^ Jump up to: a b The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Service for All Hallows' Eve: This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.
Thinking about spooky Halloween classics? From creepy clowns to dapper skeletons to vampire hosts—it'll be a monster mash when you take a look at the 2018 Halloween Costumes we have to offer. Become a stalwart warrior king ready to fight ferocious dragons, a brave member of the armed forces, or a famous video game character from tons of different eras. It's also simple to get a great costume based off of recent and classic movies and television shows like Elf, the Addams Family, Dr. Seuss, and the Wizard of Oz. It's all right here.

Doc Ock knows that he is soon going to die. Before his death, he wants to be remembered as the man who saved the world by stopping the Greenhouse effect. Spider-man doesn't believe Octavius, however, so he gathers the Avengers in order to discover Ock's true plan and put a stop to it. Unknown to Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus was well prepared for the fight and the Sinister Six subdue the Avengers. Doc Ock is about to kill Spider-Man, but Silver Sable comes to the rescue. She saves Peter and the Black Widow, and they set off to Octavius' manufacturing plants. There they encounter the Sandman, but they manage to beat him. Doc Ock asked the nations to capture Spider-Man (his position enabled him to do so) and he also called on many villains to take down Spider-Man. Parker knows that he can't stop Otto alone, so he asks other heroes to destroys Ock's facilities. When Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Silver Sable reach the main base in Romania, Doctor Octopus activates his satellites and every area that faces the sun explodes. It later turns out that this was only an illusion created by Mysterio, rather than reality. Spider-Man captures Mysterio and finds out that Doc Ock is hiding in Guatemala, but after Pete, Silver, and Natasha arrive at the site they're attacked by a group of mind controlled Avengers. Spider-Man, Black Widow, and Silver Sable gain an edge because the mind controlled Avengers are unable to fight as well as they would normally, and the Avengers are able to return to their senses thanks to Mysterio's technology. Black Widow was knocked out during the fight, however. Doctor Octopus launched several missiles so the Red Hulk, Iron Man, and Thor try to put an end to it. Mysterio reveals that Octavius' base is underwater, so Spider-Man and Sable resolve to put an end to Otto's plot once and for all. They unfortunately meet Rhino on their way, and he catches Sable and begins choking her in the water. With her final breath, Silver tells Peter to leave her and stop Otto. Spider-man is desperate to help her, but he knows that he's running out of time and is left with no choice. Spider-Man finally finds and battles Octavius, but he is eventually caught in the Doc's metal tentacles. With Parker trapped, Octavius reveals that his plan is to scar the earth, to be worse than Hitler and the other monsters, and in that way be remembered. Octopus removes his armor in order to activate his master plan, but Spider-Man tells Doc Ock that he had made an error in allowing himself to be distracted just long enough for Peter to break free. Spider-Man saves both Doctor Octopus and the world, but at the cost of Silver Sable's life.
It begins with an orphan named Peter Parker, raised by his beloved Aunt May and Uncle Ben in Queens, New York. A quiet student, he works diligently at his studies and pines for the beautiful Mary Jane Watson. But this ordinary teenage boy is about to have his life turned upside down, when he is bitten by a genetically altered spider. Suddenly, he finds himself possessed of spectacular powers. He is now and forever Spider-Man!

A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume (also ethnic dress, ethnic wear, ethnic clothing, traditional ethnic wear or traditional ethnic garment). Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear.


But in the mid-1990s, many thought that the trunks were a quaint design flaw that didn’t belong in modern-day superhero costumes. In the storyline “Troika," Batman experimented with his look and made a new batsuit. The blue was replaced by black and coal gray colors. The bodysuit was now all one piece, with no visible division between boots and gloves, spikes were added to the boots in a style similar to the gloves and the shorts were completely gone.

