We would like to point out that while there’s lots of good to be done as a superhero, well, sometimes it’s just more fun to be a bad guy. If you have a group that relishes in deviousness there’s one cadre of callous evil-doers that stands out amongst a universe of comic book villains—Batman’s Rogues Gallery. The various villains Batman has faced over the years would make quite the ferocious force if ever they assembled together in the same lineup. Which is why you should totally do it with your group! There’s sure to be a Batman at your party anyway, so you might as well show up en masse to give him a tough time. Even if you’re not seeking to disrupt the peacetime partying, we’re sure there’s lots of fun to be had when these DC Comics characters get together!


American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first book-length history of Halloween in the US; The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America".[145] In her book, Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic; "Americans have fostered them, and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. All Halloween customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries".[146]
Other Protestant Christians also celebrate All Hallows' Eve as Reformation Day, a day to remember the Protestant Reformation, alongside All Hallow's Eve or independently from it.[210][211] This is because Martin Luther is said to have nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to All Saints' Church in Wittenberg on All Hallows' Eve.[212] Often, "Harvest Festivals" or "Reformation Festivals" are held on All Hallows' Eve, in which children dress up as Bible characters or Reformers.[213] In addition to distributing candy to children who are trick-or-treating on Hallowe'en, many Christians also provide gospel tracts to them. One organization, the American Tract Society, stated that around 3 million gospel tracts are ordered from them alone for Hallowe'en celebrations.[214] Others order Halloween-themed Scripture Candy to pass out to children on this day.[215][216]

Jump up ^ Thomson, Thomas; Annandale, Charles (1896). A History of the Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the kingdoms, 1706, to the present time. Blackie. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Of the stated rustic festivals peculiar to Scotland the most important was Hallowe'en, a contraction for All-hallow Evening, or the evening of All-Saints Day, the annual return of which was a season for joy and festivity.


Ten Methods:Spider Man MaskOriginal comics costumeUltimate Spiderman (Miles Morales) costumeThe Amazing Spiderman (2012 movie) costumeThe Amazing Spiderman 2 costumeThe Superior Spider-man (Doctor Octopus) CostumeScarlet Spider (Ben Riley) costumeBlack suit Spider-manVigilante Spider-man Costume (2012 Amazing Spider-man Movie)Spider-Man 2099 (Miguel O'Hara) CostumeCommunity Q&A
The wearing of costumes is an important part of holidays developed from religious festivals such as Mardi Gras (in the lead up to Easter), and Halloween (related to All Hallow's Eve). Mardi Gras costumes usually take the form of jesters and other fantasy characters; Halloween costumes traditionally take the form of supernatural creatures such as ghosts, vampires, pop-culture icons and angels. In modern times. Christmas costumes typically portray characters such as Santa Claus (developed from Saint Nicholas). In Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States the American version of a Santa suit and beard is popular; in the Netherlands, the costume of Zwarte Piet is customary. Easter costumes are associated with the Easter Bunny or other animal costumes.

Another Silliman resident declared in a campus publication, “I have had to watch my friends defend their right to this institution. This email and the subsequent reaction to it have interrupted their lives. I have friends who are not going to class, who are not doing their homework, who are losing sleep, who are skipping meals, and who are having breakdowns.” One feels for these students. But if an email about Halloween costumes has them skipping class and suffering breakdowns, either they need help from mental-health professionals or they’ve been grievously ill-served by debilitating ideological notions they’ve acquired about what ought to cause them pain.

