Jump up ^ Moser, Stefan (29 October 2010). "Kein 'Trick or Treat' bei Salzburgs Kelten" (in German). Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017. Die Kelten haben gar nichts mit Halloween zu tun", entkräftet Stefan Moser, Direktor des Keltenmuseums Hallein, einen weit verbreiteten Mythos. Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.


Combat and customization meet collectibles with Artifacts, powerful items you can find throughout town that enhance your character's "might" - their stats and abilities in combat, and sometimes those of your allies as well. Many of these artifacts, of course, are items relevant to South Park lore as well, like a sexy magazine from Mayor McDaniels' office. If you feel like you're stuck and can't progress, finding or equipping new artifacts might be a good move.


Searching for a look on a budget? We're here to help. We offer costumes for men under ten dollars, under twenty dollars, under thirty dollars, and on special clearance, so you can find something you love without breaking the bank! Get items ranging from full costumes to simple items you can use to build your look. There are lots of cool looks to find on a budget like cowboys, gangsters, doctors, animals and bugs, clowns, pirates, holiday looks, superheroes, Star Wars, and other licensed costumes.

Jump up ^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 9780313386541. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own. They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small packages featuring Bible verses, Scripture Candy's "Harvest Seeds"--candy corn in everything but name—are among many candies created for this purpose.
The wearing of costumes is an important part of holidays developed from religious festivals such as Mardi Gras (in the lead up to Easter), and Halloween (related to All Hallow's Eve). Mardi Gras costumes usually take the form of jesters and other fantasy characters; Halloween costumes traditionally take the form of supernatural creatures such as ghosts, vampires, pop-culture icons and angels. In modern times. Christmas costumes typically portray characters such as Santa Claus (developed from Saint Nicholas). In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States the American version of a Santa suit and beard is popular; in the Netherlands, the costume of Zwarte Piet is customary. Easter costumes are associated with the Easter Bunny or other animal costumes.
During the Halloween seasonal event, which lasts from October 20th   / October 1st until November 1   / November 10th   , several enemies wear costumes that change their appearance, unique enemies spawn, and new items become available via enemy drops or via purchase. Goodie Bags also drop, offering random Halloween-themed items, mostly decorative or vanity.
Jump up ^ Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas, ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1-893905-06-3. "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero—Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'".

Work it, brother! We all know the reputation that Halloween costumes for women have, but sometimes, guys just want to feel sexy too! And we most definitely have costumes that will let you show off your man assets, whether you're a total beefcake...or even if you just want to be sexy in your own way. Whatever your intentions, check out these styles for some of our most popular costumes for men that will let you show off your sex appeal!

