Jump up ^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 99. ISBN 9783825888893. On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes. Halloween - like the medieval danse macabre - is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
It begins with an orphan named Peter Parker, raised by his beloved Aunt May and Uncle Ben in Queens, New York. A quiet student, he works diligently at his studies and pines for the beautiful Mary Jane Watson. But this ordinary teenage boy is about to have his life turned upside down, when he is bitten by a genetically altered spider. Suddenly, he finds himself possessed of spectacular powers. He is now and forever Spider-Man!
Jump up ^ Döring, Alois; Bolinius, Erich (31 October 2006), Samhain – Halloween – Allerheiligen (in German), FDP Emden, Die lückenhaften religionsgeschichtlichen Überlieferungen, die auf die Neuzeit begrenzte historische Dimension der Halloween-Kultausprägung, vor allem auch die Halloween-Metaphorik legen nahe, daß wir umdenken müssen: Halloween geht nicht auf das heidnische Samhain zurück, sondern steht in Bezug zum christlichen Totengedenkfest Allerheiligen/ Allerseelen.
When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were usually relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist. The Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a high school student from Queens behind Spider-Man's secret identity and with whose "self-obsessions with rejection, inadequacy, and loneliness" young readers could relate.[9] While Spider-Man had all the makings of a sidekick, unlike previous teen heroes such as Bucky and Robin, Spider-Man had no superhero mentor like Captain America and Batman; he thus had to learn for himself that "with great power there must also come great responsibility"—a line included in a text box in the final panel of the first Spider-Man story but later retroactively attributed to his guardian, the late Uncle Ben.
Anyone ever read “Monkey”? It is a translation of “Journey to The West”, a 16th Century folk tale of Sun Wukong, the Monkey King accompanying the Monk XuanZang to India to retrieve the Ramayana. This translation presents the folk tale as the fantasy it was undoubtedly intended to be. Sun Wukong is presented as a superhero in this telling. It makes for a great read because this author bolied the translation down into a pulp tale.
Born to Richard and Mary Parker in Queens, New York, Peter Parker lost his parents at a very young age when their plane went down overseas while they were on a mission as government spies. He was raised by his aunt and uncle (May and Ben Parker) who, along with his teachers at Midtown High School, thought he had a bright future due to his affinity for science. However, Peter struggled with bullies and being teased for his introverted nature (sometimes referring to him as a "professional wallflower") and interest in science that pegged him as a teacher's pet.
"I had blinders on, I didn't want to see it," Luann said. She told Dorinda that Tom D'Agostino got worse when they got married. He was going out, meeting with old girlfriends—basically everything he was doing before he got married. "After a certain amount of time, everything the girls were saying was kind of true," Luann said. "Ultimately for me the last straw was the lack of respect…It didn't stop and I couldn't breathe…I was drowning. I suffered a lot, I really suffered a lot."
Although supposedly designed for maximum flexibility and movement, the Nomex armor does restrict Batman's movement somewhat, slowing him down in combat. The design of the mask and cape also restricted his neck movement, making it impossible for him to turn his head, and forcing him to rely on peripheral vision. For these reasons, Bruce asked Lucius to design a new suit with faster, freer movement in mind.

That storyline came at the behest of editor-in-chief Joe Quesada, who said, "Peter being single is an intrinsic part of the very foundation of the world of Spider-Man".[73] It caused unusual public friction between Quesada and writer J. Michael Straczynski, who "told Joe that I was going to take my name off the last two issues of the [story] arc" but was talked out of doing so.[75] At issue with Straczynski's climax to the arc, Quesada said, was
In a parking lot, Spider-Man webbed Davis's hand onto his car bonnet, but Davis poked fun at Spider-Man for using a voice filter. Flustered, Spider-Man disabled the Enhanced Interrogation Protocol and asked for Vulture's location. Davis, grateful for Spider-Man's intervention several nights earlier, informed him of another weapons deal to be made on Staten Island Ferry.[2]
When Spider-Man tries to stop what looks like a simple robbery, he discovers that it's really the start of a sinister plot created by his archenemy, Dr. Octopus. Dr. Octopus is in control of a pair of unstoppable nuclear missiles that he plans to use to take over the world. Teaming up with Captain America, Spider-Man must race against time to stop World War III!
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.