Have you ever wanted to have super powers? Sure you have. It’s one of the most common (and satisfying) daydreams there ever was. While we can’t say you’ll have superpowers when you dress yourself in one of our superhero outfits, we do think you’ll feel super, look incredible, and inspire others to pursue truth, justice, and the American partying way. A good hero starts at a good costume and that’s exactly where we come in! We carry adult superhero costumes as well as styles for kids and toddlers, so you can find superhero family costumes for the whole clan. If you’re already impressed by our staggering collection of superhero suits and gear and need just a little extra help in making your decision, we’ve gone the extra mile to assemble a few tips and tricks to help you come to the right conclusion. This guide will give you a run down on taking the best photos with your little ones and finding the best superhero or superheroine to be this year. We have all of the top choices for female superhero costumes for the ladies, and styles that will transform any man into a muscled do-gooder. And for good measure. we’ve included the top hero groups if you’ve got a team in mind for your mission. Just check out the best superhero costumes and get some ideas below for the ultimate costume inspiration!
We would like to point out that while there’s lots of good to be done as a superhero, well, sometimes it’s just more fun to be a bad guy. If you have a group that relishes in deviousness there’s one cadre of callous evil-doers that stands out amongst a universe of comic book villains—Batman’s Rogues Gallery. The various villains Batman has faced over the years would make quite the ferocious force if ever they assembled together in the same lineup. Which is why you should totally do it with your group! There’s sure to be a Batman at your party anyway, so you might as well show up en masse to give him a tough time. Even if you’re not seeking to disrupt the peacetime partying, we’re sure there’s lots of fun to be had when these DC Comics characters get together!
In this Batsuit, the fins on the sides of Batman's gauntlets are now retractable and are capable of firing outwards as projectiles. The chest emblem is smaller than the original, and separated in half across the pectorals. Furthermore, this suit also has a built-in retractable 'memory cloth' cape that can be stored in compartments behind the shoulder blades. Though this function was only ever used once when scaled a vantage point in China.
When Marvel approached Hasbro about the prospect of including Spider-Man in the third issue of the Generation 1 comic book, they initially turned the idea down, since Spider-Man was currently licensed to rival toy company Mattel for the Secret Wars toyline. Marvel convinced them to permit the appearance by putting Spidey in his black costume, whereas the Secret Wars toy was clad in his traditional red and blue, and therefore wouldn't be "advertised" by the comic.[4] This meant adding a footnote to the story explaining that it took place prior to the recent issue of Spidey's own title in which he ditched the black threads upon finding out they were a symbiote.
Monty Walsh Montgomery Walsh Marvel Spotlight Vol. 2 #11 (1981) A cat burglar. He became Captain Universe after he was shot when trying to rob the house of a former Maggia boss named Guido Carboni. After Montgomery defeated Guido Carboni, the Enigma Power left him as Montgomery dies and the police find Guido raving that the dead man was Captain Universe.
"I had blinders on, I didn't want to see it," Luann said. She told Dorinda that Tom D'Agostino got worse when they got married. He was going out, meeting with old girlfriends—basically everything he was doing before he got married. "After a certain amount of time, everything the girls were saying was kind of true," Luann said. "Ultimately for me the last straw was the lack of respect…It didn't stop and I couldn't breathe…I was drowning. I suffered a lot, I really suffered a lot."
Jump up ^ Markstein, Don. "The Black Widow". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013. Fantomah was the first female character in comics to use extraordinary powers in combatting evil. The Woman in Red was the first to wear a flashy costume and maintain a dual identity while doing so. On the other hand, The Black Widow was the first to do both.
With the release of the Spider-Man films, the Spider-Man video games followed suit. Spider-Man: The Game was released in unison with the film in 2002. It was released on the PlayStation 2, the Nintendo GameCube, the Gameboy Advance, the Xbox and the PC. The game broke many sales records at the time. When Spider-Man 2 was released in June 2004, Spider-Man 2: The Game was released the day before. The game saw release on the same consoles as Spider-Man: The Game did, in addition to the Nintendo DS and Sony PSP. 2005 saw a comic related Spider-Man game hit the market; Ultimate Spider-Man followed many of the comic story arcs, and allowed the player to switch between Spider-Man and Venom. Spider-Man, voiced by Quinton Flynn, appears as one of the main characters in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance and he has special conversations with Mysterio, Lizard and Scorpion, and Dark Spider-Man. His simulator disk has him saving Dum Dum Dugan from the Scorpion and A.I.M in the Omega Base. His costumes are his classic, symbiote, Scarlet Spider and Stark Armor costumes. Spider-Man's latest film, Spider-Man 3 also saw the same video game treatment as its prequels. Spider-Man 3 was released on more consoles than any game before it. The game was available for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 2 and 3, Nintendo Wii , Gameboy Advance, Nintendo DS, the Sony PSP and PC. Spider-Man: Friend or Foe was released in October 2007 for Xbox 360, Wii, Playstation 2 , PC, PSP and Nintendo DS. This Spider-Man game features the villains from the Spider-Man films, but with a humorous twist.

