^ Jump up to: a b Mary Mapes Dodge, ed. (1883). St. Nicholas Magazine. Scribner & Company. p. 93. 'Soul-cakes,' which the rich gave to the poor at the Halloween season, in return for which the recipients prayed for the souls of the givers and their friends. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!'
Spider-Man Noir returns in the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse" Part 3", where he finds the "Ultimate" Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid tangle with Mr. Fixit (a Noir version of the Hulk) and his minions, Thunderbolt and A-Bombardier, who are in a gang war with the Noir version of Hammerhead. When Spider-Man Noir shows up, he doesn't want Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid to break up the gang war because since they last saw him, he lost his Mary Jane in an accident caused by Hammerhead's gang, for which he blames Mr. Fixit. Spider-Man finds the Siege Perilous fragment in the new machine gun that was provided by Hammerhead's minion Martin Li. Upon touching the Siege Perilous, Martin Li becomes the Mister Negative in order to become the new crime lord; he can transmutate anything to stone, and overthrows Hammerhead. After Mister Negative fends off Wolf Spider, Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid persuade Spider-Man Noir and Mr. Fixit to work together to help to stop Mister Negative. During the final fight, Noir Peter sacrifices himself by turning to stone after taking a blast meant for Fixit, but Fixit manages to restore everyone back to normal after taking the shard from Mr. Negative, which also restores the world to color. Noir Peter thanks Ultimate Peter and Miles before they leave and begins a partnership with Fixit. In the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse: Part 4", Noir Spider-Man is among the spider-powered individuals who had their life-force drained by Wolf Spider. He gets his life-force back upon Wolf Spider's defeat.
Jump up ^ Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (13 April 2011). Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. p. 17. ISBN 9780811744300. All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land. Church bells were run and fires lit to guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk. Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth. Although a rare few continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for engaging in such activities. These may seem like innocent fun today, but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages.
Similar to a grappling hook, the line launching gun uses a strong clamp attached to a high-tensil wire for scaling surfaces and/or traversing gaps. It can be recovered by releasing the clamp and rewinding the cable. It was based from one that is designed as compact climbing gear for commando units. It is propelled with compressed air, and works with a magnetic grappling iron. The thin climbing cable was tested on a load-carrying capacity of 350 lbs. The line can be attached to a reel in the buckle in the utility harness, but this was only used to escape after being defeated by the Scarecow in The Narrows.
Fearing for MJ's safety, Peter pushes her out of the apartment so that he could fight the Puma as Spider-Man without revealing his identity to her. MJ heard the sounds of battle. After Peter defeated Puma, MJ confessed to him that she cannot handle the danger he puts himself in. She tells him that she has always known his secret identity. Black Cat appears to reconcile with Peter which caused MJ to run away crying. She considered leaving town again but she then decided to confront Peter. They became very close and they would tell each other everything. They were hiding from their true feelings and Peter proposed to MJ. Although she initially refused, after making amends with her sister, MJ returned to Peter and accepted his proposal. Despite knowing that they are still too young and Peter's double life may make things difficult, Peter and Mary Jane tied the knot.
Rapper Kanye West makes a return to the South Park world, having fully teansformed into a "Gay Fish" (his only identification in the game) and seeking Sea-Man and the player's help to guide his "momma" to Heaven aboard a unicorn that farts rainbows. This is a reference to 'Only One', a real mobile game West is making about his real mother's ascension to Heaven.

Outside of the mainstream universe, there are different incarnations of Spider-Man in alternate universes such as the Ultimate universe version. Originally, these characters were depicted as separate from each other, but they have crossed over together in Spider-Verse, where the many versions of Spider-Men are the major protagonists of the storyline. Some of these characters were later merged in the same universe in the 2015 comic book series Secret Wars as a part of the Spider-Man family.
Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode: This mode allows Spider-Man's hearing and optics to be enhanced. It enables both X-Ray and infrared vision to see through solid objects and locate his target. It also allows for enhanced audio reception capabilities to the point that he can eavesdrop on conversations from yards away. It also corresponds to the suit's database, allowing for data retrieval about certain individuals and their backgrounds.
He first appeared as a Peter Parker double emerging from one of the Jackal's pods that initially an amnesiac but later believed himself to be the real Peter Parker, having been kept in stasis since the first Clone Saga. He claimed that both Peter Parker and Ben Reilly were his clones. However, upon meeting Parker, Reilly and Kaine, the Jackal's programming kicked in and he went insane before shapeshifting into a freakish giant, therefore revealing his true status as a clone. In denial of the truth, he tried to kill the "clones" and to claim Peter Parker's life as his own. He was even infatuated with Parker's wife Mary Jane Watson and seeks to have her as his bride. Since their first encounter, Reilly realizes that Spidercide is twisted from the start and expresses disgust of his corrupted doppelgänger's immorality, tauntingly refers him as "Freakface" once the villainous clone's shapeshifting powers manifest. However, this also causes Reilly to be afraid of his and Parker's capabilities for wicked if they allow themselves demoralize as Spidercide.

