It was a basic convention of comic books at the time of Batman's creation that black needed a highlight color (usually blue) in order to show detail and give the illusion of three-dimensionality. Over time, the initial blue highlight spread out over the previously black cape and cowl to become the dominant color. Thus artists renditions depict the costume as black and gray or blue and gray.

The bringer of destruction and maker of doom, the feeble powers of any superhero are no match for the mighty Professor Chaos. A veteran of supervillainy with many foiled schemes behind him, few realize that he was once the lonely Butters Stotch, outcasted by society. Seeking vengeance on those who once wronged him, ten thousand dollars from a generous donor may be all he needs to defeat Coon and Friends once and for all...
Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 9781438110370. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015. They were both respected and feared. "Their backs towards us, their faces away from us, and may God and Mary save us from harm," was a prayer spoken whenever one ventured near their dwellings.
^ Despite first appearing in Spider-Man comic books, the Kingpin is more notable of being a Daredevil adversary. The character that represents the opposite of what Daredevil stands for. Despite this he is a major antagonist of both superheroes in the Marvel comic books just as recurringly.[9][156] He also is a major recurring villain in the rest of the Marvel Universe crossing over as major antagonists to superheroes/antiheroes (such as the Punisher) in certain comic books of the many based universes of Marvel. (PunisherMAX. etc.)[157]
Spider-Man has the proportionate strength of a spider, thus allowing him to press 10 tons without effort and much more when under stress. His attacks are so strong; they could kill a normal person- Spider-Man has to pull his punches or kicks when not fighting foes with similar or higher strength levels to avoid fatalities. His strength also extends to his feet, allowing him to leap great lengths and attain a heights of much greater three stories with one powerful jump. Spidey's strength has made him capable of going toe-to-toe with opponents including Doctor Octopus, Venom and Rhino. He has even held his own against powerful heroes such as Iron Man and the Hulk. It's also shown that Spider-Man can break free from Doctor Octopus's nearly indestructible arms albeit with much effort, although this was due to the Sinister Six suit enhancing his strength. Spidey's strength and durability also give him incredible stamina allowing him to exert himself beyond the limits of humans as his body produces less fatigue toxins. He was able to fight Morlun continually for many hours, and has stated an ability to hold his breath for at least twice as long as non-enhanced humans. After his encounter with the Queen, Spider-Man's strength had been increased to the point where he has become able to lift over 15 tons without effort and after the Other story arc he was able to lift at least 20 tons without effort. During that time, he wore an Iron Spider costume designed for him by Tony Stark which increased his strength further allowing him to lift over 25 tons without effort. He has stopped wearing the Iron Spider costume after the Civil War and his enhanced strength was erased by Mephisto after the One More Day storyline. Spider-man's best strength feats tend to come during periods of emotional duress- for example in a fight with Iron Man 2020, where when a boy was injured mid fight, an enraged Spider-Man jumped up to his flying height and hit him with such force the foe was sent flying hundreds of feet into a building, which was destroyed on impact. Another instance was when he lifted a segment of the Daily Bugle, after the building was attacked by the Green Goblin. In both cases, he didn't have any enhancements from the Queen or the Other.

^ Jump up to: a b c "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church.... All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself. The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en. ...However, there are supporters of the view that Hallowe'en, as the eve of All Saints' Day, originated entirely independently of Samhain ...
The police, led by Jean DeWolff, arrive too late to save Spider-Man from a massive beating but in time to kill Sandman. The Crime Master escapes, but Spider-Man has managed to link him with TFONG. A severely injured Spider-Man goes to Felicia to recover. The following day she forces him to leave before the arrival of her other man — the unmasked Crime Master. Felicia questions him too much, and he determines that she has been seeing Spider-Man. In fury, he attacks her with a shard of mirror. He gets a call from the leader of TFONG, telling him to shut Ellis Island down before they all get caught. Spider-Man goes to Ellis Island himself and finds Robbie, but was too late as Octavius had already drilled into his frontal lobe, leaving him motionless.[7]

