However, Parker still existed within Doctor Octopus's mind in the memories that he absorbed. The consciousness intent on stopping the villain and reclaiming his life, tries to influence Octavius, but fails to do so in any more than the slightest of ways. Parker's remnant also inadvertently causes Otto to share Peter's genuine love for Mary Jane Watson, and so pushes her away for her own safety. After Otto used a brain scanner to treat a young girl's brain injury, he decided to use the device on himself to discover Parker's presence within his mind. A mental battle ensues between himself and Parker, which Otto seemingly wins, erasing Peter's memories.

In the animated show The Batman (2004–2008), the Batsuit resembles the Batman: The Animated Series suit, but has shorter ears on the cowl, has claws on the fingertips of the gloves, a slightly redesigned bat symbol with the yellow ellipse on his chest, a more high-tech computerized utility belt linking to the Batcave's computer system called the "Batwave," and a longer cape that, just like the Batman: TAS costume, sometimes behaves like a cloak, draped over the Batman's body. In the episode "Fleurs Du Mal," shown that the suit is linked to the Batwave, to monitor his physical and mental activities. Despite this regular default Batsuit, Batman uses some other variations of the Batsuit as well in the series to tackle certain situations and villains.
Jump up ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. 1999. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve, holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date.
It begins with an orphan named Peter Parker, raised by his beloved Aunt May and Uncle Ben in Queens, New York. A quiet student, he works diligently at his studies and pines for the beautiful Mary Jane Watson. But this ordinary teenage boy is about to have his life turned upside down, when he is bitten by a genetically altered spider. Suddenly, he finds himself possessed of spectacular powers. He is now and forever Spider-Man!
Rocking out a thundering DIY Thor costume you crafted at home is a weekend job. According to Marvel, Thor is the God of lightning and thunder as well as one of the Asgard Lords. A Thor costume must have a red cape (make use of your curtains), a black or silver undershirt, a bulky belt, and boots. Thor’s mighty hammer, known as the Mjölnir, is a must. One of the superpowers he possesses is an ability to produce infinite magical power called Odinforce. No wonder why Thor almost broke Captain America’s shield by throwing the Mjölnir at him. Anyway, you can create a Mjölnir easily out of cardboard. Here’s a quick video on how you can do it.
Both major publishers began introducing new superheroines with a more distinct feminist theme as part of their origin stories or character development. Examples include Big Barda, Power Girl, and the Huntress by DC comics; and from Marvel, the second Black Widow, Shanna the She-Devil, and The Cat.[32] Female supporting characters who were successful professionals or hold positions of authority in their own right also debuted in the pages of several popular superhero titles from the late 1950s onward: Hal Jordan's love interest Carol Ferris was introduced as the Vice-President of Ferris Aircraft and later took over the company from her father; Medusa, who was first introduced in the Fantastic Four series, is a member of the Inhuman Royal Family and a prominent statesperson within her people's quasi-feudal society; and Carol Danvers, a decorated officer in the United States Air Force who would become a costumed superhero herself years later.
Since the school's decathlon team were heading to Washington, D.C. for the national tournament, Parker rejoined the team. Once the decathlon team arrived, Parker prepared to pursue the Vulture's gang once more. While removing the tracker from his suit, Leeds learned that the Training Wheels Protocol monitored his suit. Eager to prove himself to Tony Stark, Parker convinced Leeds to disable the protocol before pursuing the criminals.
Anna Maria Marconi: Girlfriend of Peter when he was possessed by Dr. Octopus. Anna Maria met Peter as a student at Empire State University. The two hit it off and started dating. They started living together, and the relationship got so serious that Anna Maria found an engagement ring hidden in their apartment. After Peter regained control of himself, Anna became his friend.
On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin, drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest.[123]
During the Character Creation process, a "difficulty slider" allows the player to adjust their skin color, with white, Caucasian skin being 'easy' and dark black skin being 'very hard', though the Coon reminds the player, "this doesn't affect combat, just about every other aspect of your whole life." The slider was nonetheless picked up in many news outlets as genuine, with many subsequently expressing displeasure that its effects in the final game are relatively small.
Joey Esposito of IGN, who gave the first issue an 8.5 out of 10, praised the creative team, singling out the strong thematic elements set up by Bendis, and the graceful line work, cityscapes, action and comedic timing of Pichelli's art. Esposito also complimented Cory Petit's lettering, comparing his use of different fonts when Spider-Man arrives in the Ultimate Universe to the use of color that characterizes Dorothy's arrival in Oz in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.[12] James Hunt of Comic Book Resources, who gave the issue four and a half out of five stars, called it "one of the most momentous Spider-Man stories to be published in years", praising the issue's pace and tone, and Pichelli's art.[13]

