It was during the 1930s, about the same time as trick-or-treating, that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America. It was in the late 1950s that haunted houses as a major attraction began to appear, focusing first on California. Sponsored by the Children's Health Home Junior Auxiliary, the San Mateo Haunted House opened in 1957. The San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. Home haunts began appearing across the country during 1962 and 1963. In 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened, as well as the Children's Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis.[178]
Is there anything more perfect than Dorinda talking to her Halloween decorations? Yes, there is: It's drunk Dorinda trying to explain how she got her Lady Gaga costume made by way of Saturday Night Live, Andy Samberg and possibly Adam Sandler. Before she hosted her party—and got mad at Sonja for not greeting her as the host of the party—Dorinda hosted Luann for a post-divorce lunch.

To help with the rewrites, the production brought in Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, a playwright as well as well as a comic writer, having had a short run on Spectacular Spider-Man in 2006. After opening for a second time, the show once again received poor reviews, being called one of the worst Broadway shows of all time by New York Times critic Ben Brantley.


Billy Braddock alias Spider-UK, a British-based Spider-Man and a member of the Captain Britain Corps.[62] He became a sole survivor from Earth-833 after his home reality was destroyed during Time Runs Out and chose to remain in the reality of the defeated Inheritors along with Anya Corazon.[63] During the second volume of Spider-Verse set during the Secret Wars event, Spider-UK and Anya Corazon found themselves in the domain of the Battleworld called Arachnia with no memories of how they got there.[64] and eventually teamed up with Spider-Gwen, Spider-Ham, Spider-Man Noir, and Spider-Man: India, neither of them remembering their previous encounter during the original Spider-Verse.[65] Following the conclusion of Secret Wars the team of six Spiders will rename itself and feature in a new ongoing series called Web Warriors, a name that was coined by Peter Parker from the Ultimate Spider-Man TV series during the original Spider-Verse.[66]


Spider-Man versus his most implacable enemy! Norman Osborn is a respected businessman, the owner of several companies, including the New York Daily Bugle. He is also secretly the super-villain known as the Green Goblin--a foe who has turned Spider-Man's life upside down more than once, and one who knows that Spider-Man is really Peter Parker! Osborn's latest scheme is his most ambitious yet: to make himself mayor of New York. But where many see that as a laudable goal, Spider-Man knows that Osborn's goal is nothing less than absolute power. Spider-Man can defeat the Green Goblin, but Osborn refuses to act himself, preferring to remain above the fray and let the mercenaries known as the Rat Pack do his dirty work. The wall-crawler must find a way to stop Osborn's machinations before it's too late!
In addition to the creation of new minority heroes, publishers have filled the identities and roles of once-Caucasian heroes with new characters from minority backgrounds. The African-American John Stewart appeared in the 1970s as an alternate for Earth's Green Lantern Hal Jordan, and would become a regular member of the Green Lantern Corps from the 1980s onward. The creators of the 2000s-era Justice League animated series selected Stewart as the show's Green Lantern. In the Ultimate Marvel universe, Miles Morales, a multiracial American youth who was also bitten by a genetically-altered spider, debuted as the new Spider-Man after the apparent death of the original. Kamala Khan, a Pakistani-American teenager who is revealed to have Inhuman lineage after her shapeshifting powers manifested, takes on the identity of Ms. Marvel in 2014. Her self-titled comic book series became a cultural phenomenon, with extensive media coverage by CNN, the New York Times and The Colbert Report, and embraced by anti-Islamophobia campaigners in San Francisco who plastered over anti-Muslim bus adverts with Kamala stickers.[57] Other such successor-heroes of color include James "Rhodey" Rhodes as Iron Man, Ryan Choi as the Atom, and Jaime Reyes as Blue Beetle.
Once you’ve found all your favorite Halloween goodies you can feel safe placing your order with us knowing that we use SSL and Threatmatrix for your security, and we’re even BBB accredited. Credit card? You got it! We accept all major credit cards. So, no matter if you need your Halloween costumes in a hurry or need them shipped internationally (we ship to more than 200 countries across the globe!), you’ll have lots of shipping options to choose from. Still have questions? Ask our next-level customer service team—they’re renowned Halloween Experts ready to make your Halloween the best EVER.
It is widely believed that many Halloween traditions originated from ancient Celtic harvest festivals, particularly the Gaelic festival Samhain; that such festivals may have had pagan roots; and that Samhain itself was Christianized as Halloween by the early Church.[12][13][14][15][16] Some believe, however, that Halloween began solely as a Christian holiday, separate from ancient festivals like Samhain.[17][18][19][20]
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 59. ISBN 978-0756692360. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man to be written by someone other than Stan Lee...Thomas also managed to introduce a major new player to Spidey's life - the scientifically created vampire known as Morbius.