Michele Gonzales: Michele is a criminal defense lawyer and the hot-tempered sister of Peter's roommate Vin Gonzales, as well his temporary roommate while Vin serves time for his involvement in the Spider-Tracer Killings frame-up (to which she got him a plea bargain[6]). When Michelle attempts to kick Peter out (who is actually the Chameleon in disguise) she is instead seduced by him and become infatuated with him.[7] She is almost constantly angry, and questioning her or drawing attention to the size of her buttocks really sets her off.[8] However, she is also a helpful and kind person, by trying hard to help her clients get their lives back on track. After pestering and bothering Peter tirelessly, she returned to her previous home in Chicago shortly after Vin's release.[9]
^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy.[140][143][144] Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[140] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[145]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself and not just only as his Goblin persona.[146]
To make your own superhero costume, choose a form-fitting Spandex outfit with full-length leggings and long sleeves, which is perfect for disguising yourself while allowing you the freedom of movement to take down villains. Make your own mask to hide your true identity, and drape fabric over your shoulders if you want a cape. Wear brightly colored boots, and attach a letter or your own symbol to the center of your chest or cape. If you use any accessories for crime-fighting, like a sword or a shield, include that in your costume as well.
Three former hosts of the Uni-Power—Susan Storm-Richards, Spider-Man and X-23—are all contacted by the Enigma Force once again when the Whirldemon King, a powerful entity once defeated by the time-traveling Prince Wayfinder of Ithaca and creator of the Enigma Force itself, escapes imprisonment. When X-23 sacrifices herself to save Valeria Richards from possession by the King the Uni-Power bonds with her a second time. While trapped in the Whirldemons' prison dimension, a connection is explicitly made between a starry apparition that enabled Laura to throw off the influence of a demon attempting to coerce her into serving it,[20] when the star-shaped mark left on Laura's palm after that encounter is recognized by the Whirldemon King as associated with the Enigma Force. Laura then uses the Uni-Power to wound the Whirldemon King and seal him back in his prison dimension, before returning her to earth. During these events the Enigma Force tells Laura that she has been designated the future heir to its power.[21]
Spider Woman a.k.a. Spider-Gwen might be from an alternate universe, but with her stylish look we think she’d be right at home on any planet. With this costume’s sleek hoodie and dynamic color scheme we’re sure you’re going to love pretending you’re the one who got bit by a radioactive spider. Give this cool costume a try to bring this up-and-coming superhero to life!

In this Batsuit, the fins on the sides of Batman's gauntlets are now retractable and are capable of firing outwards as projectiles. The chest emblem is smaller than the original, and separated in half across the pectorals. Furthermore, this suit also has a built-in retractable 'memory cloth' cape that can be stored in compartments behind the shoulder blades. Though this function was only ever used once when scaled a vantage point in China.
“We are not asking to be coddled,” the open letter insists. “The real coddling is telling the privileged majority on campus that they do not have to engage with the brutal pasts that are a part of the costumes they seek to wear.” But no one asserted that students should not be questioned about offensive costumes––only that fellow Yale students, not meddling administrators, should do the questioning, conduct the conversations, and shape the norms for themselves.  “We simply ask that our existences not be invalidated on campus,” the letter says, catastrophizing.
On route home after a night's drinking, Jack encounters the Devil and tricks him into climbing a tree. A quick-thinking Jack etches the sign of the cross into the bark, thus trapping the Devil. Jack strikes a bargain that Satan can never claim his soul. After a life of sin, drink, and mendacity, Jack is refused entry to heaven when he dies. Keeping his promise, the Devil refuses to let Jack into hell and throws a live coal straight from the fires of hell at him. It was a cold night, so Jack places the coal in a hollowed out turnip to stop it from going out, since which time Jack and his lantern have been roaming looking for a place to rest.[123]
During the recent Ends of the Earth Storyline, Spider-Man wore a new suit of armor designed to counter the abilities of the Sinister Six. It provided him with extra physical protection to withstand hits more blows from The Rhino as well as an immunity to Electro's Attacks. The helmet had audio sensors which could identify The Chameleon by the sound of his heartbeat and special vision modes to allow him to see through Mysterio's illusions as well as to track the particle of sand that holds Sandman's consciousness. The gauntlets were designed to shoot larger amounts of webbing than the traditional web-shooters as well as switching between his normal webbing and the new magnetic webbing. It also seems to enhance his physical strength.
Michele Gonzales: Michele is a criminal defense lawyer and the hot-tempered sister of Peter's roommate Vin Gonzales, as well his temporary roommate while Vin serves time for his involvement in the Spider-Tracer Killings frame-up (to which she got him a plea bargain[6]). When Michelle attempts to kick Peter out (who is actually the Chameleon in disguise) she is instead seduced by him and become infatuated with him.[7] She is almost constantly angry, and questioning her or drawing attention to the size of her buttocks really sets her off.[8] However, she is also a helpful and kind person, by trying hard to help her clients get their lives back on track. After pestering and bothering Peter tirelessly, she returned to her previous home in Chicago shortly after Vin's release.[9]
Marvel published a limited series called Powerless in 2004, which tells how the Marvel Universe would be without super-powers. In this series, Peter Parker appears as a young man nicknamed Spider-Man on the internet. This version had also been bitten by a radioactive spider, but instead of getting super-powers his hand became atrophic. In this continuity, Peter is in love with Gwen Stacy; Mary Jane is not featured.[23]
Angered at Spider-Man ruining his plans again, Mysterio activates a robotic avatar and sends it after Peter. Back in the new universe, Peter fights with the other Spider-Man, but his superior experience and training is outmaneuvered by the other Spider-Man's new powers, culminating in Peter being knocked out when the other Spider-Man, Miles Morales uses his venom sting on a web that Peter had just created. Waking up in a cell, Peter meets this world's Nick Fury and explains his theory that he is from another universe, which Fury accepts as nobody would come up with something that ridiculous as a lie. Fury sends Peter away with Miles to explain this world's history to him. But just as Peter asks Miles if his counterpart is dead in this world, they are attacked by Mysterio's avatar.[4]