Similar to a grappling hook, the line launching gun uses a strong clamp attached to a high-tensil wire for scaling surfaces and/or traversing gaps. It can be recovered by releasing the clamp and rewinding the cable. It was based from one that is designed as compact climbing gear for commando units. It is propelled with compressed air, and works with a magnetic grappling iron. The thin climbing cable was tested on a load-carrying capacity of 350 lbs. The line can be attached to a reel in the buckle in the utility harness, but this was only used to escape after being defeated by the Scarecow in The Narrows.
There are plenty of holidays throughout the year in addition to Halloween when kids want to dress up. With Spirit’s boys seasonal costumes, they can dress up for those special days like Christmas or Easter, while the whole family oohs and aahs over how cute they look. For Christmas, he can dress as Jesus, one one of the wise men, or Santa. Be warned that if he chooses Santa, he’ll surely be expecting some cookies and milk!
Jump up ^ Detroit Free Press interview with Stan Lee, quoted in The Steve Ditko Reader by Greg Theakston (Pure Imagination, Brooklyn, NY; ISBN 1-56685-011-8), p. 12 (unnumbered). "He gave me 1,000 reasons why Spider-Man would never work. Nobody likes spiders; it sounds too much like Superman; and how could a teenager be a superhero? Then I told him I wanted the character to be a very human guy, someone who makes mistakes, who worries, who gets acne, has trouble with his girlfriend, things like that. [Goodman replied,] 'He's a hero! He's not an average man!' I said, 'No, we make him an average man who happens to have super powers, that's what will make him good.' He told me I was crazy".
We all know zombies are sick. But in the case of this Zombie Sk8r Child Costume, "sick" is a good thing! They'll have more steeze than any other dude at the skate park. And he or she be just waiting for everyone else to bail. Which let’s face it, they are sure to do because, being alone at night in a skate park, with a zombie is just a bit sketchy.

i agree with steve, in that the first superhero i could think of was gilgamesh. i think what jason is stuck on here is the first comic book hero - not just a character who uses superhuman powers for good, but one whose tales were published in modern drawning. if it wasn’t just drawn, but told through modern media that defines a superhero for jason, wouldn’t the shadow preceed mandrake in his radio drama?

Joey Esposito of IGN, who gave the first issue an 8.5 out of 10, praised the creative team, singling out the strong thematic elements set up by Bendis, and the graceful line work, cityscapes, action and comedic timing of Pichelli's art. Esposito also complimented Cory Petit's lettering, comparing his use of different fonts when Spider-Man arrives in the Ultimate Universe to the use of color that characterizes Dorothy's arrival in Oz in the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.[12] James Hunt of Comic Book Resources, who gave the issue four and a half out of five stars, called it "one of the most momentous Spider-Man stories to be published in years", praising the issue's pace and tone, and Pichelli's art.[13]


Eddie J. Smith, in his book Halloween, Hallowed is Thy Name, offers a religious perspective to the wearing of costumes on All Hallows' Eve, suggesting that by dressing up as creatures "who at one time caused us to fear and tremble", people are able to poke fun at Satan "whose kingdom has been plundered by our Saviour". Images of skeletons and the dead are traditional decorations used as memento mori.[159][160]

Billy Braddock alias Spider-UK, a British-based Spider-Man and a member of the Captain Britain Corps.[62] He became a sole survivor from Earth-833 after his home reality was destroyed during Time Runs Out and chose to remain in the reality of the defeated Inheritors along with Anya Corazon.[63] During the second volume of Spider-Verse set during the Secret Wars event, Spider-UK and Anya Corazon found themselves in the domain of the Battleworld called Arachnia with no memories of how they got there.[64] and eventually teamed up with Spider-Gwen, Spider-Ham, Spider-Man Noir, and Spider-Man: India, neither of them remembering their previous encounter during the original Spider-Verse.[65] Following the conclusion of Secret Wars the team of six Spiders will rename itself and feature in a new ongoing series called Web Warriors, a name that was coined by Peter Parker from the Ultimate Spider-Man TV series during the original Spider-Verse.[66]