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With more and more anime, manga and tokusatsu being translated or adapted, Western audiences were beginning to experience the Japanese styles of superhero fiction more than they were able to before. Saban's Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, an adaptation of Zyuranger, created a multimedia franchise that used footage from Super Sentai.[38] Internationally, the Japanese comic book character, Sailor Moon, is recognized as one of the most important and popular female superheroes ever created.[39][40][41][42][43]

Following this, Holland reprised his role in Spider-Man: Homecoming, a 2017 co-production between Marvel Studios and Sony. The film also starred Michael Keaton as Adrian Toomes/Vulture, Marissa Tomei as Aunt May, Jacob Batalon as Ned Lee, Zendaya as MJ, Laura Harrier as Liz Allan, Bokeem Woodbine as Herman Schultz/Shocker, Michael Chernus as Phineas Mason/Tinkerer, Tony Revolori as Flash Thompson, Jon Favreau as Harold "Happy" Hogan and Robert Downey, Jr. as Tony Stark.


Peter Parker's re-emerged consciousness begins to explore his Mindscape, discovering the world is now a large empty space, with only the very few key memories left. Recalling that he's more than Peter Parker, he is Spider-Man, he declares that Otto had made a big mistake in leaving the memories that define him and promises to find a way to regain the control of his body. Continuing to explore the Mindscape for clues into reclaiming his body from Doctor Octopus, he makes a note that only 31 pieces of his memories are left and wonders what he can do with them. Just then, he stumbles upon the memory of his fight with the Green Goblin at the Brooklyn Bridge, wonders why Doctor Octopus is probing into this. Deciding to delve into Doctor Octopus's memories for a way out, he is overwhelmed by the amount of memories and struggles to hold on. He sees a bright light and witnesses the moment of Otto Octavius's birth. Peter Parker's consciousness struggles to fight against the deluge of Doctor Octopus' memories, but it proves too much and he convinces himself that he is Doctor Octopus merging with Otto's memories.
Author and Ditko scholar Blake Bell writes that it was Ditko who noted the similarities to the Fly. Ditko recalled that "Stan called Jack about the Fly", adding that "[d]ays later, Stan told me I would be penciling the story panel breakdowns from Stan's synopsis". It was at this point that the nature of the strip changed. "Out went the magic ring, adult Spider-Man and whatever legend ideas that Spider-Man story would have contained". Lee gave Ditko the premise of a teenager bitten by a spider and developing powers, a premise Ditko would expand upon to the point he became what Bell describes as "the first work for hire artist of his generation to create and control the narrative arc of his series". On the issue of the initial creation, Ditko states, "I still don't know whose idea was Spider-Man".[26] Kirby noted in a 1971 interview that it was Ditko who "got Spider-Man to roll, and the thing caught on because of what he did".[27] Lee, while claiming credit for the initial idea, has acknowledged Ditko's role, stating, "If Steve wants to be called co-creator, I think he deserves [it]".[28] He has further commented that Ditko's costume design was key to the character's success; since the costume completely covers Spider-Man's body, people of all races could visualize themselves inside the costume and thus more easily identify with the character.[17]
As a former preschool teacher... it is hard for me to give credence to a claim that there is something objectionably “appropriative” about a blonde ­haired child’s wanting to be Mulan for a day. Pretend play is the foundation of most cognitive tasks, and it seems to me that we want to be in the business of encouraging the exercise of imagination, not constraining it.

