‘We hebben inmiddels vijf jaar op rij het topniveau behaald in de Champions League van de internationale klantenservices’, kon Cindy Kroon (vice president Customers & Solutions regio NL/UK bij Nuon/Vattenfall) een tijdje terug wel van de daken schreeuwen na het binnenslepen van het COPC CX 6.0-certificaat. ‘En toch blijft dit voor ons iets heel bijzonders.’ Achterover leunen is er dan ook niet bij voor de energiespeler: samen met Bernard Steenbergen (director Customer Service Operations) daagt Kroon de organisatie continu uit dit niveau vast te houden. Minimaal.

During the Halloween seasonal event, which lasts from October 20th   / October 1st until November 1   / November 10th   , several enemies wear costumes that change their appearance, unique enemies spawn, and new items become available via enemy drops or via purchase. Goodie Bags also drop, offering random Halloween-themed items, mostly decorative or vanity.
When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man.[165] In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity,[166] an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.[167]
Jump up ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 60. ISBN 978-0756692360. Spider-Man was a proven hit, so Marvel decided to expand the wall-crawler's horizons with a new Spider-Man title...Its first issue featured Spidey teaming up with the Human Torch against the Sandman in a Christmas tale written by Roy Thomas with art by Ross Andru.

Enhanced Durability: Woven with durable fabric, Spider-Man's new suit is highly tear resistant, as seen when it received no damage after being dragged along the streets after a van, withstood the strain of Spider-Man holding the Staten Island Ferry together, and when it was unscathed by shards of shattered glass during the Rescue at the Washington Monument. In addition, the suit is waterproof, as showcased when the suit and its technological capabilities were unaffected despite being submerged in water.


The title follows almost the entire original timeline of the character up until the first attempt at a "relaunch" by the company, 1999, where it deviates and provides an alternative ending to the Final Chapter storyline. Peter's wayward daughter May is revealed to be alive and well, and is returned to both Parkers by Peter's first clone, the redeemed Kaine. Despite now being a father, Peter continues to fight crime as Spider-Man, and begins to cope with the new responsibilities brought by his baby daughter.[volume & issue needed]

A popular variant of trick-or-treating, known as trunk-or-treating (or Halloween tailgaiting), occurs when "children are offered treats from the trunks of cars parked in a church parking lot", or sometimes, a school parking lot.[113][152] In a trunk-or-treat event, the trunk (boot) of each automobile is decorated with a certain theme,[153] such as those of children's literature, movies, scripture, and job roles.[154] Trunk-or-treating has grown in popularity due to its perception as being more safe than going door to door, a point that resonates well with parents, as well as the fact that it "solves the rural conundrum in which homes [are] built a half-mile apart".[155][156]


Español: hacer un disfraz de superhéroe, Italiano: Realizzare un Costume da Supereroe, Português: Fazer uma Fantasia de Super Herói, Français: créer un costume de super héros, 中文: 制作一套超级英雄服, Русский: сделать костюм супергероя, Deutsch: Ein Superheldenkostüm basteln, Bahasa Indonesia: Membuat Kostum Superhero, Nederlands: Een superheldenkostuum maken
A tokusatsu series featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man".[187] Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr.[188] Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms.

Today's Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by folk customs and beliefs from the Celtic-speaking countries, some of which are believed to have pagan roots.[36] Jack Santino, a folklorist, writes that "there was throughout Ireland an uneasy truce existing between customs and beliefs associated with Christianity and those associated with religions that were Irish before Christianity arrived".[37] Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain, which comes from the Old Irish for 'summer's end'."[38]

Karen: The suit has a built-in A.I. named Karen, similar to Tony Stark ’s F.R.I.D.A.Y., that informs Spider-Man on changing tactical situations and provides diagnostic reports. This feature was initially set to activate after Parker completed the Training Wheels Protocol, but Ned Leeds unlocked it with the rest of the suit's abilities. Karen records and stores data while the suit is in use through the Baby Monitor Protocol, allowing Spider-Man to access a personal database and review information he may have overlooked previously, or to research people or events he has previously encountered. Karen also provides suggestions and activates features autonomously, such as when she enabled the suit's 'Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode' when Parker needed help surveying a couple of criminals.