Born to Richard and Mary Parker in Queens, New York, Peter Parker lost his parents at a very young age when their plane went down overseas while they were on a mission as government spies. He was raised by his aunt and uncle (May and Ben Parker) who, along with his teachers at Midtown High School, thought he had a bright future due to his affinity for science. However, Peter struggled with bullies and being teased for his introverted nature (sometimes referring to him as a "professional wallflower") and interest in science that pegged him as a teacher's pet.
At Yale, every residential college has a “master”––a professor who lives in residence with their family, and is responsible for its academic, intellectual, and social life.  “Masters work with students to shape each residential college community,” Yale states, “bringing their own distinct social, cultural, and intellectual influences to the colleges.” The approach is far costlier than what’s on offer at commuter schools, but aims to create a richer intellectual environment where undergrads can learn from faculty and one another even outside the classroom.

After Octavius tries to retrieve some of Parker’s memories in an attempt to solve a revirbium related problem, Peter's consciousness begins to re-emerge, having somehow escaped the mind-purge. When Otto is possessed by the Venom Symbiote and is unable to free himself of it, Peter's consciousness again emerges and breaks the Symbiote's hold over Dr. Octopus, enabling Flash Thompson to call it back to him.
Spider-Man's exposure to the mutated spider venom induced a mutagenic, cerebellum-wide alteration of his engrams resulting in the ability to mentally control the flux of inter-atomic attraction (electrostatic force) between molecular boundary layers. This overcomes the outer electron shell's normal behavior of mutual repulsion with other outer electron shells and permits the tremendous potential for electron attraction to prevail. The mentally controlled sub-atomic particle responsible for this has yet to be identified. This ability to affect the attraction between surfaces is so far limited to Spider-Man's body (especially concentrated in his hands and feet) and another object, with an upper limit of several tons per finger. Limits to this ability seem to be psychosomatic, and the full nature of this ability has yet to be established. Spider-man utilizes this ability in his locomotion across New-York, but also has the ability to use it offensively, in a manner resembling the Mark of Kaine. Spider-Man rarely uses this ability though, due to its brutal and disfiguring effects. It also works differently, ripping off layers of skin and muscle, rather than burning it as Kaine does via the HCL secreted through his palms.
Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.