Luke Cage and Ratchet came to his rescue, but were promptly defeated by the charged-up Megatron. Man and Machine, Part Three However, after Megatron left to deal with the attacking Avengers and Autobots outside, Spider-Man proved he still had enough strength to burst out of his restraints. After meeting with Ratchet and Prowl, he agreed to power them up using Megatron's device as well. Ultimately, he didn't have to sacrifice even more blood, though, as Wolverine offered to take his place. Spider-Man followed Ratchet and Prowl outside, where he webbed up Megatron in an attempt to stop him from escaping. It ultimately failed, but at least he made the Decepticon leader look mighty silly as he lay tied up and helpless on the ground! After everything was wrapped up, Spidey and the other Avengers returned home on the Quinjet. Man and Machine, Part Four


Dr. Doom has broken Dr. Octopus out of prison as the final mover in the latest plan for world conquest. Using Ock's expertise to help him draw on the arcane energies of the Negative Zone, Doom has found a way to wield absolute power. Now the only thing standing between Doom and his goals are Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four--and one of the F.F. is already Doom's prisoner!
^ Not counting any other character in the mainstream Marvel Universe with that name. Only outside of the mainstream Spider-Man comics or in other media is there other Spider-Man villains (that isn't named Mac Gargan) that are antagonists of Spider-Man.[151][152][153] Gargan is cited to be the fourth who is called that in the comic books but is the most iconic villain with that name.[33]
Robert Downey, Jr., Josh Brolin, Mark Ruffalo, Tom Hiddleston, Chris Hemsworth, Chris Evans, Chris Pratt, Elizabeth Olsen, Zoe Saldana, Karen Gillan, Sebastian Stan, Benedict Cumberbatch, Benedict Wong, Tom Holland, Paul Bettany, Vin Diesel, Terry Notary, Dave Bautista, Bradley Cooper, Sean Gunn, Pom Klementieff, Benicio del Toro, Anthony Mackie, Scarlett Johansson, Chadwick Boseman, Danai Gurira, Don Cheadle, Tom Vaughan-Lawlor, Letitia Wright, Winston Duke, Cobie Smulders, Gwyneth Paltrow , Ethan Dizon, Tiffany Espensen, Jacob Batalon, Isabella Amara, Florence Kasumba, Terry Notary, Carrie Coon, Michael James Shaw, Peter Dinklage, Idris Elba, William Hurt, Samuel L. Jackson, Kerry Condon, Ross Marquand, Stan Lee, Stephen McFeely
On "In Darkness Dwells," it is shown that there's an infrared scope built within the cowl, along with a rebreather that can be folded within it. There's a wireless relay communicator in the cowl. Its signals are locked with quantum cryptology and bounced through a dozen different satellites (presumably the WayneComs). As per the animation styles, the suit varies between versions of the Batman Begins standard black suit and the Comic Book original.

Indira "Indy" Daimonji (appeared in Spider-Man: The New Animated Series): She is Peter Parker's potential love interest and a rival of Mary Jane Watson. She works at a news network down in Manhattan. She is seriously injured by Spider-Man in the series finale when Spider-Man is tricked by the Gaines Twins into injuring Indy. This led to Peter giving up being Spider-Man
First, to the guy who said “Jesus” was a superhero. Jesus wasn’t a superhero, he was a human being who actually lived on earth. Superheros are fictional. Second, to the guy who said Gilgamesh was a superhero. Gilgamesh isn’t a superhero, he is an archtypal hero from mythology. A “superhero” is from a comic book, a “hero” is from mythology. You might say that comic books are just a modern form of mythology, but that is not true. Comic books are made for one reason; profit. They try to sell an entertaining story for money. Myths don’t. Myths served an important purpose in ancient times, they weren’t sold and they weren’t just for entertainment value.
In her view, students would be better served if colleges showed more faith in their capacity to work things out themselves, which would help them to develop cognitive skills. “Nicholas says, if you don’t like a costume someone is wearing, look away, or tell them you are offended. Talk to each other. Free speech and the ability to tolerate offence are hallmarks of a free and open society,” she wrote. “But—again, speaking as a child development specialist—I think there might be something missing in our discourse about … free speech (including how we dress) on campus, and it is this: What does this debate about Halloween costumes say about our view of young adults, of their strength and judgment? In other words: Whose business is it to control the forms of costumes of young people? It's not mine, I know that.”
Betty Brant: Betty takes over her mother's former position as Daily Bugle secretary after she dies. Peter dates Betty Brant for a while, but they break up due to her blaming Spider-Man for the death of her brother. She later marries Daily Bugle reporter Ned Leeds, although she briefly gets back with Peter after the breakdown of her marriage. Despite this, both Betty and Peter maintain a close friendship.
^ Jump up to: a b Pulliam, June; Fonseca, Anthony J. (26 September 2016). Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend. ABC-CLIO. p. 145. ISBN 9781440834912. Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions. Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost. This is likely because ... when Halloween customs began to be influenced by Catholicism, the incorporation of the themes of All Hallows' and All Souls' Day would have emphasized visitations from the spirit world over the motifs of spirites and fairies. ... The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures, the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying for the dead (a practice called souling), often carrying lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips. Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise (a practice called guising) to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses (a practice called mumming). Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.
Toen Victoria van Keulen twee jaar geleden bij IKEA verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, vroeg ze de MT-leden wat zij vonden van dit onderwerp. Het antwoord was: nogal fluffy en weinig actionable. En dus was haar doel om het thema customer experience concreet te maken. ‘Ik wil dat managers en medewerkers het kunnen vastpakken en vertalen naar wat zij kunnen doen om de klantervaring te verbeteren.’ De Quality Observer onderzoeksmethode vervult hierin een cruciale rol.
The New Kid is you, after all, so customizing your character remains a crucial part of the game. After selecting your character's sex and selecting from a variety of hairstyles and a default outfit, everything else plays out ingame. Costume pieces are no longer attached to stats, so now you can create your own unique and customization superhero costume. (Try to be a little more creative than Super Craig.)
The earliest superhero I could find reference to was Mandrake the Magician, who debuted in 1934, four years before Superman, who was probably the first popular superhero. Mandrake’s super power was his ability to “make people believe anything, simply by gesturing hypnotically”. Does anyone out there know of any superheroes who made an earlier media appearance?

