The word 'superhero' dates to at least 1917. Antecedents of the archetype include such folkloric heroes as Robin Hood, who adventured in distinctive clothing. The 1903 play The Scarlet Pimpernel and its spinoffs popularized the idea of a masked avenger and the superhero trope of a secret identity. Shortly afterward, masked and costumed pulp fiction characters such as Jimmie Dale/the Gray Seal (1914), Zorro (1919), The Shadow (1930) and comic strip heroes, such as the Phantom (1936) began appearing, as did non-costumed characters with super strength, including Patoruzú (1928), the comic-strip character Popeye (1929) and novelist Philip Wylie's character Hugo Danner (1930).
Spider-Man has the proportionate strength of a spider, thus allowing him to press 10 tons without effort and much more when under stress. His attacks are so strong; they could kill a normal person- Spider-Man has to pull his punches or kicks when not fighting foes with similar or higher strength levels to avoid fatalities. His strength also extends to his feet, allowing him to leap great lengths and attain a heights of much greater three stories with one powerful jump. Spidey's strength has made him capable of going toe-to-toe with opponents including Doctor Octopus, Venom and Rhino. He has even held his own against powerful heroes such as Iron Man and the Hulk. It's also shown that Spider-Man can break free from Doctor Octopus's nearly indestructible arms albeit with much effort, although this was due to the Sinister Six suit enhancing his strength. Spidey's strength and durability also give him incredible stamina allowing him to exert himself beyond the limits of humans as his body produces less fatigue toxins. He was able to fight Morlun continually for many hours, and has stated an ability to hold his breath for at least twice as long as non-enhanced humans. After his encounter with the Queen, Spider-Man's strength had been increased to the point where he has become able to lift over 15 tons without effort and after the Other story arc he was able to lift at least 20 tons without effort. During that time, he wore an Iron Spider costume designed for him by Tony Stark which increased his strength further allowing him to lift over 25 tons without effort. He has stopped wearing the Iron Spider costume after the Civil War and his enhanced strength was erased by Mephisto after the One More Day storyline. Spider-man's best strength feats tend to come during periods of emotional duress- for example in a fight with Iron Man 2020, where when a boy was injured mid fight, an enraged Spider-Man jumped up to his flying height and hit him with such force the foe was sent flying hundreds of feet into a building, which was destroyed on impact. Another instance was when he lifted a segment of the Daily Bugle, after the building was attacked by the Green Goblin. In both cases, he didn't have any enhancements from the Queen or the Other.
In 1994 Captain Universe appeared in a one-shot, coinciding with a promotion, with the claim that readers could have a comic about themselves made for a fee. The comics were generally stock stories, with minor details (such as skin or hair color, key names or phrases, etc.) altered based on information provided by the purchaser. Veterinary student Jeff Christiansen, who would later become the force behind the resurgence of the Official Handbooks of the Marvel Universe in the mid-2000s was made the official Captain Universe of the comic so that it could be considered an in-continuity comic. The one-shot was titled X-Men/Captain Universe: Sleeping Giants.
While out web-swinging, Spider-Man sees a brilliant purple light from a distant warehouse, and investigates it to find Mysterio ranting about how he missed out on one chance to kill Spider-Man already. Although Spider-Man quickly defeats him and ties him up, when examining Mysterio's equipment, he is shot by Mysterio, causing him to fall through the rift created by the equipment. When he regains consciousness, he discovers that it is daylight. Although he interrupts a mugging, he is shocked and confused when the would-be victim informs him that, while he is grateful for the rescue, it might be disrespectful to be seen wearing Peter Parker's suit after his death. Swinging away to think about what he has just heard, Spider-Man runs into another Spider-Man on a rooftop.
Determined to make his short time on Earth count, Gerry designs his own Spider-Man costume and equipment based from his idol's, and convinces his mother to train him in how to use his powers. Calling himself Spider-Man, he meets Spider-Girl, and the two initially clash. During a fight between several villains, a bullet intended for Spider-Man kills one of the villains when Spider-Girl shoves him out of its way. Upset that he was responsible for a death, Gerry runs into Darkdevil, who trains him to be a more effective crime fighter. At the request of Peter Parker, the original Spider-Man, Gerry decides to retire from super heroic adventuring while Reed Richards searches for a cure for his blood disease.[volume & issue needed]
Quick background on me: I'm a leading admin on four different wikis (including Final Fantasy Wiki and Ratchet & Clank Wiki), and have been editing dozens of wikis for almost ten years now. As I'm a huge fan of Insomniac Games, and really excited for Marvel's Spider-Man on PS4, I decided to apply the skills I built over the years, along with my friend u/Jak_Himself (from the Jak and Daxter Wiki), to develop what will hopefully be the official wiki for the upcoming game!
Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 9781438110370. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015. They were both respected and feared. "Their backs towards us, their faces away from us, and may God and Mary save us from harm," was a prayer spoken whenever one ventured near their dwellings.
After liberating the Power Stone from the Nova Corps on Xandar, Thanos and his adoptive children—Ebony Maw, Cull Obsidian, Proxima Midnight, and Corvus Glaive—invade the spaceship carrying the Asgardians who escaped the destruction Asgard in search of the Tesseract. Despite Thor, Loki, Heimdall and the Hulk's valiant attempts to thwart Thanos' invasion they are quickly defeated by the mad titan and his children with Loki dying in the process. After subduing the ship's defenders, Thanos claims the Tesseract for himself. After claiming the Tesseract, Thanos destroys his newly acquired prize revealing that he never actually wanted the Tesseract, but the Space Stone that powered the Tesseract. With his prize in hand, Thanos destroys the ship before continuing the search for the remaining Infinity Stones with his children. Unbeknownst to Thanos, Heimdall used the last of his strength to send the Hulk through the Bifröst to Earth before the ship's destruction, so that he might warn the Avengers of the threat Thanos posed.
Marvel's Spider-Man brings a massive open-world of modern New York city where the friendly neighborhood superhero is free to do many things. He is not only a savior but also a geek, in this game, you will be playing some part as nerdy Peter Parker and a lot with Spider-Man geared up in the latest suit powered by next-gen tech. Crafting, movements, suit upgrades, etc is also a major part of the game, by finding Tokens and Substances you can create the best mods to build a next level suit. In this wiki guide, you will find the full game walkthrough, collectibles, tips and tricks and much more.
Het kolossale glazen gebouw is vanaf Amsterdam Sloterdijk nauwelijks te missen. In de interactieve aankomsthal waar een fors touch-beeldscherm de ruimte vult en waar klanten het KPN Experience Lab kunnen betreden, worden we opgewacht door Jorn Vriend (product owner MijnKPN). Het telecombedrijf lanceerde in mei een vernieuwde Mijn-omgeving. De pilot had een ‘op maat gemaakt selfservicekanaal’ als doel. Voldoende aanleiding dus om dit keer niet de klantenserviceafdeling, maar het technologische hart van KPN een bezoek te brengen. Vol enthousiasme en bevlogenheid leidt hij ons rond over de afdeling, waar we een voetbalveld, een Playstation en surfborden aantreffen.
In 1952, Osamu Tezuka's manga Tetsuwan Atom, more popularly known in the West as Astro Boy, was published. The series focused upon a robot boy built by a scientist to replace his deceased son. Being built from an incomplete robot originally intended for military purposes Astro Boy possessed amazing powers such as flight through thrusters in his feet and the incredible mechanical strength of his limbs.
In the 1930s, both trends came together in some of the earliest superpowered costumed heroes such as Japan's Ōgon Bat (visualized in painted panels used by kamishibai oral storytellers in Japan since 1931), Mandrake the Magician (1934), Superman in 1938 and Captain Marvel (1939) at the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books. The precise era of the Golden Age of Comic Books is disputed, though most agree that it was started with the launch of Superman in 1938. Superman remains one of the most recognizable Superheroes to this day. The success of Superman spawned a whole new genre of characters with secret identities and superhuman powers – the Superhero genre.
On Earth-11638, this version of Spider-Man is called the Amazing Spider who is rich, powerful, and popular where none of his loved ones has died. Peter runs Parker Technologies and his Uncle Ben spurs him to be the best. Upon inventing a portal technology, he unknowingly brought Earth-616's Spider-Man, Deadpool, and Hulk to Earth-11638. During a scuffle with Spider-Man in Amazing Spider's lair called the Web, Uncle Ben was about to plug Spider-Man into the machine. Amazing Spider was caught between the machine and was placed in a comatose state. While in a coma, Amazing Spider's soul arrived in Hell where Bruce Banner's Sorcerer Supreme counterpart died fighting the Infernal Hulk. Though Bruce's astral form stayed alive and helped return the Amazing Spider to life with the souls of the repentant damned which gave him a second chance to live. When he awoke, he found himself transformed into a new character called the Ghost Spider. To make amends with Spider-Man, Ghost Spider transported him, Deadpool, and Hulk back to Earth-616.
