Vision, but is incapacitated by Thanos before she can finish. With the Scarlet Witch defeated, Thanos claims his the Mind Stone killing the Vision in the process.
After Peter had his aunt returned, he decided to stop being Spider-man for good. He started living in a new apartment with his aunt May and wife Mary-Jane. All of New York was wondering where Spider-Man could have gone after his seemingly final battle with the Green Goblin. He would not even react to messages send by Peter's good friend the Human Torch. Peter had found a job at a science-center where he did good work and stayed out of the superhero life, although it turned out that was harder then it seemed. It was at this time that a seemingly new Spider-Man appeared on the scene. It turned out that this was Mattie Franklin, a participant in the Gathering of the Five, whom got the gift of Power. She acted as Spider-man and later as Spider-Woman, when Peter finally accepted that he was needed as Spider-man and returned to the life as a superhero.
Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode: This mode allows Spider-Man's hearing and optics to be enhanced. It enables both X-Ray and infrared vision to see through solid objects and locate his target. It also allows for enhanced audio reception capabilities to the point that he can eavesdrop on conversations from yards away. It also corresponds to the suit's database, allowing for data retrieval about certain individuals and their backgrounds.
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".[25]:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man, as drawn and envisioned by Kirby, was too similar to the Fly.[25]:127
The Crime Master arrives and starts destroying Octavius’ work. Spider-Man drives most of Crime Master’s gang away as Octavius gets his robotic arms on The Crime Master. He slices him apart with scalpels, desperate to save his work. Spider-Man then sets on Octavius for what he has done, crushing his robotic arms. DeWolff arrives before Spider-Man kills him and tells him to thank his girlfriend for calling them in. Spider-Man sees Robbie safe and swings to see Felicia. Her guard tells him that she does not ever want to see him again after she was hurt because of him.[8]
Follow Spider-Man’s action-packed journey, from his struggle to harness the extraordinary gifts that will prove to be both blessing and curse, to his fight to save innocent lives while the media tears him to pieces. It all leads up to his ultimate battle high above New York streets, against the death-dealing madman known as the Green Goblin. While the city watches helplessly and countless lives hang in the balance, Spider-Man confronts his archnemesis, and the Goblin puts Spider-Man’s vow to fight crime to the ultimate test...
The time between Spider-Man capturing the burglar that killed Uncle Ben and him becoming a superhero was told over 30 years after his origin when the Amazing Fantasy series was continued in 1995 by writer Kurt Busiek (#16-18, Dec. 1995 – Mar. 1996). After catching the burglar that killed Ben, Peter had given up being Spider-Man as it reminded him of his irresponsible behavior that ultimately led to his uncle’s death. Even though Maxie Shiffman, the agent he had hired when he was a costumed wrestler, was putting out ads to track down Spider-Man, Peter didn’t want anything to do with that life. Ben had been the only earner in the family and after his death Peter and his Aunt May were struggling for money. A salesman tried to con May into buying furniture that Ben had apparently left a deposit on before his death. Although the salesman had seemed genuine at the time, Peter caught Mr. Vale pulling the same stunt on an old widower when he was swinging through the city in his Spider-Man costume to clear his head. Spider-Man followed Mr. Vale to a warehouse where he discovered a whole gang of organized criminals led by The Undertaker. Spider-Man challenged the gang and soon had them rounded up for the police. Chronologically this was the first time Spider-Man had been threatened with a gun. More significantly, during the fight he discovered his Spider-Sense for the first time. Capturing these criminals lead Peter to believe that this is how he has to make up for Uncle Ben’s death, by using his powers to help others.
In addition to the suit's continuous evolution, Batman keeps variant costumes for dealing with extraordinary situations; for example, he has been shown in a Scuba variant of his costume, a fireproof version for fighting his enemy Firefly, a thermally insulated version for fighting Mr. Freeze, as well as others. Many versions of the hero show him swapping his cloth costume for a suit of powered armor.