From at least the 16th century,[64] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[65] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[66] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[67] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[68] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[65] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[64] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod.[65] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.[65]
The Sailor Moon series is known for featuring a substantial number of openly LGBT characters since its inception, as Japan have traditionally been more open about portraying homosexuality in its children's media compared to many countries in the West.[65][66] Certain characters who are presented as homosexual or transgender in one continuity may not be presented as such in others, particularly with dubbed versions made for international release.[67]
In Old Man Logan, Spider-Man was killed during or sometime after the event where the villains rose to power and the heroes fell. In this timeline, he is implied to have married an unknown African-American woman and had a daughter who eventually married Hawkeye and had a child of their own. Hawkeye won in a poker game and customized the Spider-Mobile after his death.[89]
The Spider-Man Suit is a specialized suit used by Peter Parker to protect his identity as Spider-Man. Originally consisting of a hoodie with a spider symbol, blue pants, a blue shirt, and a red mask with black goggles to help him focus his senses, the suit received a "minor upgrade" from Tony Stark for Parker to use during the Clash of the Avengers. Stark allowed Parker to keep the suit after the Avengers Civil War.
In an alternate Civil War reality where the conflict continued after the anti-registration side's attempt to escape the Negative Zone prison triggered a self-destruct that destroyed most of New York, Peter continued serving on Captain America's side in the conflict and was given new upgrades such as wings that bear a resemblance to the Falcon, with Rogers noting that Peter is now his fastest operative. Since Mary-Jane and his daughter Maybelle live on Iron Man's terrain due to them not getting the chance to evacuate, he hardly gets the chance to see them. Following Steve's death in the final battle, Peter becomes the leader of Steve's side called "the Blue" and collaborates with Jennifer Walters who is the new leader of "The Iron."
After Bruce Wayne was defeated and crippled by Bane, he nominated Jean-Paul Valley to take up the mantle of Batman while he recovered. While initially wearing Bruce Wayne’s uniform, Jean-Paul would eventually begin to succumb to his “programming," becoming more and more corrupted by the crime he was fighting, and replaced the suit with his own tailor-made armour with razor disks, blades and hidden weapons, becoming a more aggressive and unstable Batman, known among comic-fans as the “Azbat” ("Azrael-Batman").
All seemed to go well again until Mary-Jane, whom had started acting again, was threatened by a stalker. It started with phone-calls, but when Mary-Jane took a plane, it exploded in mid-air and seemingly killed Mary-Jane. Peter, firstly stricken with grief, did not believe she had died. He knew it must have had something to do with the stalker, and Peter started a crusade to find out the truth. This brought him to Latveria and in a fight against the Hulk among others. Eventually, Peter learned that it was indeed the stalker that had faked Mary-Jane's death and had held her captive during it all. The stalker was a mutant that absorbed all of Peter's memories when he was saved by him during one of Spider-man's fights on the streets of New York. The Stalker needed Mary-Jan for himself because of it and he felled he knew her. Spider-man managed to save Mary-Jane and defeat the Stalker. Mary-Jane however was traumatized by the experience and needed time of from her life as the wife of a superhero. The two parted ways for some time.
On "In Darkness Dwells," it is shown that there's an infrared scope built within the cowl, along with a rebreather that can be folded within it. There's a wireless relay communicator in the cowl. Its signals are locked with quantum cryptology and bounced through a dozen different satellites (presumably the WayneComs). As per the animation styles, the suit varies between versions of the Batman Begins standard black suit and the Comic Book original.

All this is, I feel, a bit part of what feeds into making a hero a superhero in our minds - when they become larger than life, existing outside the boundaries that we normally exist in. Ironically, history in real life has probably seen more “super villains” than real super heroes; it’s much more tempting to human weakness and easier, to go outside the normal boundaries and cause harm or perform selfish acts. Many of the colorful supervillains from comic books, especially Batman’s rogue gallery of criminals, are not very far removed in some cases from the activities of real life villains who are epic in scope.
Jump up ^ Moser, Stefan (29 October 2010). "Kein 'Trick or Treat' bei Salzburgs Kelten" (in German). Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017. Die Kelten haben gar nichts mit Halloween zu tun", entkräftet Stefan Moser, Direktor des Keltenmuseums Hallein, einen weit verbreiteten Mythos. Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.
^ Although she is listed with the supervillains as she sometimes is depicted in certain portrayals. The Black Cat is more regarded as a anti-heroine than fully supervillain. A character that struggles in between deciding good and bad...and the major femme fatale romantic interest for Spider-Man. Her key role of deciding between crime and having complicated relationships of Spider-Man makes her sometimes labeled as part with the rest of the major rogues gallery of Spider-Man. Nonetheless she has been a staple supporting Spider-Man character during her debut.[1]
Raimi was also initially slated to direct a fourth Spider-Man film, with a release date of May 6, 2011. The ill-fated movie was intended to continue with the same cast and crew with plot-lines established in the first three films. Disagreement between Raimi and producers Laura Ziskin and Avi Arad over the script -- and over the choice of villains in particular -- as well as concerns with the rising cost of production (Raimi and series star Tobey Maguire would have claimed a large portion of any film royalties) led to a cancellation of that film's production. Instead, the Sony owned Columbia Pictures decided on a reboot of the franchise.
^ Despite first appearing in Spider-Man comic books, the Kingpin is more notable of being a Daredevil adversary. The character that represents the opposite of what Daredevil stands for. Despite this he is a major antagonist of both superheroes in the Marvel comic books just as recurringly.[9][156] He also is a major recurring villain in the rest of the Marvel Universe crossing over as major antagonists to superheroes/antiheroes (such as the Punisher) in certain comic books of the many based universes of Marvel. (PunisherMAX. etc.)[157]
The Classic Suit is the one Peter Parker begins this story using, and it appears he has been using this suit for the better part of 8 years. It features a smaller spider design on the front with the larger spider on the back - and more basic materials used in the design. It becomes damaged during the start of the story, during your fight with Kingpin.
The film was a hit at the box office, and as a result, The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was released in 2014. The film featured the return of most of the original cast, as well as new faces like Jamie Foxx as Max Dillon/Electro, Dane DeHaan as Harry Osborn/Green Goblin and Paul Giamatti as Aleksei Sytsevich/The Rhino. While the movie was a modest financial success, it was heavily panned by critics and made less at the box office than its predecessor. Despite plans for a third movie and a host of spin-offs (including a solo Venom movie, a female-led team movie featuring characters like Silver Sable, Black Cat, Spider-Gwen, Stunner and Lightbrght, and a Sinister Six movie) , the decision was made to discontinue the franchise.