In 1962, Stan Lee and Steve Ditko took to creating a story for what would be the final issue of a soon to be cancelled comic, and in it they created one of the biggest pop culture juggernauts ever: Spider-Man. That classic look has stayed with the character throughout his 50+ years of consistent publication, and as iconic as it may be there have been some alterations to the Spider-Man costumes over the years.
After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy, daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man. Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife. Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's girlfriend and partner at one point.
During the Spider-Verse storyline which featured Spider-Men from various alternate realities, Spider-Man Noir starred in one-shot comic Edge of Spider-Verse #1, at the end of which he was recruited by The Superior Spider-Man into his army of Spiders.[9] He was also featured prominently in Spider-Verse Team-Up #1, alongside a six-armed Spider-Man.[10] In Spider-Woman Vol. 5 #1, Spider-Man Noir found himself defending the lives of Silk and Spider-Woman (Jessica Drew) and got wounded in the process, after which he was returned to his home reality to heal and recuperate.[11]
Costumes are popularly employed at sporting events, during which fans dress as their team's representative mascot to show their support. Businesses use mascot costumes to bring in people to their business either by placing their mascot in the street by their business or sending their mascot out to sporting events, festivals, national celebrations, fairs, and parades. Mascots appear at organizations wanting to raise awareness of their work. Children's Book authors create mascots from the main character to present at their book signings. Animal costumes that are visually very similar to mascot costumes are also popular among the members of the furry fandom, where the costumes are referred to as fursuits and match one's animal persona, or "fursona".
Other related characters exist in alternative versions of the Marvel Universe called the Multiverse. These characters originally appeared in their own continuity but later on crossed over with the mainstream Spider-Man family. In 2015 all the alternate comic book universes were destroyed and only a few characters joined together with Earth-616 characters in its own universe including various Spider-Men.
During her career, she had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for re-animation from the Hand. She also appears in Loners as an assassin smuggling MGH.[113][114][115][116]