The Dude. His Dudeness. El Duderino if you're not into the whole brevity thing. Whatever you want to call him, well, now you can be him when you go in one of our authentic The Big Lebowski costumes for men! Officially licensed by Paramount Pictures, we have exclusive designs that you're only going to find right here at HalloweenCostumes.com. A classic men's Halloween choice, when you go in this bathrobe costume, you're sure to feel like a much laid back individual. Just make sure you know how to whip up a killer White Russian!

 B-ankh! · Wrap Battler · Futankhamun ·  Idiot Box · Infernal Impaler · Steel Pipes · Shoestring Budget ·  Blazing Bull · Fallen Angel · Tail From the Crypt · Apparition's Aspect · Last Breath · Hair of the Dog · Scottish Snarl · Pickled Paws ·  Can Opener · Soviet Stitch-Up · Steel-Toed Stompers ·  Buzz Killer · Frontier Flyboy · Legend of Bugfoot ·  Dr. Gogglestache · Emerald Jarate · Einstein ·  Holy Hunter · Silver Bullets · Garlic Flank Stake ·  Griffin's Gog · Intangible Ascot · Under Cover · Bombinomicon · MONOCULUS! · Ghastlierest Gibus · Seal Mask · Spine-Chilling Skull 2011

The next night, May drove Parker and Leeds to the Toomes Residence. Despite wearing his Spider-Man suit underneath his clothes, Parker was adamant to be himself. They greeted Toomes and noticed that Michelle Jones was also attending the party. However, after another taunt from Thompson, Parker excused himself and donned his costume outside on the residence's roof. On the roof, Parker spotted a nearby explosion, which he proceeded to investigate.
In the recent Spider-Girl storyline "Brand New May", Peter has uncovered a lab, within it is a stasis tank containing an exact physical symbiote duplicate of Mayday Parker, with notes left behind by Norman Osborn suggesting she is the real Mayday, and not a clone. When protecting his nephew Normie from an exploding test tube, Peter is affected by the serum within much like Osborn was...and begins to develop erratic behavior. He ultimately overcomes an attempt by Norman Osborn to control his mind and defeats him with the aid of his daughter, her clone, and the spirit of his Aunt May.
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".[25]:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man, as drawn and envisioned by Kirby, was too similar to the Fly.[25]:127
When Peter joined The Future Foundation he was given a new costume by Sue Storm. The suit is made of third generation unstable molecules. It has basic default settings however, by concentrating Peter can change the suit's designs and color. Spidey, Ben, Sue, and Reed will work along with other members of The Future Foundation to protect the Marvel Universe from its greatest future threats.
In the Larval Zooniverse, Peter Porker (who was secretly the superhero Spider-Ham) was working on an experiment that went awry and bestowed upon him the cosmic power of Captain Zooniverse. With this new power he defeated all of his enemies and trapped them in orbit around Earth. He returned home a bit later and began a new villain-free life with his girlfriend Mary Jane Waterbuffalo.[27]

