After being defeated on two more occasions by Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus became more determined to defeat his foe and formed the Sinister Six, a group consisting of five other villains who all share the same grudge against the young hero. Ock had each villain face Spider-Man individually so that every member could reap the glory of Spider-Man's death, but he secretly devised this plan to ensure the other villains' defeat each time. After rendering Spider-Man tired, Otto lured him to a fight by kidnapping Aunt May and Betty Brant. Despite everything, Spider-Man came out victorious and saved the two hostages. On his high school graduation, Spider-Man battled the Molten Man, who would turn out to be the stepbrother of Liz Allen. During his early career, Spider-Man would frequently team up with other heroes such as Daredevil, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, and the Human Torch in particular. Peter and Betty broke up after her brother was killed. She couldn't bear the thought of losing another loved one as she feared that Peter would die while taking pictures of Spider-Man. She later settled in with Ned Leeds.
The modern imagery of Halloween comes from many sources, including Christian eschatology, national customs, works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy).[128][129] Imagery of the skull, a reference to Golgotha in the Christian tradition, serves as "a reminder of death and the transitory quality of human life" and is consequently found in memento mori and vanitas compositions;[130] skulls have therefore been commonplace in Halloween, which touches on this theme.[131] Traditionally, the back walls of churches are "decorated with a depiction of the Last Judgment, complete with graves opening and the dead rising, with a heaven filled with angels and a hell filled with devils", a motif that has permeated the observance of this triduum.[132] One of the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne, who, in 1780, made note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns' "Halloween" (1785).[133] Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks, and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. Halloween imagery includes themes of death, evil, and mythical monsters.[134] Black, orange, and sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors.
Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.
. The story begins with Peter already having his Spider powers and is a part-time photographer for the Daily Bugle. Spider-Man would battle many classic villains and newer villains such as Green Goblin (Norman and Harry Osborn), Hobgoblin, the Chameleon, the Lizard, the Scorpion, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio, Rhino, the Kingpin of Crime, the Shocker, Vulture, Venom, and Carnage. Peter would eventually get into a romantic relationship with Felicia Hardy/Black Cat, and eventually fall for Mary Jane Watson. Although Gwen Stacy was never in the series, Marvel gave us a little teaser in the series finale story arc, having Spider-Man go to an alternate universe and meeting Gwen Stacy herself. A very important story arc in this series began as the finale of Season 3 in the episode entitled "Turning Point." In which the Green Goblin kidnaps Mary Jane and throws her off the George Washington Bridge, similar to the story arc "The Night Gwen Stacy Died." However, with the heavy censorship in the 1990s not allowing television to have heavy violence, death being a part of it. Marvel decided to have Mary Jane and the Green Goblin fall into an inter-dimension vortex instead. Season 4 was mostly about the guilt that Spider-Man has to carry for losing Mary Jane. He tries to rebound with the Black Cat, but Mary Jane eventually mysteriously returns to life. Season 5 starts off with the much anticipated Wedding of Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson-Parker. With season 5 being the last season, Marvel dropped a bomb on us by revealing that Mary Jane was actually a clone created by Dr. Miles Warren.
As for the reason for Superhero’s; I think her’s (or ‘super’ heros) were always needed. It’s jsut earlier superhero’s like cowboys are not seen as super now. However, they were much better than the average at gunslinging and all had colerfull names and personalities. I think we the dawn of the 30s and in even earlier in the post World War I era, people realized that a gun slinging cowboy could not save them. People demanded (or wanted) hero’s with more powers. Hero’s that would not be plowed down by machine guns and rifles. Hense superman was made. As street crime began to dominate people’s fears, less super-human heros like Batman appeared.
Jump up ^ Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.
