One superpowered character was portrayed as an antiheroine, a rarity for its time: the Black Widow, a costumed emissary of Satan who killed evildoers in order to send them to Hell—debuted in Mystic Comics #4 (Aug. 1940), from Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Most of the other female costumed crime-fighters during this era lacked superpowers. Notable characters include The Woman in Red,[18][19] introduced in Standard Comics' Thrilling Comics #2 (March 1940); Lady Luck, debuting in the Sunday-newspaper comic-book insert The Spirit Section June 2, 1940; the comedic character Red Tornado, debuting in All-American Comics #20 (Nov 1940); Miss Fury,[20] debuting in the eponymous comic strip by female cartoonist Tarpé Mills on April 6, 1941; the Phantom Lady, introduced in Quality Comics Police Comics #1 (Aug. 1941); the Black Cat,[21][22] introduced in Harvey Comics' Pocket Comics #1 (also Aug. 1941); and the Black Canary, introduced in Flash Comics #86 (Aug. 1947) as a supporting character.[23] The most iconic comic book superheroine, who debuted during the Golden Age, is Wonder Woman.[24] Modeled from the myth of the Amazons of Greek mythology, she was created by psychologist William Moulton Marston, with help and inspiration from his wife Elizabeth and their mutual lover Olive Byrne.[25][26] Wonder Woman's first appearance was in All Star Comics #8 (Dec. 1941), published by All-American Publications, one of two companies that would merge to form DC Comics in 1944.
Turn up the fun for your son’s night of trick-or-treating with one of Spirit’s boys TV and movie Halloween costumes. These officially licensed outfits will have him looking like he stepped straight off the big or small screen as one of pop culture’s most popular characters. These costumes are some of the most coveted because everyone at school and in the neighborhood will know exactly who he’s dressed as, from The Cat in the Hat to Kylo Ren. Our children’s Godzilla inflatable costume has a tail and appropriately angry face that will delight everyone who sees it. Dress as a hero in a classic Ghostbusters jumpsuit that will have you ready to take care of any kind of pesky paranormal activity going on. Finish the look by carrying around your handy P.K.E. Meter and wearing your Ecto Goggles!
As Thanos begins to activate the completed Infinity Gaunlet, he is attacked by Thor who is able to severely wound him with his new axe Stormbreaker, but is unable to stop Thanos from activating the gauntlet despite the injuries he inflicted on Thanos. As half of all life across the universe disintegrates, including White Wolf, Black Panther, Groot, Scarlet Witch, Falcon, Mantis, Drax, Star-Lord, Doctor Strange and Spider-Man; Thanos teleports away to an unknown planet to recover from the wounds inflicted by Thor. Let stunned by their inability to stop Thanos and the deaths of their friends; The remaining heroes Iron Man, Nebula, Bruce, M'Baku, Okoye, War Machine, Rocket, Steve, Black Widow, and Thor are left on their respective battlefields of Wakanda and Titan are wondering what to do next.
“First published in 1930, Gladiator is the tale of Hugo Danner, a man endowed from birth with extraordinary strength and speed. But Danner is no altruist. He spends his life trying to cope with his abilities, becoming a sports hero in college, later a sideshow act, a war hero, never truly finding peace with himself. The character of Danner inspired both Superman’s creators, and Lester Dent’s Doc Savage. But Wylie, an editor with the New Yorker, sought to develop more than a pulp hero. His Gladiator provides surprising insights into the difficulties suffered by the truly gifted when born in our midst.”