But in the mid-1990s, many thought that the trunks were a quaint design flaw that didn’t belong in modern-day superhero costumes. In the storyline “Troika," Batman experimented with his look and made a new batsuit. The blue was replaced by black and coal gray colors. The bodysuit was now all one piece, with no visible division between boots and gloves, spikes were added to the boots in a style similar to the gloves and the shorts were completely gone.
Spider-Queen has now evolved into a massive, spider-like monster, drawing strength from all infected New Yorkers. Mary Jane realizes that, because of her long relationship to Peter, she has some immunity against the disease, gaining spider-powers but not the subsequent mutations. Peter gives Kaine the Stealth Suit (immune to the Queen's sonic attacks) and Kaine goes to attack the Queen. Peter and Mary Jane gather several octobots, outfitting each with several doses of the cure, making them go out to cure people. Peter then connects with the antennae on top of the Empire State Building, curing many people at once, while Mary Jane fights off the spider-like creatures attacking them. Kaine jumps inside the Queen's mouth, killing her by reflecting her sonic scream on her insides. The Jackal uses a disguise to get samples of the Queen's bone marrow for future experiments.
During the Abraxas Saga,[28][29] a team of Avengers-esque super heroes called the Law Enforcement Squad appeared in Earth-616. They were headed by an intelligent version of the Hulk who was not Bruce Banner. Joining this strange version of the behemoth were the World War II-era heroes Red Raven, Bucky, Namora and The Whizzer (Bob Frank). Other members included a heroic version of the Spider-Man villain The Rose, Doctor Druid, Living Lightning, the Shroud and a male Captain Universe.[volume & issue needed] (The membership of the Law Enforcement Squad paralleled the membership of DC Comics' Justice Society of America.[original research?] Captain Universe was the equivalent of DC's Starman.[original research?])
Spider-Men is a five-issue, 2012 superhero comic book miniseries published by Marvel Comics, featuring Peter Parker, the original Spider-Man, and Miles Morales, the second and current Ultimate Marvel version of Spider-Man, who appear together in a crossover storyline that involves the two alternate universes from which they each originate. The series is written by Brian Michael Bendis and illustrated by Sara Pichelli.[1][2] It marks the first time that characters from the original Marvel Universe and the Ultimate Universe have crossed over since the latter debuted in 2000.

The United Kingdom based Panini Comics publication Spectacular Spider-Man Adventures was loosely based on the continuity of the 1990s animated series.[24] In the series Peter Parker deals with the day-to-day headaches of balancing a social life with his super-heroics. He has a close circle of friends such as Liz Allen, Harry Osborn, and Flash Thompson, and he is involved in a relationship with Mary Jane. However, in this continuity, Mary Jane does not possess an existing knowledge of his dual identity, and thus Peter finds juggling his life with her and his crime-fighting career difficult. Despite this, Mary Jane loyally supports Peter, believing it is his dangerous job as a photographer that keeps him away from dates and other activities. A look into the future reveals Peter and MJ ultimately get married in this continuity, and have a daughter, May, who is active as Spider-Girl. At some point in this future, Peter loses his leg, which forces him to retire as Spider-Man.[25]

In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first Spider-Man game for the Atari 2600 titled Spider-Man. The game involves climbing a sky scraper, rescuing hostages and defusing bombs set by the Green Goblin. The 1990's saw a flood of Spider-Man Video Games. The first game of the decade released was The Amazing Spider-Man, a puzzle action game released for Amiga, PC:DOS, Commodore 64, and Atari ST. Another game, also titled The Amazing Spider-Man was released in 1990 for the Game Boy. The Game Boy titles spawned two sequels: The Amazing Spider-Man 2 and The Amazing Spider-Man 3: Invasion of the Spider-Slayers.

^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy.[140][143][144] Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[140] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[145]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself and not just only as his Goblin persona.[146]

Jump up ^ The Paulist Liturgy Planning Guide. Paulist Press. 2006. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Rather than compete, liturgy planners would do well to consider ways of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses. For example, children might be encouraged to wear Halloween costumes representing their patron saint or their favorite saint, clearly adding a new level of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the celebration of All Saints' Day.