Due to his accelerated metabolism, Spider-Man has a higher tolerance for drugs and diseases than normal humans, and he can recover from the effects of larger doses rapidly. During an encounter with the Swarm, Spider-Man was incapacitated by thousands of bee stings, but recovered in less than 24 hours. In another example, he was able to recover from the effects of gases nearly instantly. His resistance and recovery time to other toxins and diseases varies, but is typically significantly higher than normal. Spider-Man's unique physiology even allowed him to recover from the effects of vampirism. Spider-Man was able to recover completely from acid being spat into his eyes by the new Vulture; Jimmy Natale, although the extent of the damage may have been restricted due to his superhuman durability. However, Spider-Man has the normal human tolerance for alcoholic beverages.
During the 1940s there were many superheroes: The Flash, Green Lantern and Blue Beetle debuted in this era. This era saw the debut of first known female superhero, writer-artist Fletcher Hanks's character Fantomah, an ageless ancient Egyptian woman in the modern day who could transform into a skull-faced creature with superpowers to fight evil; she debuted in Fiction House's Jungle Comic #2 (Feb. 1940), credited to the pseudonymous "Barclay Flagg".[15][16] The Invisible Scarlet O'Neil, a non-costumed character who fought crime and wartime saboteurs using the superpower of invisibility created by Russell Stamm, would debut in the eponymous syndicated newspaper comic strip a few months later on June 3, 1940.[17]
The radioactive, complex mutagenic enzymes in the spider's blood that were transferred at the time of the bite triggered numerous body-wide mutagenic changes within Parker, granting him superhuman strength, speed, toughened flesh, and numerous arachnid-like abilities. Like many superhuman powers, the effectiveness of Spider-Man's abilities varies based on the author and the needs of the story.
We also have plenty of bad guy costumes, so if he wants to dress up as Thanos from Avengers: Infinity War, in a padded shirt plus gauntlet, mask and pants with boot covers, he can. These detailed superhero costumes for boys will make him feel totally powerful. Whether he’s setting out on his own or wants to form a group costume with his friends, such as the Power Rangers Ninja Steel, our superhero costumes fit boys of all ages. From Batman to Guardians of the Galaxy to Big Hero 6, plus many more, Spirit is here to give your son a truly heroic Halloween!
Jump up ^ Dr. Andrew James Harvey (31 October 2012). "'All Hallows' Eve'". The Patriot Post. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2011. "The vigil of the hallows" refers to the prayer service the evening before the celebration of All Hallows or Saints Day. Or "Halloween" for short – a fixture on the liturgical calendar of the Christian West since the seventh century.

^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.

In Python, the datetime module contains examples of attributes. A datetime object has several pieces of information associated with it that a user can extract. For example, to get the day from the datetime object, a user could call datetime.day and to get the year, the user could call datetime.year and so on. The day and the year are attributes of a datetime object.
Similar to a grappling hook, the line launching gun uses a strong clamp attached to a high-tensil wire for scaling surfaces and/or traversing gaps. It can be recovered by releasing the clamp and rewinding the cable. It was based from one that is designed as compact climbing gear for commando units. It is propelled with compressed air, and works with a magnetic grappling iron. The thin climbing cable was tested on a load-carrying capacity of 350 lbs. The line can be attached to a reel in the buckle in the utility harness, but this was only used to escape after being defeated by the Scarecow in The Narrows.

Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages.[20] Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[20]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
After the Skrull invasion, the Dark Reign took hold. Norman Osborn was seen as a hero and became the leader of the world's national security, hunting down the heroes. Spider-Man attempted to stop him by infiltrating Stark Tower during the American Son story. He fought Osborn once more when he is placed on Osborn's list and managed to broadcast on the internet a video of Osborn conducting horrible experiments. He then joined Captain America in intercepting Osborn's Siege on Asgard, ending his Dark Reign. The aftermath marked the dawn of the Heroic Age in which Spidey became a member of the newly formed Avengers.
The first Halloween haunted house run by a nonprofit organization was produced in 1970 by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in Clifton, Ohio. It was cosponsored by WSAI, an AM radio station broadcasting out of Cincinnati, Ohio. It was last produced in 1982.[182] Other Jaycees followed suit with their own versions after the success of the Ohio house. The March of Dimes copyrighted a "Mini haunted house for the March of Dimes" in 1976 and began fundraising through their local chapters by conducting haunted houses soon after. Although they apparently quit supporting this type of event nationally sometime in the 1980s, some March of Dimes haunted houses have persisted until today.[183]
Spider-Man discovered the symbiote costume during the Secret Wars and it became his primary costume until he discovered that it was an alien feeding on him. With it, he had an unlimited supply of webbing, and the suit could mimic his civilian clothing. It didn't, contrary to popular belief, enhance his powers. After meeting with Mr Fantastic, he decided it must be destroyed and would later get rid of it using the sounds of a church bell. It would later bond with Eddie Brock to form the deadly villain known as Venom. The Black Cat would later give Spidey a cloth version of the black suit which he would start wearing for a time, switching between it and the red & blue costume. After the Kraven's last Hunt story and the appearance of Venom for the first time, Mary Jane urged Peter to stop wearing the costume because it reminded her of those traumatizing events. During the Back In Black story, after Aunt May was shot by a sniper, a darkness filled Spider-Man's heart like never before. He wore the black costume to show this dark side, becoming much more ruthless towards enemies (using torture for example). Peter attempted to infiltrate Stark Tower to stop Norman Osborn, he used a black costume made of unstable molecules to disguise himself as the Venom. During the Grim Hunt story, after Kraven was recovered, he presented Peter with a black costume as a calling card after the Kravinoffs killed Peter's "brother" Kaine. He once again wore this costume and became aggressive towards the villains, vowing to hunt them all down. He was about to kill Kraven with a spear until he was convinced otherwise by Arachne and Arana. The black suit represents Spider-Man's dark side.
If you have any questions about selecting your boys Halloween costume for 2018, whether about the sizing, fit, material or anything else, we’re here to assist you. We want your son to have his best Halloween yet. You can reach the Spirit Halloween costume experts in our Customer Service department by calling 866-586-0155 or clicking the “Help” button above. We also carry treat bags to match his costume’s theme, so he can store all his goodies when he goes trick or treating.
Spider-Man became a force for good, from stopping muggings to rescuing workers at a construction site. These heroic activities also gained him positive media attention but he still didn’t want to get back in show business. Even after Shiffman told him they could make millions, Peter chose responsibility over money. His heroism had also earned Spider-Man a certain fan named Flash Thompson. Spider-Man soon encountered another teenager with superpowers of her own and he and Joey Pulaski became friends. However it turned out that Joey was working for The Kingpin and the friends inevitably clashed, resulting in Joey’s defeat and arrest. Although portrayed as just a misguided kid, chronologically Joey Pulaski was the first super powered being Spider-Man had encountered.
Debra Whitman: a fellow Empire State University student and secretary whom Peter dates for a period of time, though his frequent disappearances complicate their relationship. She is eventually diagnosed with mild schizophrenia, ironically exacerbated by her "delusional" belief that Peter is Spider-Man. With Peter's help, she overcomes that idea. Soon afterward, she leaves New York after another man, Biff Rifkin, confesses his strong feelings for her.