While battling the first Zebra-Man, Bruce Wayne was accidentally irradiated by the same energy that had irradiated Jake Baker. Without an inhibitor belt, Bruce's diamagnetism powers were out of control, causing Robin to go on without him. Batman soon took advantage of the diamagnetism, however, and used it to attract Zebra-Man to him and attract both of them to Gotham City Police Department.
Most Hindus do not observe All Hallows' Eve, instead they remember the dead during the festival of Pitru Paksha, during which Hindus pay homage to and perform a ceremony "to keep the souls of their ancestors at rest". It is celebrated in the Hindu month of Bhadrapada, usually in mid-September.[233] The celebration of the Hindu festival Diwali sometimes conflicts with the date of Halloween; but some Hindus choose to participate in the popular customs of Halloween.[234] Other Hindus, such as Soumya Dasgupta, have opposed the celebration on the grounds that Western holidays like Halloween have "begun to adversely affect our indigenous festivals".[235]

Character hoodies are perhaps our favorite quick-and-easy costume, because they work for a great everyday geek fashion too! This Yoda hoodie will instantly transform you into a Dagobah dwelling Jedi. People might be expecting a Yoda voice when you go in this sweatshirt though, so do your best to practice your gravelly tone and work on flipping around the words in your sentences!

“This year, we seem afraid that college students are unable to decide how to dress themselves on Halloween,” she wrote. “I don’t wish to trivialize genuine concerns about cultural and personal representation, and other challenges to our lived experience in a plural community. I know that many decent people have proposed guidelines on Halloween costumes from a spirit of avoiding hurt and offense. I laud those goals, in theory, as most of us do. But in practice, I wonder if we should reflect more transparently, as a community, on the consequences of an institutional (bureaucratic and administrative) exercise of implied control over college students.”
I’d venture that a “super hero” as opposed to an ordinary hero, is someone who essentially devotes their life to being a hero as their foundation. In this sense, I *would* consider quasi-mythological figures such as Zorro or Robin Hood to be effectively superheroes, though they lack a lot of the stereotypes we’ve come to associate with superheroes. (Or perhaps not… depending on how you look at it.)
The white areas in Spider-Mans eye cut-outs on his mask are really clever plastic lenses of the two-way mirror type. He can see out very clearly, but no one can see in. Therefore, he can never be recognized by the color of his eyes. These ingenious plastic lenses also protect his eyes from dust, dirt, and the glare of the sun. Spider-Man's colorful head-mask conceals his facial features and expressions and also effectively muffles his voice, making it unrecognizable. When using the Iron Spider-Man suit, it changed his voice in many ways. When Spider-Man became an Avenger, a special comm-link was outfitted into his mask allowing him to communicate with his fellow Avengers as well as others.
If you have any questions about selecting your boys Halloween costume for 2018, whether about the sizing, fit, material or anything else, we’re here to assist you. We want your son to have his best Halloween yet. You can reach the Spirit Halloween costume experts in our Customer Service department by calling 866-586-0155 or clicking the “Help” button above. We also carry treat bags to match his costume’s theme, so he can store all his goodies when he goes trick or treating.
In 1975 Shotaro Ishinomori's Himitsu Sentai Gorenger debuted on what is now TV Asahi, it brought the concepts of multi-colored teams and supporting vehicles that debuted in Gatchaman into live-action, and began the Super Sentai franchise (later adapted into the American Power Rangers series in the 1990s). In 1978, Toei adapted Spider-Man into a live-action Japanese television series. In this continuity, Spider-Man had a vehicle called Marveller that could transform into a giant and powerful robot called Leopardon, this idea would be carried over to Toei's Battle Fever J and now multi-colored teams not only had support vehicles but giant robots to fight giant monsters with.
Are you naturally hairier than you'd like--or have you always been completely incapable of growing a full beard? Either way, we bring equal opportunity furriness to all our bros with the gruff and gritty werewolf onesie. If the story of Little Red Riding Hood ended with the wolf eating the woodsman and stealing his clothes, this would be the result. Like all our mens Halloween costumes, this one can be played funny or scary. It's up to you what twisted twist to put on the execution of the character.
Spider-Man has changed his costume many times but would always return to his classic and most well known look which has varied sometimes. He has had many memorable costumes, including the Black & White symbiote suite, the Red & Gold Iron Spider suit, the Identity Crisis costumes, the Scarlet Spider costume, the White & Blue Armored Spider suit, the Bag-Man costume and recently he has started wearing a black & green costume. You can view several of Spider-Man's costumes in his costume gallery.
One of the newest bearded gents to hit the superhero scene is Jason Momoa's Aquaman! With just a glimpse of the character in 2016's Batman V Superman, he's going full bore in the Justice League movie. So, now would be the perfect time to showcase both your scruffy beard and your swimming prowess! Add a wig along with your own long beard when you go in this jumpsuit to get the perfect DC Comics look.