Spider-Man Noir returns in the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse" Part 3", where he finds the "Ultimate" Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid tangle with Mr. Fixit (a Noir version of the Hulk) and his minions, Thunderbolt and A-Bombardier, who are in a gang war with the Noir version of Hammerhead. When Spider-Man Noir shows up, he doesn't want Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid to break up the gang war because since they last saw him, he lost his Mary Jane in an accident caused by Hammerhead's gang, for which he blames Mr. Fixit. Spider-Man finds the Siege Perilous fragment in the new machine gun that was provided by Hammerhead's minion Martin Li. Upon touching the Siege Perilous, Martin Li becomes the Mister Negative in order to become the new crime lord; he can transmutate anything to stone, and overthrows Hammerhead. After Mister Negative fends off Wolf Spider, Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid persuade Spider-Man Noir and Mr. Fixit to work together to help to stop Mister Negative. During the final fight, Noir Peter sacrifices himself by turning to stone after taking a blast meant for Fixit, but Fixit manages to restore everyone back to normal after taking the shard from Mr. Negative, which also restores the world to color. Noir Peter thanks Ultimate Peter and Miles before they leave and begins a partnership with Fixit. In the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse: Part 4", Noir Spider-Man is among the spider-powered individuals who had their life-force drained by Wolf Spider. He gets his life-force back upon Wolf Spider's defeat.

Español: hacer un disfraz de superhéroe, Italiano: Realizzare un Costume da Supereroe, Português: Fazer uma Fantasia de Super Herói, Français: créer un costume de super héros, 中文: 制作一套超级英雄服, Русский: сделать костюм супергероя, Deutsch: Ein Superheldenkostüm basteln, Bahasa Indonesia: Membuat Kostum Superhero, Nederlands: Een superheldenkostuum maken
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756692360. Although he made his debut in the previous issue, it was in this [Stan] Lee and [John] Romita tale [The Amazing Spider-Man #51] that the Kingpin - real name Wilson Fisk - really left his mark on organized crime.
Alain Robert, nicknamed "Spider-Man", is a rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot (95 m) Lloyd's building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies.
Spider-Man discovered the symbiote costume during the Secret Wars and it became his primary costume until he discovered that it was an alien feeding on him. With it, he had an unlimited supply of webbing, and the suit could mimic his civilian clothing. It didn't, contrary to popular belief, enhance his powers. After meeting with Mr Fantastic, he decided it must be destroyed and would later get rid of it using the sounds of a church bell. It would later bond with Eddie Brock to form the deadly villain known as Venom. The Black Cat would later give Spidey a cloth version of the black suit which he would start wearing for a time, switching between it and the red & blue costume. After the Kraven's last Hunt story and the appearance of Venom for the first time, Mary Jane urged Peter to stop wearing the costume because it reminded her of those traumatizing events. During the Back In Black story, after Aunt May was shot by a sniper, a darkness filled Spider-Man's heart like never before. He wore the black costume to show this dark side, becoming much more ruthless towards enemies (using torture for example). Peter attempted to infiltrate Stark Tower to stop Norman Osborn, he used a black costume made of unstable molecules to disguise himself as the Venom. During the Grim Hunt story, after Kraven was recovered, he presented Peter with a black costume as a calling card after the Kravinoffs killed Peter's "brother" Kaine. He once again wore this costume and became aggressive towards the villains, vowing to hunt them all down. He was about to kill Kraven with a spear until he was convinced otherwise by Arachne and Arana. The black suit represents Spider-Man's dark side.