Jump up ^ Diehl, Daniel; Donnelly, Mark P. (13 April 2011). Medieval Celebrations: Your Guide to Planning and Hosting Spectacular Feasts, Parties, Weddings, and Renaissance Fairs. Stackpole Books. p. 17. ISBN 9780811744300. All Hallows' Eve. A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land. Church bells were run and fires lit to guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk. Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth. Although a rare few continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for engaging in such activities. These may seem like innocent fun today, but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages.
Peter Benjamin Parker is a photographer for the Daily Bugle newspaper under Editor-in-Chief Joe Robertson. Parker is also the friendly costumed hero Spider-Man. Spider-Man possesses the abilities of Earth arachnids, allowing him to fire thread-like projectiles from his wrists. These threads may be used to spin webs of near-limitless size, as well as to capture thieves and other assorted rogues in the selfsame manner as a spider entraps traditional insects. Those who wonder about his boundless strength would be advised to listen closely, as his spectacular might is the result of radioactive energy flowing through his very veins. The aforementioned web-like materials fired from his wrists can also be used as a means of swinging to and fro, meaning that those who wish to observe the Spider-Man in action can best do so by simply looking overhead. In addition, he is known to be primarily a nocturnal adventurer, appearing in the deep of night wherever evil is afoot. His alacrity is so great, his timing so amazing, he has been compared to a flash of light. Despite his best efforts and good intentions, it seems that his attempts at justice are often overlooked, and while other heroes may find celebrity and fortune, poor Parker is constantly in one hang-up or another. Regardless, the Spider-Man soldiers on; wherever there is a fight or ruckus or tussle, the Spider-Man can be found!
Jump up ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 93: "Dr. Octopus shared many traits with Peter Parker. They were both shy, both interested in science, and both had trouble relating to women...Otto Octavius even looked like a grown-up Peter Parker. Lee and Ditko intended Otto to be the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility.
As in the previous game, the main characters are divided into two main, competing factions, and the New Kid is first lured into the conflict by Eric Cartman's faction - this time, the iconic Coon and Friends franchise. Over the course of story, they are forced to team up with Freedom Pals in order to save the town from a greater foe, as well as the dreaded Professor Chaos himself.
Of course, Marty went to the past and then Back to the Future, and if you're all about this top franchise of the 80s, you're going to want to set your sights on this Marty costume from the first movie. With the shirt, jacket, and vest (that looks suspiciously like a life preserver to the people of 1955), this costume set also includes some cool prop accessories that are sure to make you feel like a resident of Hill Valley—in any era!
When Classi reaches the back door of Buca de Faggoncini to hide, a mobster kills Captain Diabetes, who is only revived by a sudden "glitch" in time initiated by the New Kid. Calling in backup, they are joined by their allies in fighting the chefs of the restaurant, soon discovering a room full of cats in cat carriers and another group of mobsters, who are only taken out by Red Wine Drunk Randy Marsh, desperately looking for his keys. As Randy is defeated, Coon and Friends manages to capture Classi.
At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States. While there is evidence of such incidents, relative to the degree of reporting of such cases, actual cases involving malicious acts are extremely rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy.
^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy. Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books. He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself and not just only as his Goblin persona.
Anyone ever read “Monkey”? It is a translation of “Journey to The West”, a 16th Century folk tale of Sun Wukong, the Monkey King accompanying the Monk XuanZang to India to retrieve the Ramayana. This translation presents the folk tale as the fantasy it was undoubtedly intended to be. Sun Wukong is presented as a superhero in this telling. It makes for a great read because this author bolied the translation down into a pulp tale.
Encapsulation: Encapsulation is when attributes and methods are stored in a single class. The process of providing a public interface to interact with the object while hiding other information inside the object. Encapsulation means that the internal representation of an object is generally hidden from view outside of the object's definition.The main way that encapsulation helps reduce rippling effects of change is by keeping as many of the implementation details private to the class. By limiting the interface only to those members needed to use the class, many changes can be made to the implementation without affecting any code that uses the class. The class can be thought of as a 'capsule' or container for data and operations.
Rwarrrrr! You might not have the wookiee growl down pat, but you'll instantly be ready to co-pilot the Millennium Falcon when you slip on this hoodie. Probably the easiest of all ways to rock a Star Wars costume, it features luxurious wookiee faux fur and an embroidered bandoleer. And that extra fur is sure to keep you toasty if you live in a colder climate, like Hoth.