Spider-Man also has incredible durability to blunt trauma as his body is much tougher than that of a normal person. He can withstand such levels of damage and punishment that would kill non-super powered individuals. For example he has frequently taken blows from characters with high levels of superhuman strength (Hulk, Venom, Rhino, Puma, Green Goblin etc) without sustaining significant injury. He has also survived the force of having a building collapse on him multiple times. This durability extends to falling from great heights. For example, he was once knocked through three buildings by Mr Negative before falling multiple stories to the ground, yet still remained conscious. His durability to blunt trauma also extends to explosive forces, and he has taken explosions with the force of a hand grenade and recovered nearly instantly in a recent fight with the Juggernaut. In the Sins Past Storyline he tanked a building destroying explosion, but was significantly weakened afterwards. The toughness of Spider-Man is such that he often rolls with the blows of punches thrown by non-powered foes to avoid injuring them- when he once decided to tense his abdominal muscles against the blows of a trained boxer, the boxer broke his wrists. Scorpion once described Spider-Man's body "as being as hard as concrete".
If your son is the type who’s eager to be all grown up so he can join the military or start a job, these occupation and military Halloween costumes are perfect for him. He can get to “work” collecting candy dressed up as a doctor in scrubs, a Wild West sheriff or a scientist in a lab coat. If he always stops to stare at construction sites, he’ll adore The Builder costume. These costumes, which include a police officer and fireman, will help make him feel like a grownup for a day while still getting to enjoy the kid fun of trick or treating.
Jump up ^ Spurlock, J. David, and John Romita. John Romita Sketchbook. (Vanguard Productions: Lebanon, N.J. 2002) ISBN 1-887591-27-3, p. 45: Romita: "I designed the Spider-Man balloon float. When we went to Macy's to talk about it, Manny Bass was there. He's the genius who creates all these balloon floats. I gave him the sketches and he turned them into reality".
In Batman: The Animated Series (1992–1995) the Batsuit is based on the "New Look" costume. The cape, cowl, gloves, briefs, and boots are dark blue, as indicated by the highlight. Occasionally the cape and cowl are also shown to be one piece and when he's not fighting, the cape sometimes resembles a cloak, draped over Batman's body. The costume lacks any armor qualities, instead of being merely a bodysuit with no apparent special features and it often becomes torn in serious fights. It is occasionally seen packed in Bruce Wayne's luggage or in his vehicles, and it is made clear that he has numerous spares.
These are Batman's signature shuriken cut in the shape of his symbol. There is the standard larger version that can folded in half, but it seems these were almost never used. The small variants were used to shatter lightbulbs and windows early in his crusade. Later this seemed to evolve into an even smaller tranquilizer dart similar in shape and material.
By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers or phenomena to be deemed superheroes.[1][2][3] While the Dictionary.com definition of "superhero" is "a figure, especially in a comic strip or cartoon, endowed with superhuman powers and usually portrayed as fighting evil or crime",[4] the longstanding Merriam-Webster dictionary gives the definition as "a fictional hero having extraordinary or superhuman powers; also: an exceptionally skillful or successful person".[5] Terms such as masked crime fighters, costumed adventurers or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to characters such as the Spirit, who may not be explicitly referred to as superheroes but nevertheless share similar traits.
On The Batman vs. Dracula, Batman briefly extended the design of his utility belt to his shoulders and chest for carrying a vast number of vampire-fighting gadgetry such as garlic bombs and vials of vaccine made to counteract a vampiric virus spread from the vampire lord Count Vlad Dracula. The extension of the belt would also create a shape of a cross, which also commonly known able to ward off the creatures.
In "What If? Spider-Man vs. Wolverine" Spider-Man goes to Russia with Wolverine on a rescue mission and eventually becomes a Black-ops version. Through training alongside Wolverine he enhances his spider-sense and becomes more confident. He eventually decides to join up with Wolverine permanently and leave behind his old ways. He also develops a change to his web shooter which enables him to shoot bullets out of it, which he does, killing a man. He is shown in a sleeker black and red suit more fit for his new lifestyle.[55] This Spider-Man appears in Spider-Verse as "Assassin Spider-Man" and is killed by Daemos.[56]
Some of our top rated classic boys costumes include our Red and Gold Ninja Warrior costume, the Mad Hatter, a skeleton skin suit and our Blimpz Green Light Up Inflatable costume. Other classics on the more scary side include a mummy (practice making those spooky noises!) and a demon. These trusty costumes are wonderful for boys of all ages will definitely be in style.
All this is, I feel, a bit part of what feeds into making a hero a superhero in our minds - when they become larger than life, existing outside the boundaries that we normally exist in. Ironically, history in real life has probably seen more “super villains” than real super heroes; it’s much more tempting to human weakness and easier, to go outside the normal boundaries and cause harm or perform selfish acts. Many of the colorful supervillains from comic books, especially Batman’s rogue gallery of criminals, are not very far removed in some cases from the activities of real life villains who are epic in scope. 