The yearly New York Halloween Parade, begun in 1974 by puppeteer and mask maker Ralph Lee of Greenwich Village, is a large Halloween parade and one of America's only major nighttime parades (along with Portland's Starlight Parade), attracting more than 60,000 costumed participants, two million spectators, and a worldwide television audience of over 100 million.[157] The largest Halloween parade in the world takes place in Derry in Northern Ireland, which was named the "best Halloween destination in the world" having been voted number one in a USA Today readers' poll in 2015.[158]

Comics Week 33, 2017 2017 2017, October Modern-Age Spider-Men II Vol 1 T+ (13 and up) Axel Alonso/Editor-in-Chief Sara Pichelli/Cover Artist Justin Ponsor/Cover Artist Brian Michael Bendis/Writer Sara Pichelli/Penciler Sara Pichelli/Inker Elisabetta D'Amico/Inker Justin Ponsor/Colourist Cory Petit/Letterer Nick Lowe/Editor Allison Stock/Editor Kathleen Wisneski/Editor Devin Lewis/Editor Miles Morales (Earth-1610)/Quotes Miles Morales (Earth-1610)/Appearances Peter Parker (Earth-616)/Appearances Barbara Rodriguez (Earth-616)/Appearances Alias Investigations (Earth-616)/Appearances Jessica Jones (Earth-616)/Appearances Tony Masters (Earth-616)/Appearances Miles Morales (Earth-616)/Appearances Yahweh (Earth-616)/Invocations Victor von Doom (Earth-616)/Mentions New York City Police Department (Earth-616)/Appearances Stark Industries (Earth-616)/Mentions Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement and Logistics Division (Earth-616)/Mentions Judge (Earth-1610)/Mentions Luke Cage (Earth-616)/Mentions Alison Blaire (Earth-616)/Appearances Hand (Earth-616)/Appearances Jessica Drew (Earth-616)/Appearances Jonathan Powers (Earth-616)/Appearances Frederick Dukes (Earth-616)/Appearances Lunella Lafayette (Earth-616)/Appearances Devil Dinosaur (Earth-78411)/Appearances Ophelia Sarkissian (Earth-616)/Appearances Quentin Beck (Earth-616)/Mentions Sasheer (Earth-616)/Appearances Homo sapiens/Appearances Watchers/Mentions Homo superior/Appearances Human-Inhuman Hybrids/Appearances Devil Beasts/Appearances Earth-616/Appearances Earth/Appearances United States of America/Appearances New York State/Appearances New York City/Appearances Manhattan/Appearances Alias Investigations Office/Appearances Lower East Side/Appearances Brooklyn/Appearances Brooklyn Visions Academy/Appearances Midtown High School/Mentions Michigan/Minor Appearances Detroit/Minor Appearances Spider-Man's Suit/Appearances Web-Shooters/Appearances Spider-Woman's Suit/Appearances Hulk Plug-In/Minor Appearances


"If This Be My Destiny...!" (1965) "Green Goblin Reborn!" (1971) "The Six Arms Saga" (1971) "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" (1973) "Nothing Can Stop the Juggernaut!" (1982) "The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man" (1984) "Secret Wars" (1984) "Alien Costume Saga" (1984) "The Death of Jean DeWolff" (1985) "The Wedding!" (1987) "Kraven's Last Hunt" (1987) "Torment" (1990) "Invasion of the Spider-Slayers" (1992) "Maximum Carnage" (1993) "Clone Saga" (1994) "Identity Crisis" (1998) "The Gathering of Five" and "The Final Chapter" (1998) "Flowers for Rhino" (2001) "The Other" (2005) "Back in Black" (2007) "One More Day" (2007) "Brand New Day" (2008) "New Ways to Die" (2008) "Spidey Meets the President!" (2009)" "The Gauntlet" and "Grim Hunt" (2009) "One Moment in Time" (2010) "Big Time" (2010) "Spider-Island" (2011) "Ends of the Earth" (2012) "Dying Wish" (2012) "Spider-Verse" (2014) "Dead No More: The Clone Conspiracy" (2016) "Spider-Geddon" (2018)
The film was a hit at the box office, and as a result, The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was released in 2014. The film featured the return of most of the original cast, as well as new faces like Jamie Foxx as Max Dillon/Electro, Dane DeHaan as Harry Osborn/Green Goblin and Paul Giamatti as Aleksei Sytsevich/The Rhino. While the movie was a modest financial success, it was heavily panned by critics and made less at the box office than its predecessor. Despite plans for a third movie and a host of spin-offs (including a solo Venom movie, a female-led team movie featuring characters like Silver Sable, Black Cat, Spider-Gwen, Stunner and Lightbrght, and a Sinister Six movie) , the decision was made to discontinue the franchise.
furthermore, to my knowledge Superman did not at all debut in 1928 but rather in 1938. Detective Comics (the U.S.A.’s first widely distributed super-hero comic book printing house) started up with Batman in 1935, though this may have been in response to numerous small press releases of other Batman-ish books like The Phantom and other detective pulp in the couple of years previous.