Jump up ^ Saffel, p. 65, states, "In the battle that followed atop the Brooklyn Bridge (or was it the George Washington Bridge?)...." On page 66, Saffel reprints the panel of The Amazing Spider-Man #121, page 18, in which Spider-Man exclaims, "The George Washington Bridge! It figures Osborn would pick something named after his favorite president. He's got the same sort of hangup for dollar bills!" Saffel states, "The span portrayed...is the GW's more famous cousin, the Brooklyn Bridge. ... To address the contradiction in future reprints of the tale, though, Spider-Man's dialogue was altered so that he's referring to the Brooklyn Bridge. But the original snafu remains as one of the more visible errors in the history of comics."
Spider-Man also has incredible durability to blunt trauma as his body is much tougher than that of a normal person. He can withstand such levels of damage and punishment that would kill non-super powered individuals. For example he has frequently taken blows from characters with high levels of superhuman strength (Hulk, Venom, Rhino, Puma, Green Goblin etc) without sustaining significant injury. He has also survived the force of having a building collapse on him multiple times. This durability extends to falling from great heights. For example, he was once knocked through three buildings by Mr Negative before falling multiple stories to the ground, yet still remained conscious. His durability to blunt trauma also extends to explosive forces, and he has taken explosions with the force of a hand grenade and recovered nearly instantly in a recent fight with the Juggernaut. In the Sins Past Storyline he tanked a building destroying explosion, but was significantly weakened afterwards. The toughness of Spider-Man is such that he often rolls with the blows of punches thrown by non-powered foes to avoid injuring them- when he once decided to tense his abdominal muscles against the blows of a trained boxer, the boxer broke his wrists. Scorpion once described Spider-Man's body "as being as hard as concrete".

A geneticist named Miguel O'Hara gained his spider-like powers from a gene-splicing incident, when the company he was about to quit injected him with a dangerous drug called Rapture. He tried to rid himself of the drug by using the Gene Slicer he helped to invent, but unbeknownst to him a jealous co-worker had set it to repeat the previous experiment of a spider. The last time they had tried this experiment it killed the test subject (the main reason Miguel O'Hara quit), but this time it worked. Instead of becoming a company owned version of Spider-Man he became the opposite, a Spider-Man to fight Alchemax and the other large corporations ruling the world in 2099. He now fights crime as the Spider-Man of 2099.[29]
Add your other half and the kids for a night of Halloween fun the entire family will remember, and get matching costumes for everyone! Become a king and queen with the little members of royalty, dress them up as their favorite farm animals, turn them into little Halloween monsters, and more. They'll love joining enchanted lands and making their own unforgettable memories with you!
There was a second miniseries, Spider-Men II, released in 2017. It was a new team-up of Peter and Miles, now both living in the mainstream Marvel universe. It also features the native Miles Morales of the mainstream universe, an adult and close friend of the Kingpin. At the end of the story, the adult Morales moves into the Ultimate Marvel universe, which had been destroyed in the 2015 Secret Wars crossover. This remade the Ultimate universe, Peter Parker is now Spider-Man again, and has joined the Ultimates.[14]
Possessing mental command over power tools, Toolshed is an extremely handy member of Freedom Pals. To the kids at school he is Stan Marsh but when darkness falls, Toolshed rushes into battle armed with contents of his dad’s workbench. The accident that give him the ability to control tools has sadly rendered his father an idiot, but he hopes one day to save him.
Using a modified Octo-bot, Octavius successfully transfers his consciousnesses into Spider-Man, leaving him with Peter's memories and body and Peter Parker in Doctor Octopus's dying one. After leaving Peter for dead Otto begins to take on Spider-Man's life as his own. Peter eventually took control of the golden Octo-bot and using one of Doc Ock's own contingency plans had Scorpion, Hydro-Man and Trapster free himself from the S.H.I.E.L.D. prison The Raft. It was then that Peter tried to redo the body switch with Ock who had taken precautions to keep that from happening. Peter instead had Otto relive all of Peter's memories showing Dr. Octopus how much he had wasted his life. As a result of Peter's personality grafted to his own, Dr. Octopus decided to continue on as Spider-Man and make up for his past mistakes as the Superior Spider-man.