"If This Be My Destiny...!" (1965) "Green Goblin Reborn!" (1971) "The Six Arms Saga" (1971) "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" (1973) "Nothing Can Stop the Juggernaut!" (1982) "The Kid Who Collects Spider-Man" (1984) "Secret Wars" (1984) "Alien Costume Saga" (1984) "The Death of Jean DeWolff" (1985) "The Wedding!" (1987) "Kraven's Last Hunt" (1987) "Torment" (1990) "Invasion of the Spider-Slayers" (1992) "Maximum Carnage" (1993) "Clone Saga" (1994) "Identity Crisis" (1998) "The Gathering of Five" and "The Final Chapter" (1998) "Flowers for Rhino" (2001) "The Other" (2005) "Back in Black" (2007) "One More Day" (2007) "Brand New Day" (2008) "New Ways to Die" (2008) "Spidey Meets the President!" (2009)" "The Gauntlet" and "Grim Hunt" (2009) "One Moment in Time" (2010) "Big Time" (2010) "Spider-Island" (2011) "Ends of the Earth" (2012) "Dying Wish" (2012) "Spider-Verse" (2014) "Dead No More: The Clone Conspiracy" (2016) "Spider-Geddon" (2018)
In the Larval Zooniverse, Peter Porker (who was secretly the superhero Spider-Ham) was working on an experiment that went awry and bestowed upon him the cosmic power of Captain Zooniverse. With this new power he defeated all of his enemies and trapped them in orbit around Earth. He returned home a bit later and began a new villain-free life with his girlfriend Mary Jane Waterbuffalo.[27]
All I can say is that the Peter Parker of the Ultimate Universe casts a huge shadow over Miles' spiritual and emotional development. What will he do when he's confronted with the Peter Parker from another universe? Well, that's the story. And there are a couple of things going on. First, Miles is meeting someone who's the closest flesh-and-blood thing to his actual biggest hero. Second, he's being shown a window into an entire new universe. That's mind-bending stuff for a young kid to come to terms with." Alonso went on to reveal that "there's a super-cool villain involved in all of this and it's mind-bending, twisted stuff that puts these two in each others' orbit. We don't break down the wall between the Marvel Universe and the Ultimate Universe lightly."

Many new openly gay, lesbian and bisexual characters have since emerged in superhero fiction, such as Gen¹³'s Rainmaker, Apollo and Midnighter of The Authority, and Wiccan and Hulkling of the Young Avengers. Notable transgender or gender bending characters are fewer in number by comparison: the alter ego of superheroine Zsazsa Zaturnnah, a seminal character in Philippine popular culture,[63] is an effeminate gay man who transforms into a female superhuman after ingesting a magical stone. Desire from Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series and Xavin from the Runaways are both characters who could (and often) change their gender at will. Alysia Yeoh, a supporting character created by writer Gail Simone for the Batgirl ongoing series published by DC Comics, received substantial media attention in 2011 for being the first major transgender character written in a contemporary context in a mainstream American comic book.[64]
On "In Darkness Dwells," it is shown that there's an infrared scope built within the cowl, along with a rebreather that can be folded within it. There's a wireless relay communicator in the cowl. Its signals are locked with quantum cryptology and bounced through a dozen different satellites (presumably the WayneComs). As per the animation styles, the suit varies between versions of the Batman Begins standard black suit and the Comic Book original.
Today's comic books are descendants of 19th-century "penny dreadful" serials. They were multi-part sensational stories printed on cheap paper and sold for, what else, a penny each. These stories became popular among the lower and working classes. They couldn't afford, and weren't interested in, the "important" literary novels of the day. Penny dreadfuls and the "dime novels" that followed them had clear-cut good-vs.-evil themes. And they weren't short on action or melodrama, either! By the early 20th century, we had such enduring characters as Tarzan and Zorro in "pulp" fiction. (So-called because of the inexpensive paper on which it was printed.) The first of the modern superheroes was Superman, who launched the Golden Age of Comics in 1938.  
Costume design is the envisioning of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer to the style of dress particular to a nation, a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute to the fullness of the artistic, visual world that is unique to a particular theatrical or cinematic production. The most basic designs are produced to denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest to a character. Costumes may be for, but not limited to, theater, cinema, or musical performances. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination, which merely involves altering existing clothing, although both processes are used to create stage clothes.