Using a modified Octo-bot, Octavius successfully transfers his consciousnesses into Spider-Man, leaving him with Peter's memories and body and Peter Parker in Doctor Octopus's dying one. After leaving Peter for dead Otto begins to take on Spider-Man's life as his own. Peter eventually took control of the golden Octo-bot and using one of Doc Ock's own contingency plans had Scorpion, Hydro-Man and Trapster free himself from the S.H.I.E.L.D. prison The Raft. It was then that Peter tried to redo the body switch with Ock who had taken precautions to keep that from happening. Peter instead had Otto relive all of Peter's memories showing Dr. Octopus how much he had wasted his life. As a result of Peter's personality grafted to his own, Dr. Octopus decided to continue on as Spider-Man and make up for his past mistakes as the Superior Spider-man.
Tele’Train heeft opnieuw haar Cedeo-erkenning voor Maatwerk Bedrijfsopleidingen toegekend gekregen. Een onmisbare erkenning van onze opdrachtgevers, waar alle collega’s terecht heel trots op zijn.   Aan de hand van een diepgaand klanttevredenheidsonderzoek heeft Cedeo de maatwerktrainingen van Tele’Train beoordeeld. Met een score van 97,3% heeft Tele’Train wederom laten zien ruimschoots aan de gestelde criteria te...
In this universe, Peter's Uncle Ben does not die. Instead, he encourages Peter - otherwise known as the Amazing Spider - to create a machine that allows him to absorb the powers of counterparts from other realities, killing them in the process. Using this device, Peter becomes the most powerful person on Earth and capable of defeating the likes of Thanos. When 616 Spider-Man enters the Amazing Spider's reality, he tries to absorb Spider-Man's powers as well but is ultimately defeated when his Uncle Ben accidentally attaches the power absorbing machine to him.
Jump up ^ Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality".
The haunted house as an American cultural icon can be attributed to the opening of the Haunted Mansion in Disneyland on 12 August 1969.[179] Knott's Berry Farm began hosting its own Halloween night attraction, Knott's Scary Farm, which opened in 1973.[180] Evangelical Christians adopted a form of these attractions by opening one of the first "hell houses" in 1972.[181]
In Python, the datetime module contains examples of attributes. A datetime object has several pieces of information associated with it that a user can extract. For example, to get the day from the datetime object, a user could call datetime.day and to get the year, the user could call datetime.year and so on. The day and the year are attributes of a datetime object.
At the end of the Silver Age, Norman Osborn's memories began to flood back. He decided to hurt Peter as much as possible as the Green Goblin. He kidnapped Gwen Stacy and held her hostage at the Brooklyn Bridge. Spider-Man went to save Gwen and, despite being ill at the time, managed to defeat the Goblin. The Goblin threw Gwen off the bridge and, although Peter caught her by attaching a web line to her leg as she fell, the drop caused her neck to snap. As Spider-Man held Gwen's dead body, he vowed to kill the Goblin. He tracked him down to one of his warehouses. He brutally pummeled the Goblin in a fit of rage but managed to stop himself from committing murder. In one last attempt to achieve victory, Norman sent his Goblin Glider to impale Spider-Man from behind. Peter ducks and the Goblin is apparently killed from being impaled by his own glider. Mary Jane consoled Peter on the death of Gwen and the two started to date. Peter eventually proposed to her, but she refused and ended up breaking up with him. At this time Miles Warren, a college professor obsessed with Gwen became the deranged villain known as the Jackal. He hired the Punisher to kill Spider-Man and he also made copies of both Gwen and Peter. The Peter copy escaped and Gwen's copy eventually went back to Miles. Harry Osborn followed in the footsteps of his father and became the next Green Goblin. He blamed Peter for his father's death. Harry later lost his memory after a fight with Spider-Man. Harry's psychologist, Bart Hamilton attempted to take up the mantle of the Goblin himself but was killed by his own bomb while fighting Peter.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.