As a former preschool teacher... it is hard for me to give credence to a claim that there is something objectionably “appropriative” about a blonde ­haired child’s wanting to be Mulan for a day. Pretend play is the foundation of most cognitive tasks, and it seems to me that we want to be in the business of encouraging the exercise of imagination, not constraining it.
The Memory cloth is a piece of equipment that Bruce is shown by Lucius Fox at Applied Sciences. The item itself is normally soft and light, but when an electric current is passed through it the cape takes a rigid shape. Bruce took it, and the gloves then customized the skeleton and cut into bat wing shape scalloped cape and somehow made it a functional paraglider contraption.
Parker appears in numerous What If? universes. Among these are realities in which he is a member of the Fantastic Four; in which he was not bitten by the spider but some other supporting cast member was; in which he chose not to go into superheroics; in which he joins with Wolverine and takes up black ops work; and in which he becomes a mutated spider creature.
Spider-Man has changed his costume many times but would always return to his classic and most well known look which has varied sometimes. He has had many memorable costumes, including the Black & White symbiote suite, the Red & Gold Iron Spider suit, the Identity Crisis costumes, the Scarlet Spider costume, the White & Blue Armored Spider suit, the Bag-Man costume and recently he has started wearing a black & green costume. You can view several of Spider-Man's costumes in his costume gallery.
Whitney Chang (appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man and The Amazing Spider-Man 2, voiced by Claudia Black (ASM 1) and Sumalee Montano (ASM 2)): She is a top investigative reporter for the Channel 3 News Network and is well known for putting herself at risk for finding out the truth. She met Spider-Man in person while she was investigating a secret Oscorp facility involving cross-species genetics and its connection with Alistair Smythe, with Spider-Man tracking down a crate with Dr. Connor's research to create the cure. Whitney gave Spider-Man her camera and asks him to take photos exposing Oscorp's research. As explained in her bio, Chang grew up in the Sunset Park region of Brooklyn, New York, where she witnessed a neighbor being murdered by an angry mob after being framed for murder and being slandered by the news for days. After graduating from Yale, she quits her job as the host of a music video channel and snuck aboard a flight to Iraq, arriving just as American troops invade Baghdad. In The Amazing Spider-Man 2, through unspecified circumstances, Whitney leaves her job at the Channel 9 News Network and now works at the Daily Bugle. She works with Daily Bugle newcomer Peter Parker to expose Wilson Fisk as the Kingpin. Her role in Amazing Spider-Man 2 is lessened compared to its predecessor.
Holland also reprises his role in the third Avengers film, Avengers: Infinity War, where he joins the heroes in the fight against Thanos. He is first seen in action leaving a school bus during a field trip when he sees Thanos' forces invading New York before proceeding to help Stark, Doctor Strange and Wong in fighting off Cull Obsidian and Ebony Maw from kidnapping Strange. However, the Black Order succeeds in capturing Strange, leaving Parker and Stark to get inside the ship which the two Black Order members used to travel to Earth in order to rescue Strange. The two Avengers were able to send Maw into outer space and rescued Strange from being tortured when he refused to give up the Time Stone. The trio decide to head to Titan in order to deal with Thanos themselves only to meet Star-Lord, Mantis and Drax the Destroyer of the Guardians of the Galaxy who also went to Titan to fight Thanos and rescue Gamora. Thanos then arrives on Titan to attain the Time Stone from Strange which leads to him and the team having a fearsome battle and ends with Thanos being mentally incapacitated by Mantis while the others try to take off Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet from his hand. However, this plan fails after Quill attacks Thanos when he learns the former was responsible for Gamora's death which lets Thanos to break away from being mentally incapacitated.
Norman Osborn broke out of jail and managed to clear his name of being the Green Goblin. After failing to convert Peter into his heir, he started to provoke Peter into killing him in a story called A Death in the Family. Norman was sick of his life and wanted to die at the hands of Spider-man. He tried to get Peter so mad that he would do this. First by releasing footage of Gwen's death to the media, claiming that Gwen's death was the result of Spider-Man's selfish actions. To make matters worse, Norman forced a drunken Flash Thompson to have a car accident, causing him to go into a coma. Spider-Man and the Green Goblin meet up in one of Osborn's warehouses where Spider-Man defeats the Goblin. Although he urged him to finish him off, Peter refused to play the Goblin's game and proposed a truce. Norman accepts, but as he returns to one of his offices, he puts a gun in his mouth. He is however to afraid to pull the trigger.