^ Norman Osborn using the alias as Green Goblin is Spider-Man's archenemy.[123][127][128] Mostly after he is responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[123] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[129]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as Norman and not just only as the Green Goblin.[130]

Catwoman has no shame about her preferred choice of action, stealing and being a top notch catburglar are at the top of her list. But when the times call for a hero, she has no problem standing side-by-side with Batman to team up and defeat the baddies. When she’s on the prowl for precious jewels, though, is sure to be the most opportune time for a quick picture. Once she takes out the vital controls of the security system, she’ll have no problem slipping into the joint and lining her pockets with a little extra cash or whatever she can find in the safety deposit box. Have her show her claws for the picture, and she can smile or look serious—either way this picture is going to be one to remember!

Jump up ^ Portaro, Sam (25 January 1998). A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and Fasts. Cowley Publications. p. 199. ISBN 1461660513. All Saints' Day is the centerpiece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival celebrations of All Hallows' Eve our ancestors used the most powerful weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to confront the power of death. The following day, in the commemoration of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness embodied in remarkable deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy of darkness and devils. And in the commemoration of All Souls we proclaimed the hope of common mortality expressed in our aspirations and expectations of a shared eternity.


Three former hosts of the Uni-Power—Susan Storm-Richards, Spider-Man and X-23—are all contacted by the Enigma Force once again when the Whirldemon King, a powerful entity once defeated by the time-traveling Prince Wayfinder of Ithaca and creator of the Enigma Force itself, escapes imprisonment. When X-23 sacrifices herself to save Valeria Richards from possession by the King the Uni-Power bonds with her a second time. While trapped in the Whirldemons' prison dimension, a connection is explicitly made between a starry apparition that enabled Laura to throw off the influence of a demon attempting to coerce her into serving it,[20] when the star-shaped mark left on Laura's palm after that encounter is recognized by the Whirldemon King as associated with the Enigma Force. Laura then uses the Uni-Power to wound the Whirldemon King and seal him back in his prison dimension, before returning her to earth. During these events the Enigma Force tells Laura that she has been designated the future heir to its power.[21]
On Hallowe'en (All Hallows' Eve), in Poland, believers were once taught to pray out loud as they walk through the forests in order that the souls of the dead might find comfort; in Spain, Christian priests in tiny villages toll their church bells in order to remind their congregants to remember the dead on All Hallows' Eve.[196] In Ireland, and among immigrants in Canada, a custom includes the Christian practice of abstinence, keeping All Hallows' Eve as a meat-free day, and serving pancakes or colcannon instead.[197] In Mexico children make an altar to invite the return of the spirits of dead children (angelitos).[198]
Jump up ^ "Night of Light Beginnings". Cor et Lumen Christi Community. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2012. In its first year – 2000 AD – over 1000 people participated from several countries. This included special All Saints Vigil masses, extended periods of Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and parties for children. In our second year 10,000 participated. Since these modest beginnings, the Night of Light has been adopted in many countries around the world with vast numbers involved each year from a Cathedral in India to a convent in New Zealand; from Churches in the USA and Europe to Africa; in Schools, churches, homes and church halls all ages have got involved. Although it began in the Catholic Church it has been taken up be other Christians who while keeping its essentials have adapted it to suit their own traditions.
According to Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why, in Judaism, Halloween is not permitted by Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18:3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile customs. Many Jews observe Yizkor, which is equivalent to the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, as prayers are said for both "martyrs and for one's own family".[227] Nevertheless, many American Jews celebrate Halloween, disconnected from its Christian origins.[228] Reform Rabbi Jeffrey Goldwasser has said that "There is no religious reason why contemporary Jews should not celebrate Halloween" while Orthodox Rabbi Michael Broyde has argued against Jews observing the holiday.[229] Jews do have the Purim holiday, where the children dress up in costumes to celebrate.[230]
Students hailed Spider-Man as a hero for his elevator rescue after he returned to New York City. He learned from Karen that the suit was recording all of his activity, so he reviewed a log of the day of Brice and Schultz's arms sale; he decided to confront the customer, Aaron Davis. At Karen's suggestion, he activated the Enhanced Interrogation Protocol, which made his voice sound deeper and more menacing.