As Nick Fury and Tony Stark analyze Mysterio's equipment, Fury notes that he is allowing this Peter so much leeway as a way to make up for his failure to protect the Peter he knew. Peter attempts to explain himself to Gwen and May, but it takes Miles arriving to back up his story and convincing them that he is not an impostor or out to play a sick joke on them. Talking with Gwen and Miles in his attic, Peter confirms that Gwen exists in his world without mentioning that her counterpart is dead and also mentions his relationship with Mary Jane, while he in turn is shocked to hear that his counterpart dated Kitty Pryde, although Miles is left curious whether he has a counterpart in Peter's world. As Fury arrives to pick Peter up, Peter sees Mary Jane watching him in the street, but she runs away before he can talk to her. Returning to the Helicarrier, Peter learns that Stark is having trouble determining how he can identify Peter's world of origin amid the multitude of alternate universes in existence. With Miles' help, the Ultimates determine the location of Mysterio's headquarters based on the energy generated by his equipment, prompting the heroes led by Peter to suit up and head for the base.[6]
Created in 1190 during the Crusades, the Suit of Sorrows was bestowed upon Batman by Talia al Ghul as a gift, and although it made him significantly stronger and faster, he was forced to stop using it when he began to believe it was somehow corrupting him and making him more violent. However, Batman was unable to bring himself to destroy the artifact and instead chose to store it on display in the Batcave.

Jump up ^ Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 31 December 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right.
Jump up ^ Cowsill, Alan; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1990s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 184. ISBN 978-0756692360. Todd McFarlane was at the top of his game as an artist, and with Marvel's release of this new Spidey series he also got the chance to take on the writing duties. The sales of this series were nothing short of phenomenal, with approx. 2.5 million copies eventually printing, including special bagged editions and a number of variant covers.
Cartman's reference to not introducing solo films for "the black superhero" or "the chick", in "phase three", is a reference to the upcoming release of the 2018 film Black Panther by Marvel Studios, the first solo film about the titular black superhero, and the later 2019 release of Captain Marvel by the same studio, which will be Marvel Studios' first solo film with a female superheroine. They are considered part of Marvel's own third phase of films.
Peter Parker's romantic interests range between his first crush, the fellow high-school student Liz Allan,[47] to having his first date with Betty Brant,[88] the secretary to the Daily Bugle newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. After his breakup with Betty Brant, Parker eventually falls in love with his college girlfriend Gwen Stacy,[49][52] daughter of New York City Police Department detective captain George Stacy, both of whom are later killed by supervillain enemies of Spider-Man.[57] Mary Jane Watson eventually became Peter's best friend and then his wife.[69] Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, is a reformed cat burglar who had been Spider-Man's sole superhuman girlfriend and partner at one point.[64]
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.
Most Hindus do not observe All Hallows' Eve, instead they remember the dead during the festival of Pitru Paksha, during which Hindus pay homage to and perform a ceremony "to keep the souls of their ancestors at rest". It is celebrated in the Hindu month of Bhadrapada, usually in mid-September.[233] The celebration of the Hindu festival Diwali sometimes conflicts with the date of Halloween; but some Hindus choose to participate in the popular customs of Halloween.[234] Other Hindus, such as Soumya Dasgupta, have opposed the celebration on the grounds that Western holidays like Halloween have "begun to adversely affect our indigenous festivals".[235]
Are you naturally hairier than you'd like--or have you always been completely incapable of growing a full beard? Either way, we bring equal opportunity furriness to all our bros with the gruff and gritty werewolf onesie. If the story of Little Red Riding Hood ended with the wolf eating the woodsman and stealing his clothes, this would be the result. Like all our mens Halloween costumes, this one can be played funny or scary. It's up to you what twisted twist to put on the execution of the character.