Writers and artists over the years have established a rogues gallery of supervillains to face Spider-Man. In comics and in other media. As with the hero, the majority of the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, and many have animal-themed costumes or powers.[note 6] Examples are listed down below in the ordering of their original chronological appearance:      Indicates a group.


The Christian Church traditionally observed Hallowe'en through a vigil. Worshippers prepared themselves for feasting on the following All Saints' Day with prayers and fasting.[199] This church service is known as the Vigil of All Hallows or the Vigil of All Saints;[200][201] an initiative known as Night of Light seeks to further spread the Vigil of All Hallows throughout Christendom.[202][203] After the service, "suitable festivities and entertainments" often follow, as well as a visit to the graveyard or cemetery, where flowers and candles are often placed in preparation for All Hallows' Day.[204][205] In Finland, because so many people visit the cemeteries on All Hallows' Eve to light votive candles there, they "are known as valomeri, or seas of light".[206]
Following decades of false starts and numerous unused scripts, Spider-Man finally made it to the big screen in the year 2000. Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007) comprised a trilogy of films starring Tobey Maguire as the title character, with Sam Raimi directing each installment. The trilogy featured a large host of characters from the comics, including Kirsten Dunst as Mary Jane Watson, James Franco as Harry Osborn, Willem Dafoe as Norman Osborn/Green Goblin, J.K. Simmons as J. Jonah Jameson, Alfred Molina as Otto Octavius/Doc Ock, Thomas Haden Church as Flint Marko/Sandman, Topher Grace as Eddie Brock/Venom, Rosemary Harris as Aunt May, Cliff Robertson as Uncle Ben, Dylan Baker as Dr. Curt Connors, Elizabeth Banks as Betty Brant and Bryce Dallas Howard as Gwen Stacy.
Sarah (last name unrevealed): Gwen's daughter by Norman Osborn. Norman convinced Sarah and her brother, Gabriel, that Peter Parker was their father and had killed their mother. Sarah becomes suspicious after she meets Spider-Man however. She is convinced of the truth when Spider-Man saves her life by giving her a blood transfusion after she is shot by police. Spider-Man later learns that the pain caused by her accelerated aging has led her to abuse painkillers, and her addiction has gotten her in trouble with the French authorities. However, she promises to seek help, and perhaps someday become a hero herself. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #509.
When the Guardians of the Galaxy traveled to the 20th century on a mission to destroy the Badoon, the Uni-Power possessed a Badoon worker named L'Matto in order to prevent the planned genocide. L'Matto's newfound knowledge was able to keep the Guardians from attacking but the Brother Royal then used the Badoon Captain Universe as his champion in a gladiatorial challenge which he had coerced the Guardians into accepting. L'Matto easily overpowered Charlie-27 and was about to kill him when Vance Astro and Dr. Strange arrived and joined in the battle, with Nikki and Talon pitching in as well. Despite this, it was not until Aleta (who had become the new Starhawk) arrived and attacked alongside Dr. Strange that L'Matto was finally defeated, enabling Strange to exorcise the Uni-Power which L'Matto had abused and return it to Earth.[13]
Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages.[20] Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[20]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
There was a second miniseries, Spider-Men II, released in 2017. It was a new team-up of Peter and Miles, now both living in the mainstream Marvel universe. It also features the native Miles Morales of the mainstream universe, an adult and close friend of the Kingpin. At the end of the story, the adult Morales moves into the Ultimate Marvel universe, which had been destroyed in the 2015 Secret Wars crossover. This remade the Ultimate universe, Peter Parker is now Spider-Man again, and has joined the Ultimates.[14]
Ultimate Spider-Man is a modernized reboot of the Spider-Man story, starting from the very beginning, with a plot that is inspired by, but very different from, the original continuity, and thus is a parallel universe counterpart to the mainstream version of Spider-Man. The main purpose of the series is to be accessible to new and young readers, as it is free from the decades of history of the original, but it has been embraced by many longtime fans as well.