The next night, May drove Parker and Leeds to the Toomes Residence. Despite wearing his Spider-Man suit underneath his clothes, Parker was adamant to be himself. They greeted Toomes and noticed that Michelle Jones was also attending the party. However, after another taunt from Thompson, Parker excused himself and donned his costume outside on the residence's roof. On the roof, Parker spotted a nearby explosion, which he proceeded to investigate.


The letters page for US Marvel Comics issue #64 declared The Transformers and Marvel Universes to be separate. In the process, it politely asked the readers to just forget about the issue guest-starring Spider-Man. But the Wiki never forgets. The Marvel Database wiki notes that the Spider-Man from the issue therefore appears to be a paradox, as he has memories of events of the mainstream "616" universe, but lives in a realm where few 616 heroes and villains exist.
Mockingbird a.k.a. Barbara "Bobbi" Morse: As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel, Bobbi is S.H.I.E.L.D.'s liaison with Parker Industries. She and Peter build a relationship slowly, with he providing her a new costume and working together to defeat Norman Osborn in Symkaria. After Peter shut down Parker Industries to stop Hydra from using his company for their own devices, she learns of his secret identity and allows him to stay at her apartment. After having stopping crime together to help Peter's self-esteem, they share a wonderful kiss. Peter lives in her apartment while recovering from the dismantling of Parker Industries. They end their relationship after realizing that outside of work and crime fighting, they don't have anything in common.
One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[21]
In 1994 Captain Universe appeared in a one-shot, coinciding with a promotion, with the claim that readers could have a comic about themselves made for a fee. The comics were generally stock stories, with minor details (such as skin or hair color, key names or phrases, etc.) altered based on information provided by the purchaser. Veterinary student Jeff Christiansen, who would later become the force behind the resurgence of the Official Handbooks of the Marvel Universe in the mid-2000s was made the official Captain Universe of the comic so that it could be considered an in-continuity comic. The one-shot was titled X-Men/Captain Universe: Sleeping Giants.
George Marston of Newsarama explaining why he felt that Spider-Man rogues gallery was the best was the thematic elements that the villains of Spider-Man manifested.[137] He explained that just like the superhero they have the same concept of science gone wrong. They are "like him, great men with great minds, great power, and great determination." But instead they fail to use their powers responsibly. Separating the thin line between being a hero from being a villain.[137]
Another Silliman resident declared in a campus publication, “I have had to watch my friends defend their right to this institution. This email and the subsequent reaction to it have interrupted their lives. I have friends who are not going to class, who are not doing their homework, who are losing sleep, who are skipping meals, and who are having breakdowns.” One feels for these students. But if an email about Halloween costumes has them skipping class and suffering breakdowns, either they need help from mental-health professionals or they’ve been grievously ill-served by debilitating ideological notions they’ve acquired about what ought to cause them pain.
There’s a related question that has some bearing on the answer to the above question: what is a superhero? There have probably been books (or at least extensive Usenet threads) written on this topic, but a good baseline definition needs to acknowledge both the “super” and the “hero” parts. That is, the person needs to have some superhuman power or powers and has to fight the bad guys. But this basic definition is flawed. Superman is an alien, not human. Batman doesn’t have any super powers…he’s a self-made superhero like Syndrome in The Incredibles. Or can a superhero be anyone (human or no) that fights bad guys and is superior to normal heroes…the cream of the hero crop? And what about a costume or alter ego…are they essential for superheroism? These are all questions well-suited for asking the internet, so have at it: what’s a good definition for a superhero?
Debra Whitman: a fellow Empire State University student and secretary whom Peter dates for a period of time, though his frequent disappearances complicate their relationship. She is eventually diagnosed with mild schizophrenia, ironically exacerbated by her "delusional" belief that Peter is Spider-Man. With Peter's help, she overcomes that idea. Soon afterward, she leaves New York after another man, Biff Rifkin, confesses his strong feelings for her.
