If Melmac's not far out enough for you, why not try a whole other galaxy (one that's far, far away!). The Wampa on the Ice Planet Hoth might have gotten *this close* to eating poor Luke Skywalker for breakfast, but this furry costume captures the animal's appearance before he had a run in with Luke's lightsaber. This intricately designed faux fur and vinyl detailed costume is Star Wars officially licensed, and ready for action right here on planet Earth!
With help from the Invisible Woman and some of her husband's technology, Spider-Man kidnaps and imprisons Mac Gargan, (they ambushed him in an alleyway, caught him in an invisible force-field, all while Bullseye picks and eats a bogey) then poses as him to infiltrate Avengers Tower, donning a special suit made by Reed Richards, allowing him to appear as Mac Gargan with the Venom symbiote. Norman has revealed a nefarious plot to his Avengers involving his son Harry entitled "American Son". While alone, Spider-Man was ambushed by Daken, who claims that Peter smells too clean for Gargan. Daken attacks and uses his pheromones to shut down Peter's senses, however Peter focuses on his spider-sense alone, and eventually defeats Daken by throwing him into an electrical machine that electrocutes and knocks out Daken. However, Harry reveals Spider-Man's disguise in front of Osborn's Avengers,(even though Norman had known it all along, and only wanted to ensure he had his son's trust) and he was held captive and tortured by Bullseye. Identity intact thanks to his unstabilized mask, he escaped (subduing Norman and Bullseye in succession out of anger). Unfortunately Spider-Man was weakened by captivity, saved from Norman by a guilt-ridden and angry Harry, who now knew the truth about his father's relationship with Lily Hollister (Harry's girlfriend,) and began using the American Son Armor to beat up Norman. Peter watched the Osborns fight until Menace became involved, whom he incapacitated. With Harry victorious, Spider-Man convinced him not to kill Norman as it was exactly what the madman wanted.
A Captain Universe costume pack, such as the classic Captain Universe Spider-Man costume and a brand new ones for the three other playable Spider-Men (Noir, 2099 and Ultimate Symbiote) appeared in Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions as downloadable content in PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 for limited time until 2014's digital store removal, and a bonus exclusive to PC. The costume pack contain an exclusive charge attack to all Spider-Men, but weak against a certain bosses.
In a different version of Spider-Island, Spider-Man was supposedly killed by the spider-infected Avengers which inspired Agent Venom to lead the resistance. However, he is discovered to be alive and captive in the Spider Queen's facility. He aids Flash to stop the Spider Queen and becomes the Baron of Spider-Island after she is defeated at the cost of Flash's life.
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
A popular variant of trick-or-treating, known as trunk-or-treating (or Halloween tailgaiting), occurs when "children are offered treats from the trunks of cars parked in a church parking lot", or sometimes, a school parking lot. In a trunk-or-treat event, the trunk (boot) of each automobile is decorated with a certain theme, such as those of children's literature, movies, scripture, and job roles. Trunk-or-treating has grown in popularity due to its perception as being more safe than going door to door, a point that resonates well with parents, as well as the fact that it "solves the rural conundrum in which homes [are] built a half-mile apart".
As the embittered webslinger faces further robot attacks, each deadlier than the last, his spider-sense warns that Jameson himself is behind them, possibly colluding with Electro, Alistaire Smythe, or another of Spider-Man's mortal foes. Convinced that his worst critic has become a mortal enemy, Spider-Man declares war on Jameson -- a war the publisher is eager to wage. But in their relentless pursuit of victory, they both risk losing everything that matters to them -- and may both fall victim to the cataclysmic secret behind the robots.
In 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States decided Kimble v. Marvel Entertainment, LLC, a case concerning royalties on a patent for an imitation web-shooter. The opinion for the Court, by Justice Elena Kagan, included several Spider-Man references, concluding with the statement that "with great power there must also come—great responsibility".