Spider-Man versus his most implacable enemy! Norman Osborn is a respected businessman, the owner of several companies, including the New York Daily Bugle. He is also secretly the super-villain known as the Green Goblin--a foe who has turned Spider-Man's life upside down more than once, and one who knows that Spider-Man is really Peter Parker! Osborn's latest scheme is his most ambitious yet: to make himself mayor of New York. But where many see that as a laudable goal, Spider-Man knows that Osborn's goal is nothing less than absolute power. Spider-Man can defeat the Green Goblin, but Osborn refuses to act himself, preferring to remain above the fray and let the mercenaries known as the Rat Pack do his dirty work. The wall-crawler must find a way to stop Osborn's machinations before it's too late!
Unseen scientist Mister Fantastic constructed large, transforming battle armour for various superhumans; Spider-Man received two, one based on each of his costumes, both of which could transform into a high-speed motorcycle. It is likely Richards gained the idea from Spider-Man, as it is inconceivable the encounter with the Transformers wouldn't have a lasting impact on the vigilante.[1]
In 1962, Stan Lee and Steve Ditko took to creating a story for what would be the final issue of a soon to be cancelled comic, and in it they created one of the biggest pop culture juggernauts ever: Spider-Man. That classic look has stayed with the character throughout his 50+ years of consistent publication, and as iconic as it may be there have been some alterations to the Spider-Man costumes over the years.
In Python, the datetime module contains examples of attributes. A datetime object has several pieces of information associated with it that a user can extract. For example, to get the day from the datetime object, a user could call datetime.day and to get the year, the user could call datetime.year and so on. The day and the year are attributes of a datetime object.
The true identity of this Captain Universe was never revealed but the host had more than likely had the Uni-Power for several years. During the battle that ensued between the Law Enforcement Squad and the Fantastic Four; Captain Universe and Dr. Druid ganged up on Reed Richards in order to destabilize the Fantastic Four's cohesion as a team. With only seconds to spare, Reed convinces Captain Universe that something is out of place and that the Fantastic Four are not his enemies. Captain Universe reveals to Druid that Reed is telling the truth, but before he can convince the others to stop fighting, he is struck down by Nova.

Peter Benjamin Parker is a photographer for the Daily Bugle newspaper under Editor-in-Chief Joe Robertson. Parker is also the friendly costumed hero Spider-Man. Spider-Man possesses the abilities of Earth arachnids, allowing him to fire thread-like projectiles from his wrists. These threads may be used to spin webs of near-limitless size, as well as to capture thieves and other assorted rogues in the selfsame manner as a spider entraps traditional insects. Those who wonder about his boundless strength would be advised to listen closely, as his spectacular might is the result of radioactive energy flowing through his very veins. The aforementioned web-like materials fired from his wrists can also be used as a means of swinging to and fro, meaning that those who wish to observe the Spider-Man in action can best do so by simply looking overhead. In addition, he is known to be primarily a nocturnal adventurer, appearing in the deep of night wherever evil is afoot. His alacrity is so great, his timing so amazing, he has been compared to a flash of light. Despite his best efforts and good intentions, it seems that his attempts at justice are often overlooked, and while other heroes may find celebrity and fortune, poor Parker is constantly in one hang-up or another. Regardless, the Spider-Man soldiers on; wherever there is a fight or ruckus or tussle, the Spider-Man can be found!
After Peter had his aunt returned, he decided to stop being Spider-man for good. He started living in a new apartment with his aunt May and wife Mary-Jane. All of New York was wondering where Spider-Man could have gone after his seemingly final battle with the Green Goblin. He would not even react to messages send by Peter's good friend the Human Torch. Peter had found a job at a science-center where he did good work and stayed out of the superhero life, although it turned out that was harder then it seemed. It was at this time that a seemingly new Spider-Man appeared on the scene. It turned out that this was Mattie Franklin, a participant in the Gathering of the Five, whom got the gift of Power. She acted as Spider-man and later as Spider-Woman, when Peter finally accepted that he was needed as Spider-man and returned to the life as a superhero.