Jump up ^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 99. ISBN 9783825888893. On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes. Halloween – like the medieval danse macabre – is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
The Batsuit also has "sonar-vision", where signals emitted by mobile phones are converted into images in a similar way to sonar. In order to view the-said images, white lenses fold down from Batman's cowl to cover his eyes. Fox ran the machine to enable the "sonar-vision", but since it went against Fox's morals to spy on 30 million people, Batman built a self-destruct mechanism to allow Lucius to destroy the machine, likely the glowing lcd lenses were never used again.
During the Civil War, Spider-Man joins Iron Man's team ( and gets given an iron spider suit ) and dons a new Iron Spider costume. He supported the SHRA to the point where he even revealed his identity to the public, but as a result, his life was ruined as he is fired from his job, his old friends turn their backs on him and his loved ones become targeted by his enemies since they now know Spider-Man's secret identity. Eventually, he discovers the rogue heroes' mistreatment by the government and realizes that he sided with the wrong team so he betrays Iron Man and joins Captain America's Secret Avengers, He disregarded his suit that tony start had given him as it was prone to being hacked, and he did not want to be seen using technology tony stark had made, he reverted back to his original outfit.
In No More- a story arc starting in Peter Parker: The Spectacular Spider-Man #303- a trip to the past to retrieve vital information resulted in Peter Parker changing his past when his younger self decided to abandon being Spider-Man because he felt, based on what he had seen and overheard of his future self's life, that such a career would only bring him pain and suffering. As a result, Peter Parker became a successful industrialist married to Gwen Stacy, but Norman Osborn has conquered the world, killing Iron Man and most of the Fantastic Four and imprisoning Doctor Doom, with Peter still hiding behind his corporate role even as Gwen discreetly aids the resistance as he believes that taking action as Spider-Man will only make things worse.
In this example, the objects or instances are the individual superheroes described by the class Superhero. There could be an Ironman object, a Wonder Woman object, a Batman object, or a Spiderman object. The class Superhero associates certain attributes and methods with the superhero objects. For this example, each superhero will have the following attributes: strength, superpower, costume color, secret identity, points, and health. Additionally, each superhero will have the following methods (or actions): attack and heal.
That's where we come in. We can help you to look like almost any kind of superhero you want to be. If you have a particular favorite character, chances are we have a costume for him/her. We have officially licensed costumes for most of the major DC and Marvel Comics characters. Plus, we have independent or spoof characters such as Ace & Gary, Kick-Ass, Duffman, Hellboy and the Watchmen.  

In keeping with their origins as representing the archetypical hero stock character in 1930s American comics, superheroes are predominantly depicted as white Anglo-Saxon American middle- or upper-class heterosexual young adult males who are typically tall, athletic, educated, physically attractive and in perfect health. Beginning in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States, and increasingly with the rising concern over political correctness in the 1980s, superhero fiction centered on cultural, ethnic, national, racial and language minority groups (from the perspective of US demographics) began to be produced. This began with depiction of black superheroes in the 1960s, followed in the 1970s with a number of other ethnic superheroes.[51] In keeping with the political mood of the time, cultural diversity and inclusivism would be an important part of superhero groups starting from the 1980s. In the 1990s, this was further augmented by the first depictions of superheroes as homosexual. In 2017, Sign Gene emerged, the first group of deaf superheroes with superpowers through the use of sign language.[52]
Designated as Earth 30847, not much of this Spider-Man is different from traditional itterations, except for the fact that the universe is shared by Capcom characters. This universe does not have a concrete lore, but the main plot of Marvel Vs. Capcom does feature Spider-Man contributing to the battle against Ultron Sigma, a fusion of Ultron and Sigma from the Mega Man X series.
Jump up ^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 9780313386541. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own. They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small packages featuring Bible verses, Scripture Candy's "Harvest Seeds"--candy corn in everything but name—are among many candies created for this purpose.