Vacuum Seal: By pressing the emblem on the chest, Parker can expand the suit several sizes larger, allowing him to slip out of the suit easily. He can still wear undergarments under the suit because of its vacuum seal, which can also compress the suit to appear as though he is wearing nothing underneath.[2] Once the vacuum seal compresses the suit properly, the suit's A.I. initiates and performs a diagnostics check.
During the Civil War, Spider-Man joins Iron Man's team ( and gets given an iron spider suit ) and dons a new Iron Spider costume. He supported the SHRA to the point where he even revealed his identity to the public, but as a result, his life was ruined as he is fired from his job, his old friends turn their backs on him and his loved ones become targeted by his enemies since they now know Spider-Man's secret identity. Eventually, he discovers the rogue heroes' mistreatment by the government and realizes that he sided with the wrong team so he betrays Iron Man and joins Captain America's Secret Avengers, He disregarded his suit that tony start had given him as it was prone to being hacked, and he did not want to be seen using technology tony stark had made, he reverted back to his original outfit.
Classic costumes are always crowd pleasures! Spirit’s wide range of affordable classic boys Halloween costumes let him pick from dozens of options that are sure to be a hit with his friends. He can practice his “Argh, matey” when he dresses up as a pirate captain, looking the part right down to the eyepatch and black hat with white skull and crossbones. As part of our Halloween accessories, he can get a pirate sword to complete the image.
Nevertheless, variations on the term "Super Hero" are jointly claimed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics as trademarks in the United States. Registrations of "Super Hero" marks have been maintained by DC and Marvel since the 1960s,[45] including U.S. Trademark Serial Nos. 72243225 and 73222079. In 2009, the term "Super Heroes" was registered as a typography-independent "descriptive" US trademark co-owned by DC and Marvel.[46] Both DC Comics and Marvel Comics have been assiduous in protecting their rights in the "Super Hero" trademarks in jurisdictions where the registrations are in force, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, and including in respect of various goods and services falling outside comic book publications.[47]
Zapp Brannigan. Always ready to step in and save the day...or just get in the way of the beloved crew of the Planet Express. If you'd like to go as this memorable Futurama character, look no further than our authentic Zapp costume. Styled as a tunic and wig with gloves and boots, it will turn any man into a brave 25 star general. A popular choice for any guy who's a fan of Matt Groening!
On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin, drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest.[123]
Combat and customization meet collectibles with Artifacts, powerful items you can find throughout town that enhance your character's "might" - their stats and abilities in combat, and sometimes those of your allies as well. Many of these artifacts, of course, are items relevant to South Park lore as well, like a sexy magazine from Mayor McDaniels' office. If you feel like you're stuck and can't progress, finding or equipping new artifacts might be a good move.
When night falls in South Park, Cartman takes up the call and dons the Coon costume. This fearless crime fighter is the only one who can sort through the trash can of society. As the founder of Coon and Friends, the Coon is the mastermind behind the greatest superhero franchise of all time and will stop at nothing to see it realized. Thinks Eric Cartman is handsome and cool.
During Grim Hunt, Peter is already weakened and exhausted from his "gauntlet". After a loud knocking at his apartment door and he opens it only to see his estranged clone Kaine, beaten and bloodied. Before passing out, Kaine reveals to Peter that the "Spiders" are being hunted. A loud explosion is heard nearby his apartment and Peter goes to check it out only to see Arachne fighting off Ana and Alyosha Kravinoff. Peter, being weakened by the swine flu, struggles to put up a fight and manages to impale Alyosha on a broken pipe, gaining him time to retrieve Arachne and to escape. After retreating to Mattie Franklin's apartment, they are approached by a dead Ezekiel. He then tells Spider-Man and Arachne that they have to save Arana from the clutches of the Kravinoff's. As they finally reach her, they become outnumbered and defeated and Arachne and Arana are captured. Kaine eventually arrives to help out but was too late to make a difference. He tries to warn Peter from following Ezekiel but Peter lashes out in anger and the two set off to find Kraven's base.

This beggars belief. Yale students told to talk to each other if they find a peer’s costume offensive helplessly declare that they’re unable to do so without an authority figure specifying “any modes or means to facilitate these discussions,” as if they’re Martians unfamiliar with a concept as rudimentary as disagreeing in conversation, even as they publish an open letter that is, itself, a mode of facilitating discussion.
Toen Victoria van Keulen twee jaar geleden bij IKEA verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, vroeg ze de MT-leden wat zij vonden van dit onderwerp. Het antwoord was: nogal fluffy en weinig actionable. En dus was haar doel om het thema customer experience concreet te maken. ‘Ik wil dat managers en medewerkers het kunnen vastpakken en vertalen naar wat zij kunnen doen om de klantervaring te verbeteren.’ De Quality Observer onderzoeksmethode vervult hierin een cruciale rol.
Spider-Man is an unlockable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance. As an Infiltrator, he gains the Combat Awareness buff after attacking Tacticians. He has tremendous agility and an appropriate repertoire of powers, including: web-based attacks and his Spider Sense. He starts with his traditional red & blue costume, but players can purchase the black costume to fight as an ebony Infiltrator or a nefarious Bruiser. By unlocking Spider-Man players also gain access to the bonus missions in Chapter 3 of the single-player campaign.