In 2005, after a four-year break from comic appearances, Captain Universe returned in the second series of Amazing Fantasy.[2] Also in 2005, a series of one-shot specials linked together by the Uni-Power/Captain Universe were released featuring different characters from the Marvel Universe as the Uni-Power each imbues them with power of Captain Universe. These titles were Captain Universe/Hulk, Captain Universe/Daredevil, Captain Universe/X-23, Captain Universe/Invisible Woman and Captain Universe/Silver Surfer. The Uni-Power made a brief appearance in Nextwave, he also made a "cameo" as Cosmic Spider-Man for the variant cover of Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #3 and played an important part in the Death's Head 3.0 saga chronicled in Amazing Fantasy.
In issue #121 (June 1973),[49] the Green Goblin throws Gwen Stacy from a tower of either the Brooklyn Bridge (as depicted in the art) or the George Washington Bridge (as given in the text).[58][59] She dies during Spider-Man's rescue attempt; a note on the letters page of issue #125 states: "It saddens us to say that the whiplash effect she underwent when Spidey's webbing stopped her so suddenly was, in fact, what killed her."[60] The following issue, the Goblin appears to kill himself accidentally in the ensuing battle with Spider-Man.[61]
Fright Fest Fright Nights HalloWeekends Halloween Haunt California's Great America Canada's Wonderland Dorney Park Kings Dominion Kings Island Halloween Horror Nights Halloween Spooktacular Howl-O-Scream Busch Gardens Tampa Bay Busch Gardens Williamsburg SeaWorld San Antonio Knott's Scary Farm Mickey's Halloween Party Halloween Screams Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party SCarowinds ValleyScare
Our boys TV character costumes have something for kids of all ages, from the youngest up through teens. Younger fans of Toy Story will love dressing up as Woody, complete with his colorful jumpsuit along with boot covers, hat and bandana, so he’ll totally look the part. This totally authentic-looking attire will have your teen boy looking like Rick and Morty or Dustin Henderson from Stranger Things, among other beloved favorites. From Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles to Pirates of the Caribbean, Lego, Avengers and many more, your son can make a big splash with a 2018 TV or movie Halloween costume that will make him look and feel like a star.
In The Creation of Spider-Man, comic book writer-editor and historian Paul Kupperberg calls the character's superpowers "nothing too original"; what was original was that outside his secret identity, he was a "nerdy high school student".[157]:5 Going against typical superhero fare, Spider-Man included "heavy doses of soap-opera and elements of melodrama". Kupperberg feels that Lee and Ditko had created something new in the world of comics: "the flawed superhero with everyday problems". This idea spawned a "comics revolution".[157]:6 The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them.[158] Spider-Man has become one of the most recognizable fictional characters in the world, and has been used to sell toys, games, cereal, candy, soap, and many other products.[159]
These are Batman's signature shuriken cut in the shape of his symbol. There is the standard larger version that can folded in half, but it seems these were almost never used. The small variants were used to shatter lightbulbs and windows early in his crusade. Later this seemed to evolve into an even smaller tranquilizer dart similar in shape and material.
Molecular Structure: One power Spidercide has that Spider-Man doesn't is complete control over his body on a molecular level. For example, he can extend his limbs or his body itself in a somewhat similar way to Mister Fantastic. He can shapeshift his form & appearance. He can also control the density of his bodily tissues, making him much more resistant to all forms of physical injury than he normally is enabling him to withstand even greater impact forces, falls from great heights, and high caliber bullets. He has also been known to transform his fists into various objects, turn himself partially or fully into liquid, & to simulate the type of artificial webbing that Spider-Man once used. Among other things.
Samhain/Calan Gaeaf marked the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year.[43][44] Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí (/iːsˈʃiː/ eess-SHEE), the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more easily come into this world and were particularly active.[45][46] Most scholars see the Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods [...] whose power remained active in the people's minds even after they had been officially replaced by later religious beliefs".[47] The Aos Sí were both respected and feared, with individuals often invoking the protection of God when approaching their dwellings.[48][49] At Samhain, it was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí.[50][51][52] The souls of the dead were also said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality.[53] Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them.[54] The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world.[55] In 19th century Ireland, "candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. After this the eating, drinking, and games would begin".[56]
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