Captain Universe generally possesses superhuman strength, flight, Uni-Vision (microscopic vision, X-ray vision, and telescopic vision), telekinesis, enhanced senses, and a psychic awareness of imminent danger; when a person already possessing one or more of these abilities was transformed into Captain Universe, those abilities were amplified by vast amounts. Some manifestations of the Uni-Power have demonstrated other, less common abilities as well as failing to exhibit some of the more 'usual' powers, which vary in intensity with each wielder according to the strength and imagination of each. Captain Universe usually possesses the ability of molecular rearrangement of organic and inorganic matter, transmutation of elements, the ability to fire bursts of energy and concussive force, and hypnosis (using the Uni-Vision energy). Possessing its own sentience, the Uni-Power can and will abandon a host if necessary, or if said host uses or intends to use the granted abilities in a detrimental or criminal fashion.
‘We hebben inmiddels vijf jaar op rij het topniveau behaald in de Champions League van de internationale klantenservices’, kon Cindy Kroon (vice president Customers & Solutions regio NL/UK bij Nuon/Vattenfall) een tijdje terug wel van de daken schreeuwen na het binnenslepen van het COPC CX 6.0-certificaat. ‘En toch blijft dit voor ons iets heel bijzonders.’ Achterover leunen is er dan ook niet bij voor de energiespeler: samen met Bernard Steenbergen (director Customer Service Operations) daagt Kroon de organisatie continu uit dit niveau vast te houden. Minimaal.
The Yale student appears to believe that creating an intellectual space and a home are at odds with one another. But the entire model of a residential college is premised on the notion that it’s worthwhile for students to reside in a campus home infused with intellectualism, even though creating it requires lavishing extraordinary resources on youngsters who are already among the world’s most advantaged. It is no accident that masters are drawn from the ranks of the faculty.
Spider-Man has many abilities but the most amazing of all is his uncanny Spider-Sense. It is a tingling sensation on the back of his skull that acts as a "sixth sense" and it manifests when he is around or targeted by incoming dangers. It's a precognition ability that is pheromone based and is similar to Daredevil's radar sense, increasing his reaction time and awareness. The spider-sense can manifest when Peter's secret identity is about to be compromised. It also manifests when he encounters someone who might pose a threat to him or to someone he cares about. For example, when Peter saw his roommate Michele Gonzales with one of her clients, his spider-sense warned him that the client was actually a thug who was participating in a super-villain gladiatorial contest. While the spider-sense cannot discern the specific nature of the impending threat, he can identify which direction it is coming from and the severity of the danger by the intensity of the spider-sense. Sometimes it becomes strong enough to be painful. When Spider-Man is blinded, the Spider-Sense works as another set of eyes to avoid bumping into objects. When Daken used his pheromones on Spider-Man, Peter closed his eyes and relied only on his spider-sense to defeat his foe because the pheromones corrupted his sight. A similar situation happened when Peter fought the new Vulture who blinded him with acid in the eyes. Spider-Man relied on this ability to survive this fight. Of course his Spider-Sense is a great help when he faces people in the dark. This has been proven in his fight with Iron Fist. The spider-sense can lose its effectiveness when Peter is too distracted, tired or when he chooses to ignore it although its difficult to do so because it is heavily linked to his reflexes. There were also times that his spider-sense wasn't very effective due to the Spidey's previous lack of formal training, but this has since has been largely rectified since learning the Way of the Spider. Under extreme circumstances, such as fighting in the dark or against powerful characters, Spidey has often used his spectacular spider-sense in a more effective and better way. The Spider-Sense also gave him his own free-style form of combat, allowing him to go head-to-head with the best martial artists in the Marvel Universe and his H2H skill has improved significantly since merging his Way of the Spider training with his Spider-Sense. Furthermore, the Spider-Sense also allows Spider-Man to detect certain radio frequencies on which his spider tracers' signals are based upon. During Spider-Man's first encounter with the Chameleon, the villain used a certain radio frequency to send a message to Spider-Man via his spider-sense. The Spider-Sense, combined with his speed and reflexes allows Spider-Man to dodge almost all conventional attacks. Due to the similar nature of their powers, Spider-Man is unable to sense other "Spiders", such as Ben Reilly, Ezekiel, and Kaine. During the Big Time story, Spider-Man used a device to block Alistair Smythe's minions' enhanced senses, but also disabled his own Spider-Sense. After the events of Spider-Island, Peter regained this ability.

^ Jump up to: a b Mary Mapes Dodge, ed. (1883). St. Nicholas Magazine. Scribner & Company. p. 93. 'Soul-cakes,' which the rich gave to the poor at the Halloween season, in return for which the recipients prayed for the souls of the givers and their friends. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!'

In 1963, Astro Boy was adapted into a highly influential anime television series. Phantom Agents in 1964 focused on ninjas working for the Japanese government and would be the foundation for Sentai-type series. 1966 saw the debut of sci-fi/horror series Ultra Q created by Eiji Tsuburaya this would eventually lead on to the sequel Ultraman, spawning a successful franchise focused upon the Giant Hero subgenre where the Superheroes would be as big as giant monsters (Kaiju) that they fought.
With nearly 20 years of expertise in the costume business, more than 10,000 unique costumes, and one million-plus customizable costume and accessory options, we know Halloween inside and out. We started with a dream, and we’re in the business of making our customers’ dreams come true. Whether you’re looking for the perfect Halloween costume or you’ve been designated this Christmas’ Santa Claus, you’ve come to the right place.
Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[65] From at least the 18th century, "imitating malignant spirits" led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century.[65] Traditionally, pranksters used hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels often carved with grotesque faces as lanterns.[65] By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits,[65] or were used to ward off evil spirits.[69][70] They were common in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands in the 19th century,[65] as well as in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.[65]
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