George Marston of Newsarama explaining why he felt that Spider-Man rogues gallery was the best was the thematic elements that the villains of Spider-Man manifested.[137] He explained that just like the superhero they have the same concept of science gone wrong. They are "like him, great men with great minds, great power, and great determination." But instead they fail to use their powers responsibly. Separating the thin line between being a hero from being a villain.[137]
'What if Spider-Man Had Kept His Six Arms?' explores what would have happened if Morbius was eaten by sharks and never made it to Connors Lab with a cure. Ultimately the arm mutation is irreversible, but it proves an advantage and he defeats most of his villains easily. Spider-Man even becomes a spokesman for the physically challenged, and inspires all to rise to their true potential. This Spider-Man appears in Spider-Verse and is killed by Daemos.[citation needed]
Almost all the characters listed first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man with the exception of Kaine and Humbug first appearing in Web of Spider-Man. The Prowler is the oldest character appearing in The Amazing Spider-Man in the 1960s in the Silver Age. Many other anti-heroes were introduced in the 1970s in between the Silver Age and the Bronze Age while Humbug was introduced in the 1980s right around the start of the Modern Age. Kaine is the youngest debuted character while Cardiac is the second youngest. Both Kaine and Cardiac appeared around the 1990s.
And there’s (at least) one more angle to this as well…where did the idea of the superhero come from? As Meg suggested to me at dinner last night, was there a cultural need for a superhero during a super-crisis like the Great Depression? Or did the idea evolve gradually from regular heros (cowboys, space cowboys, etc.) to heros who were magicians (with special powers…it’s not that much of a stretch to imagine a magician possessing supernatural powers) to classic superheroes like Superman?
^ Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's worst enemies and archenemy. He has been cited as the man Peter might have become if he had not been raised with a sense of responsibility.[16][141] He is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is the core leader of the Sinister Six and has also referred himself as the "Master Planner". ("If This Be My Destiny...!")[142] Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while.[141]

Jump up ^ As late as 1900, an article on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities. "The Day We Celebrate: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially" Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 24 November 1895, p. 27. "Odd Ornaments for Table" Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 21 October 1900, p. 12.
“We are not asking to be coddled,” the open letter insists. “The real coddling is telling the privileged majority on campus that they do not have to engage with the brutal pasts that are a part of the costumes they seek to wear.” But no one asserted that students should not be questioned about offensive costumes––only that fellow Yale students, not meddling administrators, should do the questioning, conduct the conversations, and shape the norms for themselves.  “We simply ask that our existences not be invalidated on campus,” the letter says, catastrophizing.
Ultimate Spider-Man is a modernized reboot of the Spider-Man story, starting from the very beginning, with a plot that is inspired by, but very different from, the original continuity, and thus is a parallel universe counterpart to the mainstream version of Spider-Man. The main purpose of the series is to be accessible to new and young readers, as it is free from the decades of history of the original, but it has been embraced by many longtime fans as well.
When he arrived most of the remaining heroes had been murdered by either Set's fearsome power or at the hands of his seven mind controlled brides. Quasar found The Silver Surfer attempting to keep the creature at bay. Filled with an immeasurable amount of rage the Quasar/Captain Universe entity summoned the Eye of Agamotto and pulled himself and Set into the Eye's pocket dimension where they would do battle for all Eternity. Later on Quasar of Earth-616 viewed his counterpart facing Set.
Sometime later, Spider-Man revealed his identity to the Black Cat who would end up breaking up with him. She was unable to bear the fact that Spider-Man liked to live a civilian life as Peter Parker instead of staying in costume. Mary Jane would return to New York and she visited Peter in his apartment. Meanwhile, the Puma had tracked down Spider-Man but Peter sensed his presence using his spider-sense.
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 61. ISBN 978-0756692360. Stan [Lee] couldn't leave [the series] without gifting the readers one last new villain. With John Romita fulfilling the art chores, he crafted the Gibbon, an orphan named Martin Blank who was cursed from birth with a primitive, ape-like appearance.