Both major publishers began introducing new superheroines with a more distinct feminist theme as part of their origin stories or character development. Examples include Big Barda, Power Girl, and the Huntress by DC comics; and from Marvel, the second Black Widow, Shanna the She-Devil, and The Cat.[32] Female supporting characters who were successful professionals or hold positions of authority in their own right also debuted in the pages of several popular superhero titles from the late 1950s onward: Hal Jordan's love interest Carol Ferris was introduced as the Vice-President of Ferris Aircraft and later took over the company from her father; Medusa, who was first introduced in the Fantastic Four series, is a member of the Inhuman Royal Family and a prominent statesperson within her people's quasi-feudal society; and Carol Danvers, a decorated officer in the United States Air Force who would become a costumed superhero herself years later.
With more and more anime, manga and tokusatsu being translated or adapted, Western audiences were beginning to experience the Japanese styles of superhero fiction more than they were able to before. Saban's Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, an adaptation of Zyuranger, created a multimedia franchise that used footage from Super Sentai.[38] Internationally, the Japanese comic book character, Sailor Moon, is recognized as one of the most important and popular female superheroes ever created.[39][40][41][42][43]
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756692360. Although he made his debut in the previous issue, it was in this [Stan] Lee and [John] Romita tale [The Amazing Spider-Man #51] that the Kingpin – real name Wilson Fisk – really left his mark on organized crime.
Spider-Man was featured in a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as the titular superhero. The first Spider-Man film of the trilogy was released on May 3, 2002; followed by Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007). A third sequel was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony later decided to reboot the franchise with a new director and cast. The reboot, titled The Amazing Spider-Man, was released on July 3, 2012; directed by Marc Webb and starring Andrew Garfield as the new Spider-Man.[189][190][191] It was followed by The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014).[192][193] In 2015, Sony and Disney made a deal for Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[194] Tom Holland made his debut as Spider-Man in the MCU film Captain America: Civil War (2016), before later starring in Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017); directed by Jon Watts.[195][196] Holland reprises his role as Spider-Man in Avengers: Infinity War (2018).[197][198]
A teen outcast Andy Maguire went on a trip from his school to Horizon Labs, where Peter Parker was holding an experiment. Tiberius Stone, not liking Peter, sabotages the experiment, and Andy is hit with a ray of Peter Particles. Soon after he discovers he has super-powers. When he is examined by top greatest superhuman specialists, Reed Richards, Tony Stark, Henry Pym and Hank McCoy, they discover that he has energy projection, flight, super speed, super strength and force field, but his limitation is he can control only one power at a time. Reed tells Peter that he had discovered these particles, but didn't publish his work, because he considered the particles too powerful and dangerous. He then assigns Alpha as Spider-Man's sidekick. Alpha is however very careless and eventually quits working with Spider-Man and goes solo. Spider-Man decides then that there should be Alpha no more! Soon when earth is under attack from Terminus, Alpha is called from Captain America to fight him. During the fight Alpha behaves most irresponsible and almost destroys planes flying in the air. Though Alpha defeats Terminus, Peter observes that Terminus' staff can redirect Alpha energy. Then Spider-Man calls Alpha for another "analysis" and uses the tech acquired from the Terminus to strip Andy of his Alpha power, leaving him as nobody again.

In 1998 writer-artist John Byrne revamped the origin of Spider-Man in the 13-issue limited series Spider-Man: Chapter One (December 1998 – October 1999), similar to Byrne's adding details and some revisions to Superman's origin in DC Comics' The Man of Steel.[36] At the same time the original The Amazing Spider-Man was ended with issue #441 (November 1998), and The Amazing Spider-Man was restarted with vol. 2, #1 (January 1999).[37] In 2003 Marvel reintroduced the original numbering for The Amazing Spider-Man and what would have been vol. 2, #59 became issue #500 (December 2003).[37]

A few months after Spider-Man's introduction, publisher Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it was one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.[29]:97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (cover-dated March 1963). The title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series[9]:211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us."[9]:223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as penciler and would draw the series for the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the comics magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a proto-graphic novel designed to appeal to older readers. It only lasted for two issues, but it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964.[30]