Halloweiner · Horrific Head of Hare · Hound's Hood · Face Plante · Faun Feet · Sprinting Cephalopod · Terrier Trousers · Cadaver's Capper · Freedom Feathers · Hardium Helm · Hidden Dragon · Larval Lid · Spellbinder's Bonnet · Faux Manchu · Grub Grenades · Jupiter Jumpers · Lieutenant Bites the Dust · Shaolin Sash · Space Bracers · Bozo's Bouffant · Burny's Boney Bonnet · Corpsemopolitan · Crispy Golden Locks · Gothic Guise · Macabre Mask · Mucous Membrain · Raven's Visage · Spectralnaut · Abhorrent Appendages · Beast from Below · Carrion Companion · Cauterizer's Caudal Appendage · Creature From The Heap · Death Support Pack · External Organ · Glob · Grisly Gumbo · Handhunter · Hard-Headed Hardware · Hollowhead · Maniac's Manacles · Monster's Stompers · PY-40 Incinibot · Rugged Respirator · Scorched Skirt · Up Pyroscopes · Vicious Visage · Headtaker's Hood · Mann-Bird of Aberdeen · Squid's Lid · Transylvania Top · Cap'n Calamari · Horsemann's Hand-Me-Down · Lordly Lapels · Parasight · Polly Putrid · Ivan The Inedible · Last Bite · Monstrous Mandible · Chicken Kiev · Horned Honcho · Grease Monkey · Alternative Medicine Mann · Das Blutliebhaber · Medimedes · Shaman's Skull · Teutonkahmun · Trepanabotomizer · Archimedes the Undying · Lo-Grav Loafers · Ramses' Regalia · Second Opinion · Surgeon's Space Suit · Vicar's Vestments · Carious Chameleon · Hallowed Headcase · Sir Shootsalot · Candyman's Cap · Hyperbaric Bowler · Bountiful Bow · Bozo's Brogues · Foul Cowl · Baphomet Trotters · Candleer · Pin Pals · Snaggletoothed Stetson · Ethereal Hood · Birdie Bonnet · Dark Helm · Haunted Hat · Magical Mercenary · Manneater · One-Way Ticket · Tuque or Treat · Accursed Apparition · Beacon from Beyond · Cryptic Keepsake · Guano · Pocket Horsemann · Quoth · Sackcloth Spook · Unidentified Following Object
Jump up ^ Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.
One of the newest bearded gents to hit the superhero scene is Jason Momoa's Aquaman! With just a glimpse of the character in 2016's Batman V Superman, he's going full bore in the Justice League movie. So, now would be the perfect time to showcase both your scruffy beard and your swimming prowess! Add a wig along with your own long beard when you go in this jumpsuit to get the perfect DC Comics look.
As for the reason for Superhero’s; I think her’s (or ‘super’ heros) were always needed. It’s jsut earlier superhero’s like cowboys are not seen as super now. However, they were much better than the average at gunslinging and all had colerfull names and personalities. I think we the dawn of the 30s and in even earlier in the post World War I era, people realized that a gun slinging cowboy could not save them. People demanded (or wanted) hero’s with more powers. Hero’s that would not be plowed down by machine guns and rifles. Hense superman was made. As street crime began to dominate people’s fears, less super-human heros like Batman appeared.
Here, you’ll find all of the latest and greatest costumes, including officially licensed offerings like Black Panther, Wonder Woman, Disney princesses, Batman, PJ Masks, Star Wars, Harley Quinn, Deadpool, the Wizard of Oz, Spider-Man and many, many more. So, if your little girl has her heart set on dressing as Frozen’s Elsa, your son wants nothing more than to get in character as Kylo Ren, or you want to treat yo’ self with an ultimate Batman ensemble, you’ll find exactly what you’re looking for in the size and price that’s right for you.