In 1963, Astro Boy was adapted into a highly influential anime television series. Phantom Agents in 1964 focused on ninjas working for the Japanese government and would be the foundation for Sentai-type series. 1966 saw the debut of sci-fi/horror series Ultra Q created by Eiji Tsuburaya this would eventually lead on to the sequel Ultraman, spawning a successful franchise focused upon the Giant Hero subgenre where the Superheroes would be as big as giant monsters (Kaiju) that they fought.
The armor was then coated with a black latex material to dampen Bruce's heat signature, making him difficult to detect with night-vision equipment. Made of a graphite material, the cowl acts as a protective helmet. The cowl's Kevlar lining is supposed to be bulletproof. A manufacturing defect in the graphite used in the production of the first shipment of the cowl's components made its outer shell incapable of withstanding blunt trauma (a flaw Alfred demonstrated to Bruce Wayne using a baseball bat). Batman apparently took on Falcone and his henchmen at the docks with the defective helmet. The second shipment was supposed to fix this problem. An advanced eavesdropping device is concealed within the cowl's right ear and enables Batman to listen in on conversations from a distance.
Het kolossale glazen gebouw is vanaf Amsterdam Sloterdijk nauwelijks te missen. In de interactieve aankomsthal waar een fors touch-beeldscherm de ruimte vult en waar klanten het KPN Experience Lab kunnen betreden, worden we opgewacht door Jorn Vriend (product owner MijnKPN). Het telecombedrijf lanceerde in mei een vernieuwde Mijn-omgeving. De pilot had een ‘op maat gemaakt selfservicekanaal’ als doel. Voldoende aanleiding dus om dit keer niet de klantenserviceafdeling, maar het technologische hart van KPN een bezoek te brengen. Vol enthousiasme en bevlogenheid leidt hij ons rond over de afdeling, waar we een voetbalveld, een Playstation en surfborden aantreffen.

To fight the deranged villain known as Massacre, Peter built himself a dark colored bulletproof armored costume that deflects bullets, and equipped himself with magnetic webbing that can be used to disable the radio frequencies of Massacre's charges. It is also lightweight, but needs to recharge after a certain period of usage. Peter has also incorporated the technology in improving road safety.
Spidercide later betrayed Jackal to Scrier (who was eventually revealed to be an operative of a cult of Scriers working with Norman Osborn). Scrier also removed Spidercide's clone degeneration factor and the Jackal was incapable of triggering his degeneration like he had done with fellow clone Jack. He was killed when falling off the Daily Bugle after it was revealed that the Jackal had deceived him. Although apparently dead, he was put into a stasis chamber as a precaution.[4]
The traditions and importance of Halloween vary greatly among countries that observe it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going "guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays.[239][240] In Brittany children would play practical jokes by setting candles inside skulls in graveyards to frighten visitors.[241] Mass transatlantic immigration in the 19th century popularized Halloween in North America, and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a significant impact on how the event is observed in other nations. This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as Ecuador, Chile,[242] Australia,[243] New Zealand,[244] (most) continental Europe, Japan, and other parts of East Asia.[245] In the Philippines, during Halloween, Filipinos return to their hometowns and purchase candles and flowers,[246] in preparation for the following All Saints Day (Araw ng mga Patay) on 1 November and All Souls Day —though it falls on 2 November, most of them observe it on the day before.[247] In Mexico and Latin American in general, it is referred to as " Día de los Muertos " which translates in English to "Day of the dead". Most of the people from Latin America construct altars in their homes to honor their deceased relatives and they decorate them with flowers and candies and other offerings.[248]
In this universe, Peter's Uncle Ben does not die. Instead, he encourages Peter - otherwise known as the Amazing Spider - to create a machine that allows him to absorb the powers of counterparts from other realities, killing them in the process. Using this device, Peter becomes the most powerful person on Earth and capable of defeating the likes of Thanos. When 616 Spider-Man enters the Amazing Spider's reality, he tries to absorb Spider-Man's powers as well but is ultimately defeated when his Uncle Ben accidentally attaches the power absorbing machine to him.