During the 1940s there were many superheroes: The Flash, Green Lantern and Blue Beetle debuted in this era. This era saw the debut of first known female superhero, writer-artist Fletcher Hanks's character Fantomah, an ageless ancient Egyptian woman in the modern day who could transform into a skull-faced creature with superpowers to fight evil; she debuted in Fiction House's Jungle Comic #2 (Feb. 1940), credited to the pseudonymous "Barclay Flagg".[15][16] The Invisible Scarlet O'Neil, a non-costumed character who fought crime and wartime saboteurs using the superpower of invisibility created by Russell Stamm, would debut in the eponymous syndicated newspaper comic strip a few months later on June 3, 1940.[17]


Spider-Man later tracked down and confronts Osborn, having dispatched all of his henchmen in turn. During their fight, it is revealed that Osborn is a former circus freak himself who hides his goblin-like visage behind one of the Chameleon’s masks. After Spider-Man refuses to kill Osborn, the spider-infested and barely still alive body of Kraven appears and attacks the Goblin, killing him.[4]
“This year, we seem afraid that college students are unable to decide how to dress themselves on Halloween,” she wrote. “I don’t wish to trivialize genuine concerns about cultural and personal representation, and other challenges to our lived experience in a plural community. I know that many decent people have proposed guidelines on Halloween costumes from a spirit of avoiding hurt and offense. I laud those goals, in theory, as most of us do. But in practice, I wonder if we should reflect more transparently, as a community, on the consequences of an institutional (bureaucratic and administrative) exercise of implied control over college students.”
The Uni-Power is an extra-dimensional force that possesses an individual (or on one occasion, twins) in a time of crisis, transforming that person into Captain Universe. As Captain Universe, the transformed person typically retains his or her original personality and appearance, though with Captain Universe's costume and heroic traits superimposed over the original. The Uni-Power itself emanates from the Enigma Force, the exact nature of which, naturally, remains an enigma. It is believed, however, to be connected to the Microverse, home of the Micronauts. Although the Uni-Power typically empowers normal, non-super-powered humans, it has in the past empowered Doctor Strange, Spider-Man, Commander Arcturus Rann of the Micronauts, a toddler, and a dog, among others. Its counterparts in various alternate timelines have also possessed Mar-Vell, Mr. Fantastic, a member of the alien Badoon race, a Doombot and Quasar. Because of its never-ending supply of energy it has been the target of many individuals, terrorist groups and peacekeeping agencies such as AIM, the Psycho-Man, Doctor Doom and even S.H.I.E.L.D.
After Peter was separated from the symbiote by Mr. Fantastic, he was left without a costume and as part of a practical joke; the Human Torch gave him an old Fantastic Four costume with a paper bag for his head, dubbing him the Bombastic Bag-Man. When he was accused of murder, Spidey would use this moniker on another occasion to prevent others from identifying him but this time he only wore a Paper-Bag mask while only wearing orange pants.
Depending on how you classify these things, it’s probably either Superman (the character who gave his name to the concept), Gilgamesh (powers beyond those of ordinary men!), or the Scarlet Pimpernel (who seems to be the first example, or at least the first that I can find, of the rich dandy who dons a mask to fight crime; Orczy’s book predates Zorro by a smidge, and Zorro was pretty clearly an influence on Batman). Tarzan, Doc Savage, Mandrake, and other pulp characters don’t seem to have some of the characteristics I’d look for.
Scott Malkinson could've been an ordinary child, but in a freak accident his mom farted on him during childbirth which gave him diabetes. Rather than dwelling on his misfortune, Captain Diabetes wields his sugary illness as a source of power that his enemies cannot overcome. Captain Diabetes is a Brutalist archetype who combines punishing melee knockback moves with an annoying desire to hang out.
“We are not asking to be coddled,” the open letter insists. “The real coddling is telling the privileged majority on campus that they do not have to engage with the brutal pasts that are a part of the costumes they seek to wear.” But no one asserted that students should not be questioned about offensive costumes––only that fellow Yale students, not meddling administrators, should do the questioning, conduct the conversations, and shape the norms for themselves.  “We simply ask that our existences not be invalidated on campus,” the letter says, catastrophizing.