^ Jump up to: a b c Cowsill, Alan; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1990s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 197. ISBN 978-0756692360. Artist Mark Bagley's era of The Amazing Spider-Man hit its stride as Carnage revealed the true face of his evil. Carnage was a symbiotic offspring produced when Venom bonded to psychopath Cletus Kasady."


The Big Time story arc mainly deals with Peter's luck getting better after going through much turmoil. As Spider-Man, Peter has become a much more respected member of the Super-Hero community. Additionally, thanks to Marla Jameson, Peter has become a think tank scientist at Horizon Labs under the employ of known scientist Max Modell. Roderick Kingsley is murdered by a crazed Phil Urich who takes up the mantle of the Hobgoblin. He takes on the mission Kingpin initially assigned to Kingsley, which involved stealing a metal called reverbium from Horizon Labs. On Peter's first day at Horizon Labs, the lab is attacked by the new Hobgoblin who is using new weapons. After a fight with Spider-Man, Phil steals the reverbium and delivers it to Kingpin who allows Phil to work for him. Spider-Man designs himself a new Stealth Suit (Which has the ability to turn invisible.) to overcome Phil's Goblin Laugh which incapacitated him in their previous encounter. Along with the Black Cat, he attempts to take down Kingpin and Hobgoblin and steal back the reverbium. At Fisk Towers, Spider-Man and the Black Cat fight the Hobgoblin, Kingpin and his Hand Ninjas. The reverbium is destroyed along with Fisk Towers, and Hobgoblin and Kingpin escape. But despite everything, Peter is now living a life with his dignity intact. He now has a new girlfriend, a new apartment and a proud Aunt May and Jay Sr. Part 2 Alistair Smythe and his Spider-Slayers are back and taking aim at Mayor J. Jonah Jameson and his astronaut son John once again. Smythe returns Mac Gargan to his Scorpion identity and attacks the launch site where John is flying the Vertex shuttle into orbit which will meet up with a Horizon Labs space station. Spider-Man appears and web lines to a shuttle that just took off. Smythe has locked down the controls and rigged its booster rockets to explode before it leaves the atmosphere. To make matters worse, the evolved Scorpion appears to kill Spider-Man. But with secret help from Otto Octavius Spider-Man saves John. He gets help from the New Avengers in defending Jonah but Smythe sends his Insect Army after Jonah's loved ones. But Spidey and his friends cannot hurt the Insect Army, they can barely even touch them, as Smythe gave them their own spider-sense. Peter with the help from Max Modell creates the spider-sense disruptor. He is given the detonator and must be far from the center of the "explosion" or his sense might be also caught in in. But during the second fight against the Scorpion, Scorpion destroys the detonator, and Spider-Man must do it manually. And when he detonates it he is caught in the epicenter. The Insect Army has lost the spider-sense, but so has Spider-Man. After Spider-Man defeats the Scorpion, he goes to check on the others but Smythe suddenly appears and Spider-Man had not seen it coming due to not having spider-sense, but Marla Jameson did. She jumps right in front of Jonah, and saves him but scarifies her own life in the process. Spider-Man then defeats Smythe and for the first time, Jonah refuses to blame Spider-Man and blames himself instead.
Peter becomes desperate to save May. He makes a deal with Mephisto who offers to save his aunt and restore the secrecy of his identity in exchange for erasing Peter's marriage to MJ. Mephisto gives the couple One More Day to decide (hence the title of the story) and Peter reluctantly agrees. He then wakes up in the house of May who is alive and well with no recollection of the deal. This marks the beginning of the Brand New Day era, in which Harry Osborn is alive and Spider-Man meets new friends and foes. He fights new villains including Mister Negative, Screwball, the Spider-Mugger, Menace who is the girlfriend of Harry, Kraven's daughter Ana Kravinoff in the story Kraven's First Hunt, the New Vulture in 24/7, teams-up with Anti-Venom to fight Norman Osborn's Thunderbolts in New Ways to Die and is accused of murder during the Character Assassination story. When the Secret Invasion took place, Spider-Man helped his fellow heroes in fighting off the invading Skrulls.
He has other options when it comes to which type of scary clown he’ll be dressing up as, including Twisty the Clown from American Horror Story. One of our most popular is Carver the Clown. With his gruesome mask and bright red hair, he looks just bloodcurdling enough that he could indeed live up to his name. If your son is the type who likes to jump out from behind doors and yell “Boo,” he’ll be thrilled with all the possibilities for causing hair-raising shrieks when he wears one of our boys scary clown costumes.
A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero or Super) is a type of heroic stock character, usually possessing supernatural or superhuman powers, who is dedicated to fighting the evil of their universe, protecting the public, and usually battling supervillains. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine (also rendered super-heroine or super heroine), although the word superhero is commonly used for females also. Superhero fiction is the genre of fiction that is centered on such characters, especially in American comic book and films since the 1930s.