The wearing of costumes is an important part of holidays developed from religious festivals such as Mardi Gras (in the lead up to Easter), and Halloween (related to All Hallow's Eve). Mardi Gras costumes usually take the form of jesters and other fantasy characters; Halloween costumes traditionally take the form of supernatural creatures such as ghosts, vampires, pop-culture icons and angels. In modern times. Christmas costumes typically portray characters such as Santa Claus (developed from Saint Nicholas). In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States the American version of a Santa suit and beard is popular; in the Netherlands, the costume of Zwarte Piet is customary. Easter costumes are associated with the Easter Bunny or other animal costumes.


Jump up ^ As late as 1900, an article on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended a lit jack-o'-lantern as part of the festivities. "The Day We Celebrate: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially" Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 24 November 1895, p. 27. "Odd Ornaments for Table" Archived 5 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 21 October 1900, p. 12.

Scott Malkinson could've been an ordinary child, but in a freak accident his mom farted on him during childbirth which gave him diabetes. Rather than dwelling on his misfortune, Captain Diabetes wields his sugary illness as a source of power that his enemies cannot overcome. Captain Diabetes is a Brutalist archetype who combines punishing melee knockback moves with an annoying desire to hang out.
During the Civil War, Spider-Man joins Iron Man's team ( and gets given an iron spider suit ) and dons a new Iron Spider costume. He supported the SHRA to the point where he even revealed his identity to the public, but as a result, his life was ruined as he is fired from his job, his old friends turn their backs on him and his loved ones become targeted by his enemies since they now know Spider-Man's secret identity. Eventually, he discovers the rogue heroes' mistreatment by the government and realizes that he sided with the wrong team so he betrays Iron Man and joins Captain America's Secret Avengers, He disregarded his suit that tony start had given him as it was prone to being hacked, and he did not want to be seen using technology tony stark had made, he reverted back to his original outfit.
Spider-Man is an unlockable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance. As an Infiltrator, he gains the Combat Awareness buff after attacking Tacticians. He has tremendous agility and an appropriate repertoire of powers, including: web-based attacks and his Spider Sense. He starts with his traditional red & blue costume, but players can purchase the black costume to fight as an ebony Infiltrator or a nefarious Bruiser. By unlocking Spider-Man players also gain access to the bonus missions in Chapter 3 of the single-player campaign.
Parker appears in numerous What If? universes. Among these are realities in which he is a member of the Fantastic Four; in which he was not bitten by the spider but some other supporting cast member was; in which he chose not to go into superheroics; in which he joins with Wolverine and takes up black ops work; and in which he becomes a mutated spider creature.
The updated suit has many new features, such as Karen, an artificially intelligent system to aid him, a heads-up display embedded in the eye lenses, a reconnaissance drone, a parachute, and retractable wingsuit components. The suit was monitored by the Stark Industry Training Wheels Protocol, a program designed and installed into the suit by Stark to restrict certain actions, and the Baby Monitor Protocol, which tracked and recorded everything through the eye lenses.

Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.[45]
Captain Universe was the starring feature in issues #9-11 of the tryout series Marvel Spotlight. Marvel Spotlight editor Al Milgrom recalled being taken away by the concept of a Captain Universe serial: "You could come up with three issues, three disparate individuals - each one very different from the other - and see how they use their powers. They wouldn't necessarily be superheroic types; they'd be regular people who fell into the powers for just one issue. ... But Captain Universe never got his own title, so I'm guessing it didn't sell terribly well."[1] The character appeared sporadically through the remainder of the 1980s in titles such as Marvel Fanfare and Contest of Champions.