Spider-Man takes the fight to The Crime Master and busts up an operation of drinking, girls and drugs. In a back room he discovers a soundproof torture chamber. He goes to visit Felicia, but she is with someone else. Returning home, he is told that Robbie has disappeared. On Ellis Island, Octavius inspects the new test subjects, and Robbie is among them. Octavius, working for The Friends of New Germany (TFONG), intends to use them to prove that inferior races can be controlled by removing their willpower surgically. Spider-Man revisits the chamber for more information, but he is ambushed by The Crime Master and his men. With them is The Sandman who slams Spider-Man to the ground with ease.[6]


As different artists have taken over the responsibility of drawing the character, the details of the suit have changed considerably. The original incarnation of the cape was a wing-like structure inspired by drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. This eventually evolved into a more cape-like design of varying length. Some artists draw the cape with protrusions on the shoulders, likely representing the "thumb" part of a bat's wing, though this is not a consistent addition. The cape is occasionally depicted as bulletproof.The cape varies according to the current writer, sometimes being depicted as bulletproof and fire resistant, and other times being nothing more than simple fabric that tears easily and sustains constant damage and is continuously replaced.
George Stacy (deceased): Gwen Stacy's father, Police Captain. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man (vol. 1) #56 (1968). He approves of Peter and Gwen's relationship as boyfriend and girlfriend. During a fight between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus, he is crushed by falling debris while saving a child. As he dies, he reveals to Peter that he had known his identity for some time (something Peter had suspected anyway), and asks Peter to take care of Gwen.
It is Spider-Man's original and main look that has defined Spider-Man since his first appearance. Although it has seen many variations, it has remained one of Spider-Man's essential traits. During Spidey's early appearances, the costume was black & red with blue shadings. In later issues, the colors change and they become red & blue with black shading but some artists use the black color to give the character more depth. Also, Spider-Man was portrayed having webbing underneath his armpits that extended from his wrist to his waist. Over time, the under-arm webbing has shrank and some artists decided to draw Spidey without the webbing although it still appeared in some modern appearances.
If you want to make your Halloween costume something no one will ever be able to forget, add some incredible accessories! There are lots of different ways to add to your style. If you're dressed as a superhero, get weapons, gloves, boot tops, capes, and masks. If you're getting ready to battle the Sith as a powerful Jedi, or want to try the Kessel run as a smooth-talking smuggler, you can get lightsabers, blaster pistols, and helmets. There are lots of generic items you can use for almost any look, like solid-color capes, skin suits, hats, and boots, to help you create a look all your own.

As students saw it, their pain ought to have been the decisive factor in determining the acceptability of the Halloween email. They thought their request for an apology ought to have been sufficient to secure one. Who taught them that it is righteous to pillory faculty for failing to validate their feelings, as if disagreement is tantamount to disrespect? Their mindset is anti-diversity, anti-pluralism, and anti-tolerance, a seeming data-point in favor of April Kelly-Woessner’s provocative argument that “young people today are less politically tolerant than their parents’ generation.”


In a Manhattan warehouse, an innocent man has been murdered during a mysterious crime. Evidence points to the involvement of Venom-- the alien symbiote who is obsessed with Spider-Man's destruction. Yet Venom has always safeguarded innocent lives--- has he gone completely around the bend, or is there another suspect?Spider-Man thinks there is more to the crime than meets the eye. The spectre of the Hobgoblin, one of Spider-Man's nastiest villains, falls on a series of thefts, and leads the web-slinger to a deadly secret that may cause New York's destruction. Spider-Man must outsmart two of his most lethal foes to save the city-- but even more danger awaits him!
Some boys want to grow up to be a big and strong man, and well, some boys just want to grow up to be a macho, macho man. If you've always found yourself in the latter category, then the easiest way to show off your sex appeal is by going in one of our officially licensed Village People Costumes! They're made and designed by us, and by far the most popular and instantly recognizable character is the Biker. This jacket and chaps set comes with the hat, thick manly mustache, and a fun chest chain to transform you into the iconic performer with some sizzling sex appeal.
Someone was probably smoking spinach when they suggested that Popeye was the first superhero. As the “Men of Tomorrow” book makes clear, the precursors to Superman and Batman were Doc Savage and The Shadow, created in the Street and Smith pulp magazines of the early ’30s. It is interesting to note that DC Comics currently plans to return its universe to its early roots and purge all magical powers from their characters, leaving Wonder Woman in limbo it would seem.
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.[45]
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[92][93] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today.[94] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[95] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips".[96] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead.[97] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.[98][99] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights".[100][101][102] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[103] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee; their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things."[104] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties.[96][105][93][106]
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