Digitale transformatie is een vaak voorkomend en veelomvattend begrip. Gelukkig weten wij hier wel raad mee. In een interview met CustomerFirst vertellen onze collega’s, Yvonne de Keijzer en Femke Oosterlinck, wat digitale transformatie voor ons in de praktijk betekent. Co-creatie en de combinatie mensen en technologie zijn bepalend om de ultieme klantrelatie- en beleving te...

Jump up ^ Roberts, Brian K. (1987). The Making of the English Village: A Study in Historical Geography. Longman Scientific & Technical. ISBN 9780582301436. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2015. Time out of time', when the barriers between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and All Hallows' Day.


Urich encounters Peter Parker during an oration by Peter’s Aunt May Parker in Central Park. The socialist slant of Aunt May’s words does not sit well with the Enforcers, and Urich is forced to intervene in order to prevent serious injury to either Peter or May. Urich subsequently takes Peter under his wing,[1] and after Peter mistakenly receives a tip-off meant for the Spider, the young man ventures to a warehouse where the Goblin’s men are unloading a shipment of stolen antiques. A particular antique — a spider statue — breaks open and releases a horde of spiders. One of the spiders bites Peter, causing him to pass out and dream of a spider god. When he awakes, he is upside-down in a black web.[2]
As Thanos begins to activate the completed Infinity Gaunlet, he is attacked by Thor who is able to severely wound him with his new axe Stormbreaker, but is unable to stop Thanos from activating the gauntlet despite the injuries he inflicted on Thanos. As half of all life across the universe disintegrates, including White Wolf, Black Panther, Groot, Scarlet Witch, Falcon, Mantis, Drax, Star-Lord, Doctor Strange and Spider-Man; Thanos teleports away to an unknown planet to recover from the wounds inflicted by Thor. Let stunned by their inability to stop Thanos and the deaths of their friends; The remaining heroes Iron Man, Nebula, Bruce, M'Baku, Okoye, War Machine, Rocket, Steve, Black Widow, and Thor are left on their respective battlefields of Wakanda and Titan are wondering what to do next.

Part of the joy of Halloween is indulging your dark side. These boys scary clown Halloween costumes are the kind that are far more likely to make your son’s friends recoil in fear than grin—and that’s exactly what he wants! Give him a chance to terrify your neighborhood as he goes around collecting candy dressed as a Sinister Jester. This black and red costume features a very spooky mask with a terrifying grin, plus a hood with collar to add to the creepy sensation. No one will recognize him as he walks the street waiting to hear gleeful screams in response.