An issue of What If? asks the question "What If Spider-Man Had Kept His Cosmic Powers?" Spider-Man becomes corrupted by power when the Captain Universe energies decide to stay with him. He ends up battling his Avengers friends when they don't agree with his methods. A confrontation with a rogue Doombot leaves an innocent hostage dead. Peter manages to give up the entirety of his powers, including his spider-ones. Later, Peter's child manifests a combination of Captain Universe and Spider-Man powers.
Digitale transformatie is een vaak voorkomend en veelomvattend begrip. Gelukkig weten wij hier wel raad mee. In een interview met CustomerFirst vertellen onze collega’s, Yvonne de Keijzer en Femke Oosterlinck, wat digitale transformatie voor ons in de praktijk betekent. Co-creatie en de combinatie mensen en technologie zijn bepalend om de ultieme klantrelatie- en beleving te...
The first Halloween haunted house run by a nonprofit organization was produced in 1970 by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in Clifton, Ohio. It was cosponsored by WSAI, an AM radio station broadcasting out of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was last produced in 1982.[182] Other Jaycees followed suit with their own versions after the success of the Ohio house. The March of Dimes copyrighted a "Mini haunted house for the March of Dimes" in 1976 and began fundraising through their local chapters by conducting haunted houses soon after. Although they apparently quit supporting this type of event nationally sometime in the 1980s, some March of Dimes haunted houses have persisted until today.[183]
The Post-Crisis version of the bodysuit is not constructed from simple fabric but from Kevlar thread and carbon nanotube fibers. This imparts it with a unique sheen and makes it heavily resistant to tearing. In addition, the suit also is constructed with a full body electric shock delivery system, which is also layered into the suit's fabric. The basic version of the Batsuit is insulated against electricity and is mildly fire resistant. Batman utilizes many different body armor designs, some of which are constructed into his Batsuits, and others which are separate. In its most basic version, the suit is bulletproof around the upper torso and back and can withstand a point-blank range blast from a 12-gauge shotgun. Other versions are entirely bulletproof to small arms fire and have advanced flexible armor plating made from Carbon composites and lightweight metal polymers.
While battling the first Zebra-Man, Bruce Wayne was accidentally irradiated by the same energy that had irradiated Jake Baker. Without an inhibitor belt, Bruce's diamagnetism powers were out of control, causing Robin to go on without him. Batman soon took advantage of the diamagnetism, however, and used it to attract Zebra-Man to him and attract both of them to Gotham City Police Department.
When Classi reaches the back door of Buca de Faggoncini to hide, a mobster kills Captain Diabetes, who is only revived by a sudden "glitch" in time initiated by the New Kid. Calling in backup, they are joined by their allies in fighting the chefs of the restaurant, soon discovering a room full of cats in cat carriers and another group of mobsters, who are only taken out by Red Wine Drunk Randy Marsh, desperately looking for his keys. As Randy is defeated, Coon and Friends manages to capture Classi.
Cartman's reference to not introducing solo films for "the black superhero" or "the chick", in "phase three", is a reference to the upcoming release of the 2018 film Black Panther by Marvel Studios, the first solo film about the titular black superhero, and the later 2019 release of Captain Marvel by the same studio, which will be Marvel Studios' first solo film with a female superheroine. They are considered part of Marvel's own third phase of films.
Jump up ^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 99. ISBN 9783825888893. On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes. Halloween – like the medieval danse macabre – is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
When Marvel approached Hasbro about the prospect of including Spider-Man in the third issue of the Generation 1 comic book, they initially turned the idea down, since Spider-Man was currently licensed to rival toy company Mattel for the Secret Wars toyline. Marvel convinced them to permit the appearance by putting Spidey in his black costume, whereas the Secret Wars toy was clad in his traditional red and blue, and therefore wouldn't be "advertised" by the comic.[4] This meant adding a footnote to the story explaining that it took place prior to the recent issue of Spidey's own title in which he ditched the black threads upon finding out they were a symbiote.
Reconnaissance Drone: In addition to altering the suit's size, the spider emblem on his chest is capable of detaching from its socket, utilizing a miniature propulsion engine from its tail section that allows it to fly through the air independent of Spider-Man's control. It has a tracker mode which allows it to fly onto a target and relay its position to the Spider-Man Suit, allowing Parker to follow targets through the interface of his Web-Shooters.
In the ongoing series Ultimate Comics: Avengers, a second Spider-Man was shown to be one of its members, and is simply referred to as the Spider. His costume bears an orange-and-purple color as opposed to red-and-blue. The Spider once claimed that he was a clone made from the DNA of Spider-Man and Professor X that was sent from the future. In the "Death of Spider-Man" story arc "Avengers vs. New Ultimates", he is revealed to be North Asian and acting under the orders of Gregory Stark. He led a superhuman uprising in North Korea.[43] During the events of said uprising, The Spider was killed by Hawkeye after the Avengers and the New Ultimates intervened.[volume & issue needed]

