From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[165] In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity,[166] an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.[167]
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The film was a hit at the box office, and as a result, The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was released in 2014. The film featured the return of most of the original cast, as well as new faces like Jamie Foxx as Max Dillon/Electro, Dane DeHaan as Harry Osborn/Green Goblin and Paul Giamatti as Aleksei Sytsevich/The Rhino. While the movie was a modest financial success, it was heavily panned by critics and made less at the box office than its predecessor. Despite plans for a third movie and a host of spin-offs (including a solo Venom movie, a female-led team movie featuring characters like Silver Sable, Black Cat, Spider-Gwen, Stunner and Lightbrght, and a Sinister Six movie) , the decision was made to discontinue the franchise.
In 2005, after a four-year break from comic appearances, Captain Universe returned in the second series of Amazing Fantasy.[2] Also in 2005, a series of one-shot specials linked together by the Uni-Power/Captain Universe were released featuring different characters from the Marvel Universe as the Uni-Power each imbues them with power of Captain Universe. These titles were Captain Universe/Hulk, Captain Universe/Daredevil, Captain Universe/X-23, Captain Universe/Invisible Woman and Captain Universe/Silver Surfer. The Uni-Power made a brief appearance in Nextwave, he also made a "cameo" as Cosmic Spider-Man for the variant cover of Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #3 and played an important part in the Death's Head 3.0 saga chronicled in Amazing Fantasy.

Set during Peter Parker's first year with powers, the series draws from multiple sources, including the modern comics (such as the Spider-Island storyline). Early on, Peter is accepted into Horizon High, an extremely prestigious scientific school run by Max Modell. He encounters several of his future foes in the school, and battles his familiar cast of villains like the Green Goblin, the Vulture, the Jackal and Doctor Octopus. He also meets and teams up with several members of the Avengers, such as Iron Man, Hulk and Black Widow.
Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages.[20] Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[20]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
In France, some Christian families, on the night of All Hallows' Eve, prayed beside the graves of their loved ones, setting down dishes full of milk for them.[100] On Halloween, in Italy, some families left a large meal out for ghosts of their passed relatives, before they departed for church services.[112] In Spain, on this night, special pastries are baked, known as "bones of the holy" (Spanish: Huesos de Santo) and put them on the graves of the churchyard, a practice that continues to this day.[113]
Jump up ^ Dr. Andrew James Harvey (31 October 2012). "'All Hallows' Eve'". The Patriot Post. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2011. "The vigil of the hallows" refers to the prayer service the evening before the celebration of All Hallows or Saints Day. Or "Halloween" for short – a fixture on the liturgical calendar of the Christian West since the seventh century.
Jump up ^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 99. ISBN 9783825888893. On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes. Halloween - like the medieval danse macabre - is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
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