Batman's utility belt is his most characteristic prop next to the Batarang, much like Wonder Woman's Lasso of Truth, or Green Lantern's power ring. The exact contents of this belt are not known because Batman usually changes it to suit his needs. His uncanny ability to carry unusually appropriate tools is legendary. Batman's enemies are especially interested in the utility belt as they believe it will give them an advantage over him, but the belt's pockets are locked and only Batman knows how to open them. Occasionally, the utility belt is depicted as having defense mechanisms such as electric shock or stun gas in order to prevent tampering.
With help from the Invisible Woman and some of her husband's technology, Spider-Man kidnaps and imprisons Mac Gargan, (they ambushed him in an alleyway, caught him in an invisible force-field, all while Bullseye picks and eats a bogey) then poses as him to infiltrate Avengers Tower, donning a special suit made by Reed Richards, allowing him to appear as Mac Gargan with the Venom symbiote. Norman has revealed a nefarious plot to his Avengers involving his son Harry entitled "American Son". While alone, Spider-Man was ambushed by Daken, who claims that Peter smells too clean for Gargan. Daken attacks and uses his pheromones to shut down Peter's senses, however Peter focuses on his spider-sense alone, and eventually defeats Daken by throwing him into an electrical machine that electrocutes and knocks out Daken. However, Harry reveals Spider-Man's disguise in front of Osborn's Avengers,(even though Norman had known it all along, and only wanted to ensure he had his son's trust) and he was held captive and tortured by Bullseye. Identity intact thanks to his unstabilized mask, he escaped (subduing Norman and Bullseye in succession out of anger). Unfortunately Spider-Man was weakened by captivity, saved from Norman by a guilt-ridden and angry Harry, who now knew the truth about his father's relationship with Lily Hollister (Harry's girlfriend,) and began using the American Son Armor to beat up Norman. Peter watched the Osborns fight until Menace became involved, whom he incapacitated. With Harry victorious, Spider-Man convinced him not to kill Norman as it was exactly what the madman wanted.
The Batsuit also has "sonar-vision", where signals emitted by mobile phones are converted into images in a similar way to sonar. In order to view the-said images, white lenses fold down from Batman's cowl to cover his eyes. Fox ran the machine to enable the "sonar-vision", but since it went against Fox's morals to spy on 30 million people, Batman built a self-destruct mechanism to allow Lucius to destroy the machine, likely the glowing lcd lenses were never used again.
The Dark Suit is a different take on the Symbiote Suit, a this one features a red logo instead of a white one. While often associated with Venom and the symbiote suit that takes over Peter Parker, this particular suit shares a story from early Marvel Comics where Black Cat makes a replica (without the alien ingredient) - since fans had taken to liking the black-style suit so much.
His actions were violent, and the Jackal revealed he had been engineered to kill the real Peter, Ben, Kaine and Mary Jane. The Jackal further assisted "Peter" by giving him detailed info on various villains and allies of Spider-Man. As a joke, the Jackal said this "Peter" would commit mass "spidercide" on his behalf.[1] Spidercide stole a container of ribonucleic nanocontagium from the genetic research firm Genetech which lead him to have a confront with the New Warriors.[2] Using these materials, Spidercide and the Jackal killed 2600 people in Springville, Pennsylvania by releasing an airborne version of the Carrion virus. This same incident triggered the powers of Helix.[3]
Following the disappointing response to The Amazing Spider-Man 2, it was announced that Sony would be partnering with Marvel studios to incorporate the Spider-Man franchise into the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The rebooted Spider-Man debuted in Captain America: Civil War, before being spun off into his own movie in 2017, with Peter portrayed by Tom Holland.
Searching for a look on a budget? We're here to help. We offer costumes for men under ten dollars, under twenty dollars, under thirty dollars, and on special clearance, so you can find something you love without breaking the bank! Get items ranging from full costumes to simple items you can use to build your look. There are lots of cool looks to find on a budget like cowboys, gangsters, doctors, animals and bugs, clowns, pirates, holiday looks, superheroes, Star Wars, and other licensed costumes.
The dark Skull Man manga would later get a television adaptation and underwent drastic changes. The character was redesigned to resemble a grasshopper, becoming the renowned first masked hero of the Kamen Rider series. Kamen Rider is a motorcycle riding hero in an insect-like costume, who shouts Henshin (Transform) to don his costume and gain superhuman powers.
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[92][93] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today.[94] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[95] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips".[96] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead.[97] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.[98][99] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights".[100][101][102] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[103] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee; their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things."[104] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties.[96][105][93][106]
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