The culmination of nearly every superhero that came before him, Spider-Man is the hero of heroes. He's got fun and cool powers, but not on the god-like level of Thor. He's just a normal guy with girlfriend problems and money issues, so he’s more relatable than playboy billionaire Iron Man. And he's an awkward teenager, not a wizened adult like Captain America. Not too hot and not too cold, Spider-Man is just right.
In 1992, Marvel revealed that Northstar, a member of the Canadian mutant superhero team Alpha Flight, was homosexual, after years of implication. This ended a long-standing editorial mandate that there would be no homosexual characters in Marvel comics. Although some minor secondary characters in DC Comics' mature-audience 1980s miniseries Watchmen were gay, and the reformed supervillain Pied Piper came out to Wally West in an issue of The Flash in 1991, Northstar is considered to be the first openly gay superhero appearing in mainstream comic books. From the mid-2000s onward, several established Marvel and DC comics characters (or a variant version of the pre-existing character) were outed or reintroduced as LGBT individuals by both publishers. Examples include the Mikaal Tomas incarnation of Starman in 1998; Colossus in the Ultimate X-Men series; Renee Montoya in DC's Gotham Central series in 2003; the Kate Kane incarnation of Batwoman in 2006; Rictor and Shatterstar in an issue of X-Factor in 2009; the Golden Age Green Lantern Alan Scott is reimagined as openly gay following The New 52 reboot in 2011; and in 2015, a younger time displaced version of Iceman in an issue of All-New X-Men.
In the "House of M", a Marvel crossover, the Scarlet Witch alters reality to make mutants the ruling class over humans. This world is ruled by mutants and their leader, Magneto. In the mini-series Spider-Man: House of M, Peter Parker is believed to be a mutant, and Spider-Man's identity is widely known. He is rich, famous and married to Gwen Stacy, and they have a young son named Ritchie. Aunt May and Uncle Ben are alive and in good health, and J. Jonah Jameson is Peter's often-abused publicist. Unfortunately, his life unravels when Jameson reveals to the world that Spider-Man is not a born mutant. After the world is restored to normal, Peter suffers terribly with the memory of the life he left behind, expressing a desire to kill Magneto, whom he mistakenly believes was behind the events of House of M, and the Scarlet Witch, whose powers were responsible for the altered reality. This version is later killed by Karn during the Spider-Verse event.
Reed and Druid travel into a portal left by Captain Universe's "death" only to find him alive and well within the body of Earth-616's Eternity. Captain Universe explains to the two superheroes of the creation of the Multi-Eternity that ensures a boundless multiverse. Afterwards Captain Universe vanishes without a trace while Reed and Druid return to their respective realities after a confrontation with Abraxas, the antithesis of Eternity and Galactus.
In a controversial storyline, Peter becomes convinced that Ben Reilly, the Scarlet Spider (a clone of Peter created by his college professor Miles Warren) is the real Peter Parker, and that he, Peter, is the clone. Peter gives up the Spider-Man identity to Reilly for a time, until Reilly is killed by the returning Green Goblin and revealed to be the clone after all. In stories published in 2005 and 2006 (such as "The Other"), he develops additional spider-like abilities including biological web-shooters, toxic stingers that extend from his forearms, the ability to stick individuals to his back, enhanced Spider-sense and night vision, and increased strength and speed. Peter later becomes a member of the New Avengers, and reveals his civilian identity to the world, increasing his already numerous problems. His marriage to Mary Jane and public unmasking are later erased in another controversial storyline "One More Day", in a Faustian bargain with the demon Mephisto that results in several other adjustments to the timeline, including the resurrection of Harry Osborn and the return of Spider-Man's traditional tools and powers.
Spider-Man also seems to have at least some degree of Super-Human sight, at least in order to assist his Superhuman speed, reflexes and agility. Ever since obtaining his powers, he has not needed his glasses, and has frequently pulled off impressive aiming feats with his webbing, although this is assisted with his Spider-Sense. Perhaps most impressively, during Spider-Island, a depowered Hercules with Spider-Man's power-set said he could see bullets in slow motion.