Following Davis's lead, Spider-Man sneaked into the ferry and went looking for the Vulture. During his scouting, Stark called him, but Spider-Man hung up on him to focus on his targets. Spider-Man interrupted the deal and defeated Vulture's gang and Mac Gargan, but the FBI interrupted Spider-Man's ambush and proceeded to arrest everyone at the scene.
While battling the first Zebra-Man, Bruce Wayne was accidentally irradiated by the same energy that had irradiated Jake Baker. Without an inhibitor belt, Bruce's diamagnetism powers were out of control, causing Robin to go on without him. Batman soon took advantage of the diamagnetism, however, and used it to attract Zebra-Man to him and attract both of them to Gotham City Police Department.
^ Doctor Octopus is regarded as one of Spider-Man's worst enemies. He has been cited as the man Peter might have become if he hadn't been raised with a sense of responsibility. He is infamous for defeating him the first time in battle and for almost marrying Peter's Aunt May. He is the core leader of the Sinister Six and has also referred himself as the "Master Planner". ("If This Be My Destiny...!") Later depictions revealed him in Peter Parker's body where he was the titular character for a while.
Spider-Man later tracked down and confronts Osborn, having dispatched all of his henchmen in turn. During their fight, it is revealed that Osborn is a former circus freak himself who hides his goblin-like visage behind one of the Chameleon’s masks. After Spider-Man refuses to kill Osborn, the spider-infested and barely still alive body of Kraven appears and attacks the Goblin, killing him.
One of the newest bearded gents to hit the superhero scene is Jason Momoa's Aquaman! With just a glimpse of the character in 2016's Batman V Superman, he's going full bore in the Justice League movie. So, now would be the perfect time to showcase both your scruffy beard and your swimming prowess! Add a wig along with your own long beard when you go in this jumpsuit to get the perfect DC Comics look.
The Amazing Spider-Man must go head to head with his most dangerous enemy: the psychotic murderer known as Carnage! A vicious serial killer named Cletus Kasady has had his body chemistry altered by an alien creature. Now, Kasady can transform himself into Carnage, who, along with his lethal, living costume, lives for chaos and random acts of senseless, brutal murder! Carnage has been returned to New York in chains, the subject of a daring attempt to reverse the effects of his metamorphosis. When the interference of a deranged scientist causes the experiment to go horribly wrong. Carnage is set loose upon the city once again! It's up to Spider-Man to stop his deadliest foe before he unleashes... Carnage In New York.
Following the 2015 Secret Wars event, a number of Spider-Man-related titles were either relaunched or created as part of the "All-New, All-Different Marvel" event. Among them, The Amazing Spider-Man was relaunched as well and primarily focuses on Peter Parker continuing to run Parker Industries, and becoming a successful businessman who is operating worldwide.
In addition to the creation of new minority heroes, publishers have filled the identities and roles of once-Caucasian heroes with new characters from minority backgrounds. The African-American John Stewart appeared in the 1970s as an alternate for Earth's Green Lantern Hal Jordan, and would become a regular member of the Green Lantern Corps from the 1980s onward. The creators of the 2000s-era Justice League animated series selected Stewart as the show's Green Lantern. In the Ultimate Marvel universe, Miles Morales, a multiracial American youth who was also bitten by a genetically-altered spider, debuted as the new Spider-Man after the apparent death of the original. Kamala Khan, a Pakistani-American teenager who is revealed to have Inhuman lineage after her shapeshifting powers manifested, takes on the identity of Ms. Marvel in 2014. Her self-titled comic book series became a cultural phenomenon, with extensive media coverage by CNN, the New York Times and The Colbert Report, and embraced by anti-Islamophobia campaigners in San Francisco who plastered over anti-Muslim bus adverts with Kamala stickers. Other such successor-heroes of color include James "Rhodey" Rhodes as Iron Man, Ryan Choi as the Atom, and Jaime Reyes as Blue Beetle.
Rapper Kanye West makes a return to the South Park world, having fully teansformed into a "Gay Fish" (his only identification in the game) and seeking Sea-Man and the player's help to guide his "momma" to Heaven aboard a unicorn that farts rainbows. This is a reference to 'Only One', a real mobile game West is making about his real mother's ascension to Heaven.
^ Jump up to: a b Cowsill, Alan; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1990s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 197. ISBN 978-0756692360. Artist Mark Bagley's era of The Amazing Spider-Man hit its stride as Carnage revealed the true face of his evil. Carnage was a symbiotic offspring produced when Venom bonded to psychopath Cletus Kasady."