The word 'superhero' dates to at least 1917.[6] Antecedents of the archetype include such folkloric heroes as Robin Hood, who adventured in distinctive clothing.[7] The 1903 play The Scarlet Pimpernel and its spinoffs popularized the idea of a masked avenger and the superhero trope of a secret identity.[7] Shortly afterward, masked and costumed pulp fiction characters such as Jimmie Dale/the Gray Seal (1914), Zorro (1919), The Shadow (1930) and comic strip heroes, such as the Phantom (1936) began appearing, as did non-costumed characters with super strength, including Patoruzú (1928), the comic-strip character Popeye (1929) and novelist Philip Wylie's character Hugo Danner (1930).[8]


On top of his spider-given powers Peter is of genius level intelligence. It has even been stated that Peter scored as high on some of the same testing scores as Reed Richards did when he was Peter's age. He is especially gifted in the sciences such as mechanics, biology and physics. This has become particularly apparent during his time working at Horizon Labs, where he was able to create a device to drain Alpha of his powers in less than 24 hours.
During the Character Creation process, a "difficulty slider" allows the player to adjust their skin color, with white, Caucasian skin being 'easy' and dark black skin being 'very hard', though the Coon reminds the player, "this doesn't affect combat, just about every other aspect of your whole life." The slider was nonetheless picked up in many news outlets as genuine, with many subsequently expressing displeasure that its effects in the final game are relatively small.
One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[21]
“First published in 1930, Gladiator is the tale of Hugo Danner, a man endowed from birth with extraordinary strength and speed. But Danner is no altruist. He spends his life trying to cope with his abilities, becoming a sports hero in college, later a sideshow act, a war hero, never truly finding peace with himself. The character of Danner inspired both Superman’s creators, and Lester Dent’s Doc Savage. But Wylie, an editor with the New Yorker, sought to develop more than a pulp hero. His Gladiator provides surprising insights into the difficulties suffered by the truly gifted when born in our midst.”
Sarah (last name unrevealed): Gwen's daughter by Norman Osborn. Norman convinced Sarah and her brother, Gabriel, that Peter Parker was their father and had killed their mother. Sarah becomes suspicious after she meets Spider-Man however. She is convinced of the truth when Spider-Man saves her life by giving her a blood transfusion after she is shot by police. Spider-Man later learns that the pain caused by her accelerated aging has led her to abuse painkillers, and her addiction has gotten her in trouble with the French authorities. However, she promises to seek help, and perhaps someday become a hero herself. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #509.
After Peter was separated from the symbiote by Mr. Fantastic, he was left without a costume and as part of a practical joke; the Human Torch gave him an old Fantastic Four costume with a paper bag for his head, dubbing him the Bombastic Bag-Man. When he was accused of murder, Spidey would use this moniker on another occasion to prevent others from identifying him but this time he only wore a Paper-Bag mask while only wearing orange pants.

Jump up ^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780252029318. Retrieved 14 December 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival. Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.
Jump up ^ Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (13 April 2011). Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. p. 17. ISBN 9780811744300. All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land. Church bells were run and fires lit to guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk. Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth. Although a rare few continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for engaging in such activities. These may seem like innocent fun today, but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages.
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[92][93] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today.[94] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[95] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips".[96] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead.[97] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.[98][99] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights".[100][101][102] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[103] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee; their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things."[104] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties.[96][105][93][106]
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