When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity, an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.
Add your other half and the kids for a night of Halloween fun the entire family will remember, and get matching costumes for everyone! Become a king and queen with the little members of royalty, dress them up as their favorite farm animals, turn them into little Halloween monsters, and more. They'll love joining enchanted lands and making their own unforgettable memories with you!
A large group of students eventually gathered outside of the building on High Street, where several attendees were spat on, according to Buckley fellows who were present during the conference. One Buckley Fellow added that he was spat on and called a racist. Another, who identifies as a minority himself, said he has been labeled a “traitor” by several.
Following the camp depiction of the 1960s live-action television series, director Tim Burton's Batman films feature an all-black Batsuit with bright yellow chest emblem, brass utility belt, heavy armor placed on the chest, forearms, and boots, with the chest armor incorporating the bat-emblem. This became the basic template on which all subsequent live-action Batsuits were based.
Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages. Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
May The Force be with your son this year in one of our 2018 boys Star Wars Halloween costumes! Whoever his favorite character is, your son can dress up in his image in our officially licensed costumes. These include our Darth Vader costume, featuring a jumpsuit with armor and 3D boot tops along with a mask, cape and molded belt. For extra authenticity, he can also get a lightsaber to complete the look of this feared villain. We also offer several Luke Skywalker costumes so he can join the Rebel Alliance in his tan tunic, belt, pants and boot covers.
"People often say glibly that Marvel succeeded by blending super hero adventure stories with soap opera. What Lee and Ditko actually did in The Amazing Spider-Man was to make the series an ongoing novelistic chronicle of the lead character's life. Most super heroes had problems no more complex or relevant to their readers' lives than thwarting this month's bad guys.... Parker had far more serious concern in his life: coming to terms with the death of a loved one, falling in love for the first time, struggling to make a living, and undergoing crises of conscience."
This series debuted in March 8, 2008 and is still in continuation, airing on the CW 4Kids at 10:00 a.m on Saturday mornings. This series would also make the 10th television series about Spider-Man. This series starts with Spider-Man (voiced by Josh Keaton) talking about how he spent his summer vacation and introducing himself as the Spectacular Spider-Man. The day before school starts he wants his piece of the action. He ends up stopping Flint Marko and Alex O' Hirn. Spidey says that this was his third time stopping them and he pulls out his new device, the spider-signal. Norman Osborn acquires a new enemy in The Vulture. Before he became The Vulture, he was a man who worked for Oscorp and created an invention known as the tech. flight. He demands that Norman publicly apologize to him for stealing his inventions and to say that it was all his idea. Norman won't apologize stating that no one would believe that he had created it. But all is not lost, as he is soon saved by Your Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man. The series artwork was created by Sean "Cheeks" Galloway. The same person responsible for some character design work for the Hellboy animated movies. The character designs resemble those of The Batman TV series, as they have been designed by the same people who worked on that show. This series is supposed to be like the 1960's version of Spider-Man. It doesn't start off like all of the other incarnations of Spider-Man, starting off with Peter getting bitten by a radioactive spider but with a twist. Peter just starts his junior yeah of high school and gets pushed around by jocks. He made friends in Harry Osborn and Gwen Stacy. Gwen Stacy is also Peters intellectual equal, getting a job working for Doctor Connors. Gwen and Peter also see their old friend Eddie Brock who Peters call bro because their parents were best friends. Both Eddie's and Peter's parents died in a plane crash. Ever since then, Eddie and Peter have had a close friendship. Peter betrays Doctor Connors trust by taking pictures of Spider-Man and Doctor Connors as the Lizard. This puts a strain on their friendship and their "brotherhood". Eddie knows about Gwen liking him but after all the things that he did wrong, it was the final straw when Peter goes to the prom with Mary Jane. This series is full of twists and turns. It ends its first season with Eddie being taken over by the symbiote and turning into Venom. After almost being beaten by Venom, he saves Gwen and continues to have a Thanksgiving dinner. Aunt May has come out of hospital after recovering from a heart attack, Peter cooks the thanksgiving dinner, Gwen brings over her family dinner and they all enjoy a nice meal. Peter washes the dishes and goes outside thanking Gwen for what she has done and for always being there. As Gwen is about to leave, she runs back, taking the advice MJ gave her, and gives Peter a kiss. Peter then realizes what Venom was talking about when he said that he is going to take away the person who means the most to him.