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man, as drawn and envisioned by Kirby, was too similar to the Fly.:127
Jump up ^ Portaro, Sam (25 January 1998). A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and Fasts. Cowley Publications. p. 199. ISBN 1461660513. All Saints' Day is the centerpiece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival celebrations of All Hallows' Eve our ancestors used the most powerful weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to confront the power of death. The following day, in the commemoration of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness embodied in remarkable deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy of darkness and devils. And in the commemoration of All Souls we proclaimed the hope of common mortality expressed in our aspirations and expectations of a shared eternity.
During the Character Creation process, a "difficulty slider" allows the player to adjust their skin color, with white, Caucasian skin being 'easy' and dark black skin being 'very hard', though the Coon reminds the player, "this doesn't affect combat, just about every other aspect of your whole life." The slider was nonetheless picked up in many news outlets as genuine, with many subsequently expressing displeasure that its effects in the final game are relatively small.
In Scotland, Midnight and Glaive ambush Scarlet Witch and the Vision in an attempt to forcibly remove the Mind Stone located in the Vision's head. Since removing the stone would also kill the Vision, the two heroes attempt to resist, but are overwhelmed by Thanos' children. When it looks like that they will succeeded in taking the Mind Stone; Steve, Black Widow and Falcon swoop in and resuce their comrades from Midnight and Glaive before regrouping with War Machine and Bruce at the New Avengers Facility in upstate New York. Realizing that their assailants won't rest till they have the stone and not wanting to see any of his friends or loved ones get hurt trying to stop them, the Vision offers to sacrifice himself by having Scarlet Witch destroy the Mind Stone to keep it out of the hands of Thanos' children. Rather then sacrifice his friend, Steve suggests that they go to Black Panther for help citing that Wakandan science might have a way to remove the stone without killing the Vision.
Jump up ^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 99. ISBN 9783825888893. On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes. Halloween – like the medieval danse macabre – is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
This collection of costumes for men is sure have exactly what you're looking for, whether you're shopping for yourself or for others, for Halloween or other events. Lots of the costumes allow you to choose a size that fits you best, but be warned! Halloween costumes are always smaller than you might expect, and going a size up is safer than going a size down – it's always easier to take items in then let them out, and there's only so much you can do with costume fabric. There are also plus sizes for bigger lads, so it's easy to get something that will fit. There are lots of ways to make costume shopping more affordable, too.
During the Halloween seasonal event, which lasts from October 20th / October 1st until November 1 / November 10th , several enemies wear costumes that change their appearance, unique enemies spawn, and new items become available via enemy drops or via purchase. Goodie Bags also drop, offering random Halloween-themed items, mostly decorative or vanity.
Bruce Banner--the Incredible Hulk--and his wife, Betty, travel to New York to meet an old friend. There, they discover that their friend is a target for assassination by the notorious Super-Skrull, an alien possessing all the powers of the Fantastic Four. Teaming-up with the amazing Spider-Man, the Hulk must stop the shapeshifting villain from carrying out his mission.
Jump up ^ Kernan, Joe (30 October 2013). "Not so spooky after all: The roots of Halloween are tamer than you think". Cranston Herald. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015. By the early 20th century, Halloween, like Christmas, was commercialized. Pre-made costumes, decorations and special candy all became available. The Christian origins of the holiday were downplayed.
Originally, Peter Parker wore a homemade suit consisting of cheap red and blue clothing, particularly a blue longjohns under a red sleeveless hoodie with a black spider chest emblem, red fingerless gloves with black webbing designs on them, and black goggles to fight crime in New York City. He hid this suit from his aunt May in a loft above his room, which came down on a rope whenever someone opened it.
In her view, students would be better served if colleges showed more faith in their capacity to work things out themselves, which would help them to develop cognitive skills. “Nicholas says, if you don’t like a costume someone is wearing, look away, or tell them you are offended. Talk to each other. Free speech and the ability to tolerate offence are hallmarks of a free and open society,” she wrote. “But—again, speaking as a child development specialist—I think there might be something missing in our discourse about … free speech (including how we dress) on campus, and it is this: What does this debate about Halloween costumes say about our view of young adults, of their strength and judgment? In other words: Whose business is it to control the forms of costumes of young people? It's not mine, I know that.”
From at least the 16th century, the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales. This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them. It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune". In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune. In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed. F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire. In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod. In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.