A similar system for augmenting your superhero abilities is 'DNA', allowing you to genetically augment yourself with the remains of fallen enemies. Of course, there always has to be balance i science, so strength comes at the cost of health and speed and vice versa. No, this system isn't the work of Dr. Alphonse Mephesto - it's actually Jimmy Valmer's latest side project.

An early 1970s Spider-Man story led to the revision of the Comics Code. Previously, the Code forbade the depiction of the use of illegal drugs, even negatively. However, in 1970, the Nixon administration's Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asked Stan Lee to publish an anti-drug message in one of Marvel's top-selling titles.[9]:239 Lee chose the top-selling The Amazing Spider-Man; issues #96–98 (May–July 1971) feature a story arc depicting the negative effects of drug use. In the story, Peter Parker's friend Harry Osborn becomes addicted to pills. When Spider-Man fights the Green Goblin (Norman Osborn, Harry's father), Spider-Man defeats the Green Goblin, by revealing Harry's drug addiction. While the story had a clear anti-drug message, the Comics Code Authority refused to issue its seal of approval. Marvel nevertheless published the three issues without the Comics Code Authority's approval or seal. The issues sold so well that the industry's self-censorship was undercut and the Code was subsequently revised.[9]:239


^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.
In 1952, Osamu Tezuka's manga Tetsuwan Atom, more popularly known in the West as Astro Boy, was published. The series focused upon a robot boy built by a scientist to replace his deceased son. Being built from an incomplete robot originally intended for military purposes Astro Boy possessed amazing powers such as flight through thrusters in his feet and the incredible mechanical strength of his limbs.
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756692360. Although he made his debut in the previous issue, it was in this [Stan] Lee and [John] Romita tale [The Amazing Spider-Man #51] that the Kingpin - real name Wilson Fisk - really left his mark on organized crime.
As Jobs explains, object-oriented programming allows programmers to use code written by other coders without having to know all of the details of the code. This is a vital feature for writing large pieces of software and making software-based products like search engines, apps, social media site, and more. Object-oriented code essentially sets up an agreement between the program and the computer: “If you give me these inputs, I will give you this output.” This allows for easy modular and collaborative programming.
"Spider-Man" is the name of multiple comic book characters from the Marvel Comics Multiverse. The original and most well known is Peter Parker created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko originating from the Earth 616 universe. Within the mainstream Marvel Universe there have been other characters that have taken the mantle such as Ben Reilly and Doctor Octavius.
Peter Parker's romantic interests range between his first crush, the fellow high-school student Liz Allan,[47] to having his first date with Betty Brant,[88] the secretary to the Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy,[49][52] daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man.[57] Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife.[69] Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's sole superhuman girlfriend and partner at one point.[64]
Superman soon had lots of company, and lots of competition! What do they have in common? All superheroes have some type of extraordinary power or ability. Their "super power" can be something they're born with: Superman, Wonder Woman, Thor. It can be the result of an accident or mutation: Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, Wolverine. Or, it can be simply a skill they have learned, honed and perfected beyond the average: Batman, Hawkeye. They all have a strong moral code and a motivation to rid the world of some menace.  
Throughout Ireland and Britain, the household festivities included rituals and games intended to foretell one's future, especially regarding death and marriage.[57] Apples and nuts were often used in these divination rituals. They included apple bobbing, nut roasting, scrying or mirror-gazing, pouring molten lead or egg whites into water, dream interpretation, and others.[58] Special bonfires were lit and there were rituals involving them. Their flames, smoke and ashes were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers, and were also used for divination.[43] In some places, torches lit from the bonfire were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect them.[42] It is suggested that the fires were a kind of imitative or sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, helping the "powers of growth" and holding back the decay and darkness of winter.[54][59][60] In Scotland, these bonfires and divination games were banned by the church elders in some parishes.[61] In Wales, bonfires were lit to "prevent the souls of the dead from falling to earth".[62] Later, these bonfires served to keep "away the devil".[63]
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