Amazing Fantasy Avenging Spider-Man Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man Marvel Team-Up/Spider-Man Team-Up Peter Parker: Spider-Man The Sensational Spider-Man vol. 1 Marvel Knights Spider-Man/The Sensational Spider-Man vol. 2 Spider-Man and Zoids Spider-Man Family/The Amazing Spider-Man Family Spider-Man's Tangled Web Spider-Man Unlimited Spidey The Superior Foes of Spider-Man The Superior Spider-Man Superior Spider-Man Team-Up Untold Tales of Spider-Man Web of Spider-Man Webspinners: Tales of Spider-Man
As in the previous game, the main characters are divided into two main, competing factions, and the New Kid is first lured into the conflict by Eric Cartman's faction - this time, the iconic Coon and Friends franchise. Over the course of story, they are forced to team up with Freedom Pals in order to save the town from a greater foe, as well as the dreaded Professor Chaos himself.
Captain America and Iron Man have no trouble teaming up to save the day, but as we found out in Captain America Civil War , sometimes they find themselves at odds, too. When the threat to humanity is real though, Captain Steve Rogers and billionaire Tony Stark are sure to set aside their differences and suit up to defeat the bad guys. The only question is, are your children ready to do the same? Will they pass muster when they put on their hero costume? Let’s find out by decking them out in one of these red hot Avengers costumes. When Iron Man and Cap hit the scene, they’ll be ready to recreate all of their favorite action sequences. With the Captain boldly holding his shield, and Iron Man ready to fire his repulsor blasts at the baddies, these two are suited and ready. Have them stand in this pose for a really great photo!
The heart of the Night of Light is an all-night vigil of prayer, but there is room for children's fun too: sweets, perhaps a bonfire and dressing up as St George or St Lucy. The minimum gesture is to put a lighted candle in the window, which is in itself too exciting for some proponents of health and safety. The inventor of the Night of Light is Damian Stayne, the founder of a year-round religious community called Cor et Lumen Christi – heart and light of Christ. This new movement is Catholic, orthodox and charismatic – emphasising the work of the Holy Spirit.
The Negative Suit's black-and-white design comes from a history that is not all from your new villain Mister Negative, but from Spider-Man's visit to the Negative Zone, where his suit transformed in a realm with no color. However, in other stories, Peter's suit was also transformed into the Negative Suit after being attacked by Mister Negative himself.
The time between Spider-Man capturing the burglar that killed Uncle Ben and him becoming a superhero was told over 30 years after his origin when the Amazing Fantasy series was continued in 1995 by writer Kurt Busiek (#16-18, Dec. 1995 – Mar. 1996). After catching the burglar that killed Ben, Peter had given up being Spider-Man as it reminded him of his irresponsible behavior that ultimately led to his uncle’s death. Even though Maxie Shiffman, the agent he had hired when he was a costumed wrestler, was putting out ads to track down Spider-Man, Peter didn’t want anything to do with that life. Ben had been the only earner in the family and after his death Peter and his Aunt May were struggling for money. A salesman tried to con May into buying furniture that Ben had apparently left a deposit on before his death. Although the salesman had seemed genuine at the time, Peter caught Mr. Vale pulling the same stunt on an old widower when he was swinging through the city in his Spider-Man costume to clear his head. Spider-Man followed Mr. Vale to a warehouse where he discovered a whole gang of organized criminals led by The Undertaker. Spider-Man challenged the gang and soon had them rounded up for the police. Chronologically this was the first time Spider-Man had been threatened with a gun. More significantly, during the fight he discovered his Spider-Sense for the first time. Capturing these criminals lead Peter to believe that this is how he has to make up for Uncle Ben’s death, by using his powers to help others.