Jump up ^ The Paulist Liturgy Planning Guide. Paulist Press. 2006. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Rather than compete, liturgy planners would do well to consider ways of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses. For example, children might be encouraged to wear Halloween costumes representing their patron saint or their favorite saint, clearly adding a new level of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the celebration of All Saints' Day.
In a different version of Spider-Island, Spider-Man was supposedly killed by the spider-infected Avengers which inspired Agent Venom to lead the resistance. However, he is discovered to be alive and captive in the Spider Queen's facility. He aids Flash to stop the Spider Queen and becomes the Baron of Spider-Island after she is defeated at the cost of Flash's life.
In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first Spider-Man game for the Atari 2600 titled Spider-Man. The game involves climbing a sky scraper, rescuing hostages and defusing bombs set by the Green Goblin. The 1990's saw a flood of Spider-Man Video Games. The first game of the decade released was The Amazing Spider-Man, a puzzle action game released for Amiga, PC:DOS, Commodore 64, and Atari ST. Another game, also titled The Amazing Spider-Man was released in 1990 for the Game Boy. The Game Boy titles spawned two sequels: The Amazing Spider-Man 2 and The Amazing Spider-Man 3: Invasion of the Spider-Slayers.
"Peter" emerged from one of the Jackal's pods. Believing himself to be the genuine Parker, he confronted Spider-Man, Ben Reilly, and Kaine. He became obsessed with proving to Mary Jane Watson that he was the real Peter and once Peter, Ben, Kaine and MJ were all near him at once the Jackal's programming kicked in and his shape shifting powers activated and he turned into a monster who was killed when Kaine threw a propane truck at him. Scrier would later resurrect him.
Categories: Marvel Comics superheroesSpider-Man1962 comics debutsAmerican superheroesCharacters created by Stan LeeCharacters created by Steve DitkoChild superheroesComics adapted into animated seriesComics adapted into playsComics adapted into radio seriesComics adapted into television seriesComics adapted into video gamesComics by Stan LeeComics by Steve DitkoComics characters introduced in 1962Comics set in New York CityFictional adopteesFictional business executivesFictional characters from New York CityFictional characters with precognitionFictional characters with superhuman sensesFictional college studentsFictional inventorsFictional orphansFictional photographersFictional reportersFictional schoolteachersFictional scientistsFictional stalking victimsFictional victims of bulliesFictional vigilantesExperimental medical treatments in fictionMale characters in comicsMarvel Comics adapted into filmsMarvel Comics characters who can move at superhuman speedsMarvel Comics characters with accelerated healingMarvel Comics characters with superhuman strengthMarvel Comics martial artistsMarvel Comics mutatesMarvel Comics television charactersMarvel vs. Capcom fightersSpider-Man charactersSpiders in popular cultureSuperheroes who are adoptedSuperhero film charactersTeenage characters in filmTeenage characters in comicsSuperheroes with alter egosVideo game guest characters

In 1963, Astro Boy was adapted into a highly influential anime television series. Phantom Agents in 1964 focused on ninjas working for the Japanese government and would be the foundation for Sentai-type series. 1966 saw the debut of sci-fi/horror series Ultra Q created by Eiji Tsuburaya this would eventually lead on to the sequel Ultraman, spawning a successful franchise focused upon the Giant Hero subgenre where the Superheroes would be as big as giant monsters (Kaiju) that they fought.


Jump up ^ Braden, Donna R.; Village, Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield (1988). Leisure and entertainment in America. Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village. ISBN 9780933728325. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity.
"Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" is a fundraising program to support UNICEF,[84] a United Nations Programme that provides humanitarian aid to children in developing countries. Started as a local event in a Northeast Philadelphia neighborhood in 1950 and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools (or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small-change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $118 million for UNICEF since its inception. In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to discontinue their Halloween collection boxes, citing safety and administrative concerns; after consultation with schools, they instead redesigned the program.[161][162]
×