In one possible future of the Marvel Universe, Advanced Idea Mechanics has examined the Uni-Power and attempted to duplicate it. The duplicate, referred to as the 'Alias-Power' or 'Uni-Alias', has the ability to animate the Death's Head 3.0 robot. While resident in Death's Head, it took the form of a conscience. On one occasion, when asked to rescue an evil scientist from a jail, it instead rescued a human rights activist. When the robot killed a UN researcher, the power brought him back to life. The researcher then confronted the robot, forcing it to acknowledge the conscience. Afterwards, Death's Head began working for the UN as an anti-terrorist hit-man.[26]
Karen: The suit has a built-in A.I. named Karen, similar to Tony Stark ’s F.R.I.D.A.Y., that informs Spider-Man on changing tactical situations and provides diagnostic reports. This feature was initially set to activate after Parker completed the Training Wheels Protocol, but Ned Leeds unlocked it with the rest of the suit's abilities. Karen records and stores data while the suit is in use through the Baby Monitor Protocol, allowing Spider-Man to access a personal database and review information he may have overlooked previously, or to research people or events he has previously encountered. Karen also provides suggestions and activates features autonomously, such as when she enabled the suit's 'Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode' when Parker needed help surveying a couple of criminals.
To make your own basic Spider-Man costume, start with a basic Spider-Man costume from a shop. Use black puffy paint to paint the web design on the costume and mask, then let it dry for about 2 hours. Next, spray paint window mesh white and glue the mesh to Spider-Man lenses. Attach the mesh and lenses to the mask as well. Sew or glue the shoes from a pair of running shoes to the feet of the costume, and add your own web shooter made from aluminum foil, a straw, and a foldable template printed from the internet.
Spider-Man crashed into the lake, got tangled in his parachute underwater, and nearly drowned. Iron Man retrieved him with a remotely controlled armor, and explained that he installed a tracker into Parker's suit, allowing Stark to observe Parker. Parker explained the situation to him, but Stark urged Parker to forget the Vulture and let more experienced people handle the Vulture's activity.[2]
Spider-Man first appears in the episode Along Came A spider where he helps Captain America fight the serpent society He next appears in New Avengers where he leads the New lineup of Avengers against Kang...after the victory and return of the Original Avengers he officially becomes a member (although a reserve one). The last time he appeared was Avengers Assemble amongst the rest of Earth's heroes fighting The Heralds of Galactus.

Batman's cape is made of "memory cloth," also developed by Lucius Fox. It is essentially flexible in its normal state, but becomes semi-rigid in a fixed form when an electric current is passed through it from the microcircuits in his right glove. Bruce also adds metal gauntlets with angular fin blades on the forearms, a weapon kept from his experience as a pupil of Ra's al Ghul's organization, the League of Shadows. Mainly used to block against knives or other stabbing weapons, Bruce managed to surprise Ra's by breaking the blade of his ninjaken in multiple places with the gauntlets.
By 1995, the suit was eventually modified, the cloak becoming a scalloped-edged cape and the gloves becoming gauntlets with three “fins” with claws embedded in the fingers for climbing. Famously drawn by the likes of Neal Adams and Jim Aparo, he eventually created a unique fire-retardant and chemical-resistant triple-weave Kevlar thread for the suit. The material had carbon nanotube fibers that imparted it with a unique sheen and made it heavily resistant to tearing. This material would go into the creation of all following bat-suits and other suits in the Bat Family. The most notable traits of this evolution were the incorporation of the yellow ellipse around the bat emblem as well as the capsule utility belt.

Perhaps, Spider-Man's most famous piece of equipment is his self built web-shooters which allow him to shoot sticky ropes of webbing which he uses to swing from building to building. They are a pair of special wrist devices of Peter's own design that contain a material that mixes with air to web-like material. They can be used in many different ways by varying the pressure and adjusting the nozzles of the spinnerets. They can take the form of strong thin lines, as fine quick spreading lines, or as a thick adhesive liquid. Spider-Man can either use the webbing as web-gloves to protect his hands, as a Web-Parachute, an air-proof Web-Dome, a Web-Shield that offers protection from bullets and energy blasts, as small "web-bullets" that bounce off opponents, use the webbing to ensnare an opponent, tie foes up with a rope and hang them upside down from vertical poles, pulling his foes towards him, or shoot them in any direction he chooses Spider-Man's primary means of transportation is by the use of his webbing to swing around the city. He shoots a strand of webbing to a high location, like the edge of a building, and pushes his body towards any direction he chooses while holding on to the web, allowing him to traverse at an accelerated speed. This artificial webbing lasts for an hour before fading away. More recently he has evolved biological web shooters that spray webbing from his forearms but this power has been erased by Mephisto after the One More Day storyline.