In 1992, Marvel revealed that Northstar, a member of the Canadian mutant superhero team Alpha Flight, was homosexual, after years of implication.[58] This ended a long-standing editorial mandate that there would be no homosexual characters in Marvel comics.[59] Although some minor secondary characters in DC Comics' mature-audience 1980s miniseries Watchmen were gay, and the reformed supervillain Pied Piper came out to Wally West in an issue of The Flash in 1991, Northstar is considered to be the first openly gay superhero appearing in mainstream comic books. From the mid-2000s onward, several established Marvel and DC comics characters (or a variant version of the pre-existing character) were outed or reintroduced as LGBT individuals by both publishers. Examples include the Mikaal Tomas incarnation of Starman in 1998; Colossus in the Ultimate X-Men series; Renee Montoya in DC's Gotham Central series in 2003; the Kate Kane incarnation of Batwoman in 2006; Rictor and Shatterstar in an issue of X-Factor in 2009; the Golden Age Green Lantern Alan Scott is reimagined as openly gay following The New 52 reboot in 2011;[60][61] and in 2015, a younger time displaced version of Iceman in an issue of All-New X-Men.[62]


Spider-Man has been featured numerous times in Hasbro's Marvel Legends series. He first appeared in the Movie Sandman Build-a-Figure wave in both his outfit from the first movie and his black costume from Spider-Man 3. He was next featured in the Arnim Zola Build-a-Figure series, this time sporting his Big Time costume. The movie version of Spider-Man from The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was then featured in the Ultimate Green Goblin Build-a-Figure wave. A classic version of Spider-Man was later featured in the Hobgoblin Build-a-Figure wave, nicknamed "Pizza Spidey" by fans due to the presence of a slice of pizza. The Ultimate version of Spider-Man was then featured in the Space Venom Build-a-Figure series. The Symbiote version of Spider-Man then appeared in the Sandman Build-a-Figure wave. A Spider-Man: Homecoming-themed wave was then launched, with Vulture's wings as the "Build-a-Vehicle" this time. The line featured the movie version of Spider-Man in his costume and his homemade suit, as well as Cosmic Spider-Man. Spider-Man has also been featured in several two-packs and box sets, including a Captain America: Civil War-themed set that included Iron Man and Captain America, and a two-pack with Ultimate Vulture.
Beeckestijn Business School nodigt je graag uit voor de gratis clinic China’s razendsnelle technologische revolutie door Ed Sander en Fred Sengers op 2 november van 09:30 – 11:30 uur bij Beeckestijn Business School in Leusden. Klik hier om je aan te melden. Leider op digitaal vlak Dit decennium heeft China zich ontpopt als een land waar digitale...

Jump up ^ Markstein, Don. "The Black Widow". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013. Fantomah was the first female character in comics to use extraordinary powers in combatting evil. The Woman in Red was the first to wear a flashy costume and maintain a dual identity while doing so. On the other hand, The Black Widow was the first to do both.
According to The Washington Post, “several students in Silliman said they cannot bear to live in the college anymore.” These are young people who live in safe, heated buildings with two Steinway grand pianos, an indoor basketball court, a courtyard with hammocks and picnic tables, a computer lab, a dance studio, a gym, a movie theater, a film-editing lab, billiard tables, an art gallery, and four music practice rooms. But they can’t bear this setting that millions of people would risk their lives to inhabit because one woman wrote an email that hurt their feelings?
The Peter Parker of the daily Spider-Man newspaper strip continues his career as a struggling photographer constantly facing down the abuse of his less-than-satisfied boss J. Jonah Jameson, whilst battling crime in his disguise as Spider-Man. In addition to opposing classic enemies, much of the strip sees Peter battle new enemies. He has also teamed up with various heroes through the strip's run, such as Daredevil and Wolverine. He is married to Mary Jane in this continuity, and has often been aided by her in his battles with his enemies. This universe was visited by Morlun during the Spider-Verse event, but due to time distortions constantly resetting things so that the simplest actions take weeks to progress, Morlun finds his efforts to consume this version of Peter fruitless. The Master Weaver of the Inheritors elects to rebel against his masters for once and seals this universe away in a pocket dimension where it will remain safe from any further attacks.[22]

From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
×