In one possible future of the Marvel Universe, Advanced Idea Mechanics has examined the Uni-Power and attempted to duplicate it. The duplicate, referred to as the 'Alias-Power' or 'Uni-Alias', has the ability to animate the Death's Head 3.0 robot. While resident in Death's Head, it took the form of a conscience. On one occasion, when asked to rescue an evil scientist from a jail, it instead rescued a human rights activist. When the robot killed a UN researcher, the power brought him back to life. The researcher then confronted the robot, forcing it to acknowledge the conscience. Afterwards, Death's Head began working for the UN as an anti-terrorist hit-man.
A tokusatsu series featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man". Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr. Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms.
On an unnamed Earth, Norman Osborn is a six-armed version of Spider-Man. As Norman is informed of Harry moving through Oscorp and having been secretly armed, he is told that Harry is on the 15th floor near Mr. Warren's lab. Becoming Spider-Man and arriving where a warped Cosmic Cube is located, Norman confronts Harry who dons the Kobold armor. It was revealed during the fight that Norman killed Peter Parker as Harry fires a laser beam at the warped Cosmic Cube. As Oscorp starts to disintegrate, Norman is pleased that Harry finally gave him what he wanted by accidentally giving Norman access to the multiverse. Just then, Spider-Punk arrives and pulls Norman out much to his dismay.
Outside of the mainstream universe, there are different incarnations of Spider-Man in alternate universes such as the Ultimate universe version. Originally, these characters were depicted as separate from each other, but they have crossed over together in Spider-Verse, where the many versions of Spider-Men are the major protagonists of the storyline. Some of these characters were later merged in the same universe in the 2015 comic book series Secret Wars as a part of the Spider-Man family.
Is your child already the coolest kid you know? Our Zombie Sk8r Child's Costume is the epitome of cool! He or she will be pulling sick skate tricks, scaring people and taking names! Who would have thought that of all things possible, Zombies would make the cut as the “it” thing of the century? Not us! But hey, it happened so we should embrace it and what better way than letting your little guy or girl dress up as a grungy little sk8r zombie child!
The Iron Spider armor costume has been duplicated and used by MVP's three genetic clones in the Initiative who identify themselves as Red Team and also labeled the Scarlet Spiders. It is unknown what new powers the team possesses, but they have been shown to be using some of the built-in powers such as the cloaking device, communications, and waldoes which the original costume possessed. One change is that there are now four waldoes, as opposed to three. These suits have the original's morphing ability, as well as web-shooters, and wall-crawling capability.
When the Guardians of the Galaxy traveled to the 20th century on a mission to destroy the Badoon, the Uni-Power possessed a Badoon worker named L'Matto in order to prevent the planned genocide. L'Matto's newfound knowledge was able to keep the Guardians from attacking but the Brother Royal then used the Badoon Captain Universe as his champion in a gladiatorial challenge which he had coerced the Guardians into accepting. L'Matto easily overpowered Charlie-27 and was about to kill him when Vance Astro and Dr. Strange arrived and joined in the battle, with Nikki and Talon pitching in as well. Despite this, it was not until Aleta (who had become the new Starhawk) arrived and attacked alongside Dr. Strange that L'Matto was finally defeated, enabling Strange to exorcise the Uni-Power which L'Matto had abused and return it to Earth.
By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor souls." "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls, has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating. The custom dates back at least as far as the 15th century and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria. Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends and relatives. Soul cakes would also be offered for the souls themselves to eat, or the 'soulers' would act as their representatives. As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating that they were baked as alms. Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593). On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".