Jump up ^ Döring, Alois; Bolinius, Erich (31 October 2006), Samhain – Halloween – Allerheiligen (in German), FDP Emden, Die lückenhaften religionsgeschichtlichen Überlieferungen, die auf die Neuzeit begrenzte historische Dimension der Halloween-Kultausprägung, vor allem auch die Halloween-Metaphorik legen nahe, daß wir umdenken müssen: Halloween geht nicht auf das heidnische Samhain zurück, sondern steht in Bezug zum christlichen Totengedenkfest Allerheiligen/ Allerseelen.

Jump up ^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 9780313386541. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own. They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small packages featuring Bible verses, Scripture Candy's "Harvest Seeds"--candy corn in everything but name—are among many candies created for this purpose.
Spider-Man first appears in the episode Along Came A spider where he helps Captain America fight the serpent society He next appears in New Avengers where he leads the New lineup of Avengers against Kang...after the victory and return of the Original Avengers he officially becomes a member (although a reserve one). The last time he appeared was Avengers Assemble amongst the rest of Earth's heroes fighting The Heralds of Galactus.
Jump up ^ Jack Kirby in "Shop Talk: Jack Kirby", Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine #39 (February 1982): "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe Simon and myself. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. We had a strip called 'The Silver Spider.' The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. Black Magic folded with Crestwood (Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company) and we were left with the script. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back... and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. But Joe had already moved on. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".
After graduating from High School, Peter Parker enrolled at ESU ( Empire State University) where Flash introduced him to Harry Osborn and Gwen Stacy. During this time, Aunt May suffered from a serious heart attack. Peter would constantly blow his friends off and they saw this as an insult. Eventually their relationship would get better as Peter became more involved with his peers. He and Harry became best friends and roommates. Peter also started dating Gwen Stacy. He would also meet Anna Watson's niece Mary Jane. Although he was attracted to Mary Jane, Peter decided to settle with Gwen because MJ was too much of a "party girl" for him. Peter loves Gwen, but their relationship was strained a bit by him constantly leaving to fight crime. Their relationship was saved by Gwen's father, Police Captain George Stacy, an ally of Spider-Man, who approved of Peter dating his daughter. Gwen's father was later killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus, after he was crushed by falling debris while saving a child. In his dying breath, George called Spider-Man "Peter", revealing that he had always known about his dual identity and urged him to take care of Gwen. George's death caused a strain in the couple's relationship because Gwen blamed Spider-Man for her loss. She left Peter for some time to live with her uncle in London.
The first human Captain Universe was an astronaut named Captain Ray Coffin. He battled Baron Karza and sealed the Prometheus Pit between the Microverse and Earth.[3] Years later, the Uni-Power would possess his son Steve Coffin to battle Mister E and his shadow slaves.[4] It next possessed identical twins Ann Stafford and Clare Dodgson to capture Nemesis,[4] and then possessed small-time cat burglar Monty Walsh to stop mafia don Guido Carboni.[5] It then possessed Doctor Strange and Commander Arcturus Rann to reinforce the space-wall between the Microverse and the Macroverse.[6] It then possessed Bruce Banner for the first time, to defuse a nuclear missile, and wound up battling Banner's own alter ego, the Hulk.[7] Captain Universe was then next among the heroes summoned by the Grandmaster for the Contest of Champions.[8] The Captain Universe power next possessed Delayne Masters to defeat schoolyard bullies.[9] It then possessed Evan Swann to stop the Quantum Mechanic from destroying the Earth.[10]
From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
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