Run Forrest, run! So, you might not be ready to run across the country (and then back again) but that's no reason you can't rock the shaggy bearded look of Forrest Gump when he "just felt like running." With gym shorts and a shirt styled directly from the movie, this costume also includes an ever-popular Bubba Gump hat, along with the signature long beard and wig set. This officially licensed set is perfect for any movie buff.
During the Civil War, Spider-Man joins Iron Man's team ( and gets given an iron spider suit ) and dons a new Iron Spider costume. He supported the SHRA to the point where he even revealed his identity to the public, but as a result, his life was ruined as he is fired from his job, his old friends turn their backs on him and his loved ones become targeted by his enemies since they now know Spider-Man's secret identity. Eventually, he discovers the rogue heroes' mistreatment by the government and realizes that he sided with the wrong team so he betrays Iron Man and joins Captain America's Secret Avengers, He disregarded his suit that tony start had given him as it was prone to being hacked, and he did not want to be seen using technology tony stark had made, he reverted back to his original outfit.
Peter becomes desperate to save May. He makes a deal with Mephisto who offers to save his aunt and restore the secrecy of his identity in exchange for erasing Peter's marriage to MJ. Mephisto gives the couple One More Day to decide (hence the title of the story) and Peter reluctantly agrees. He then wakes up in the house of May who is alive and well with no recollection of the deal. This marks the beginning of the Brand New Day era, in which Harry Osborn is alive and Spider-Man meets new friends and foes. He fights new villains including Mister Negative, Screwball, the Spider-Mugger, Menace who is the girlfriend of Harry, Kraven's daughter Ana Kravinoff in the story Kraven's First Hunt, the New Vulture in 24/7, teams-up with Anti-Venom to fight Norman Osborn's Thunderbolts in New Ways to Die and is accused of murder during the Character Assassination story. When the Secret Invasion took place, Spider-Man helped his fellow heroes in fighting off the invading Skrulls.
As with Spider-Man, the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology and also tend to have animal-themed costumes or powers (Vulture, Doctor Octopus, Beetle, Lizard, Rhino, Scorpion, Jackal and Black Cat). There also are supervillains with the powers over the elements (Sandman, Shocker, Electro, Molten Man and Hydro-Man), some that are horror-themed (the Goblins, Morbius, Morlun, and the Symbiotes) some that are crime lords (Kingpin, Tinkerer, Tombstone, Hammerhead, Silvermane and Mister Negative),[1] and some that are masters of trickery (Chameleon and Mysterio).[2] These villains oftentimes form teams such as the Sinister Six to oppose the superhero.
Spidercide was a major antagonist in the "Maximum Clonage" story arc. He first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #222 by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema.[67] He is depicted as an evil foil of Spider-Man, Ben Reilly, and Kaine. Introduced as a red herring to suggest the possibility of a third individual that was the original Peter Parker, he is one of the Spider-Man clones created by Jackal, to be Jackal's enforcer and protector. However, Spidercide is actually a clone to Ben Reilly, who is a direct genetic duplicate of Spider-Man.[40]

Cosplay, a word of Japanese origin that in English is short for "costume play", is a performance art in which participants wear costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea that is usually always identified with a unique name (as opposed to a generic word). These costume wearers often interact to create a subculture centered on role play, so they can be seen most often in play groups, or at a gathering or convention. A significant number of these costumes are homemade and unique, and depend on the character, idea, or object the costume wearer is attempting to imitate or represent. The costumes themselves are often artistically judged to how well they represent the subject or object that the costume wearer is attempting to contrive.
By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor souls."[82] "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls,[83] has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating.[84] The custom dates back at least as far as the 15th century[85] and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria.[55] Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends and relatives.[85][86][87] Soul cakes would also be offered for the souls themselves to eat,[55] or the 'soulers' would act as their representatives.[88] As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating that they were baked as alms.[89] Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[90] On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[91]
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