It’s a good thing Wonder Woman is here to watch the little ones, because we’re not sure The Riddler is going to best the best guardian over the young superheroes in training. Batman, Robin , and Catwoman can team up to hit the neighborhood in search of the best treats, but while The Riddler is busy trying to vex the neighbors with tricks and riddles, Wonder Woman can provide a watchful eye over her superheroes in training. When it comes to taking the yearly photo of the group, just let each member bust out their signature moves. Batman and Robin can look like stoic Gotham City residents, even while Catwoman throws her claws up in anticipation of a brand new heist. The Riddler is sure to be laughing, but as for Wonder Woman? Well, she’s the one that holds the group together. (Be it with her motherly instincts or just by keeping the Golden Lasso of Truth handy!)
The Christian Church traditionally observed Hallowe'en through a vigil. Worshippers prepared themselves for feasting on the following All Saints' Day with prayers and fasting.[199] This church service is known as the Vigil of All Hallows or the Vigil of All Saints;[200][201] an initiative known as Night of Light seeks to further spread the Vigil of All Hallows throughout Christendom.[202][203] After the service, "suitable festivities and entertainments" often follow, as well as a visit to the graveyard or cemetery, where flowers and candles are often placed in preparation for All Hallows' Day.[204][205] In Finland, because so many people visit the cemeteries on All Hallows' Eve to light votive candles there, they "are known as valomeri, or seas of light".[206]
Jump up ^ Claremont, Chris; David,, Peter (2014). Wolverine Epic Collection: Madripoor Nights. ISBN 0785189033. Issue #309 will culimate the Mary Jane storyline. I am introducing a new duo of bad guys called Styx and Stones. Styx is a mastermind who loves death, adores death, and he's got these plans to bring death in all of its wonderful forms. Stones is his partner who actually carries out these things.
IKEA viert dit jaar zijn 75ste verjaardag. Als verjaardagscadeau boden we de Zweedse woongigant een interview in het septembernummer van ons magazine. Victoria van Keulen vertelt over hoe zij twee jaar geleden verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, waarna zij tot de schrikbarende ontdekking kwam dat het onderwerp weinig leefde. Voor haar dus het doel het thema concreet te maken en te vertalen. Hoe dat is gelukt? Dat lees je in de coverstory van dit nummer.

We all know zombies are sick. But in the case of this Zombie Sk8r Child Costume, "sick" is a good thing! They'll have more steeze than any other dude at the skate park. And he or she be just waiting for everyone else to bail. Which let’s face it, they are sure to do because, being alone at night in a skate park, with a zombie is just a bit sketchy.
At Horizons Labs, the combination of a well paying job and access to numerous tech has allowed Peter to expand on the equipment he uses. So far he has developed a Spider-Glider, Thermodynamic Foam, Cryo Pellets, voice activated web-shooters and various types of webbing, including magnetic and acidic variants. Many of the equipment have usage in day-to-day usage as well- for example the cryo pellet technology was used to help keep organs and limbs viable for longer periods of time. The Thermodynamic foam also has use in the stopping and prevention of fires.
Spider-Man Noir appears in Ultimate Spider-Man, voiced by Milo Ventimiglia. In the episode "The Spider-Verse: Part 2", after Green Goblin appears on the Noir reality to collect the DNA of that universe Spider-Man, he is confronted by both the "Noir" and the "Ultimate" Spider-Man, who had followed the Goblin to this universe. However, after rejecting an alliance proposed by his counterpart, Noir is forced to work together with him after the Green Goblin hijacks an airship to draw out Spider-Man Noir, taking a group of civilians present hostage, including Mary Jane. While the Ultimate Spider-Man is saving the hostages, Spider-Man Noir fights the Goblin on his own, but the Goblin manage to take the DNA of a distracted Spider-Man Noir and then departs. Spider-Man Noir admits to both Ultimate Spider-Man and Mary Jane that he should drop the "lone wolf" act, and as his counterpart follows the Goblin to another dimension, the two Spider-Men depart as friends. Spider-Man Noir later returns In "The Spider-Verse: Part 4", summoned by "Ultimate" Spider-Man along with other Spider-Man counterparts to form a team known as the Web-Warriors in order to combat the Green Goblin and Electro. After the villains are defeated, the Web-Warriors return to their respective dimensions. Spider-Man Noir makes a cameo in the fourth season episode "Miles from Home".

One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[21]
^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy.[140][143][144] Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[140] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[145]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself and not just only as his Goblin persona.[146]
Alain Robert, nicknamed "Spider-Man", is a rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot (95 m) Lloyd's building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies.
From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
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