If you're a gym rat and you've got the six pack to show it, then we ALL know there's only one costume for you—a Greek Spartan warrior! You could be just like King Leonidas in The 300 and vanquish your opponents on the battlefield...or even defeat them on the dance floor if you know a move or two. And it won't matter if you're looking for admiration from goddesses, kings and queens, or your fellow warriors. Because when you're dressed in this costume, you're not going to be leaving a whole lot to the imagination!
What little boy wouldn’t love dressing up in a furry Chewbacca mask and jumpsuit? In addition to the classic movie characters, we also have official Halloween costumes from Star Wars Clone Wars like General Grievous and Clone Troopers, and Star Wars: The Force Awakens, such as the deluxe Finn costume. Among our top rated boys Star Wars costumes is our deluxe BB8 costume, with an inflatable jumpsuit and gray top so you can turn into this beloved onscreen droid!
Remember Alf? He's back! For any guy old enough to remember the 80s, watching the hilarious alien, Alf, series is sure to be a fond memory. Try your turn as the TV character when you go in this HalloweenCostumes.com exclusive costume for men. Whether reliving your favorite moments or just looking for a fun throwback look, the furry plush jumpsuit and oversized character mask will turn any human into the lovable alien from Melmac!
In this light, the difference between modern superheros and older heros (Jesus, Gilgamesh, Hercules, Arthur) is that the older heroes operated in a religious milieu; their powers were derived from their connection with the divine. Superheroes are secular characters, whose powers (more often than not, anyway) derive from the realm of science and technology. Granted, there are some magical superheroes — Wonder Woman, for instance, or Captain Marvel — but even then it is often their ability to manipulate the world of science and technology (e.g. WW’s invisible plane) that sets them apart.
The Last Stand Suit is an alternate universe version of Peter Parker who killed Kraven the Hunter, and become a more dark and deadly vigilante as a result. His new anti-hero tendencies eventually gets him expelled from the Avengers, and he ends up killing Doctor Octopus. Finally, he makes his "Last Stand" after being pursued by the NYPD and refusing to give up and atone for his crimes.
Spider-Man was featured in a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as the titular superhero. The first Spider-Man film of the trilogy was released on May 3, 2002; followed by Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007). A third sequel was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony later decided to reboot the franchise with a new director and cast. The reboot, titled The Amazing Spider-Man, was released on July 3, 2012; directed by Marc Webb and starring Andrew Garfield as the new Spider-Man.[189][190][191] It was followed by The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014).[192][193] In 2015, Sony and Disney made a deal for Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[194] Tom Holland made his debut as Spider-Man in the MCU film Captain America: Civil War (2016), before later starring in Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017); directed by Jon Watts.[195][196] Holland reprises his role as Spider-Man in Avengers: Infinity War (2018).[197][198]
The radioactive, complex mutagenic enzymes in the spider's blood that were transferred at the time of the bite triggered numerous body-wide mutagenic changes within Parker, granting him superhuman strength, speed, toughened flesh, and numerous arachnid-like abilities. Like many superhuman powers, the effectiveness of Spider-Man's abilities varies based on the author and the needs of the story.
Not until 2000 would Spider-Man return in his own game. Spider-Man made his triumphant video game return in 2000, with not one, but two games, as a character in a fighting game and a special guest appearance that year. Spider-Man for the Game Boy Color was published by Activision and met with moderate success. Later that year Spider-Man, developed by NeverSoft, for the PlayStation was released. The game was met with critical and commercial success. The game was ported over to the Nintendo 64 the following year, but lacked the full motion cut scenes due the systems hardware. Spider-Man was also one of the playable character in the arcade game Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (which later was released on the Sega Dreamcast, Sony PlayStation 2, Xbox). In September of that year, Spider-Man made a special appearance in Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2 as a hidden character. In 2001, sequels to the successful Activision titles were released. Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro for the PlayStation and Spider-Man 2: Sinister Six for the Gameboy Color. Spider-Man made an early appearance on Nintendo's new handheld system, the Gameboy Advance with Spider-Man: Mysterio's Menace. Spider-Man was also featured as a guest character in the fighting game X-Men: Mutant Academy 2.
These are not mere mortals but they are blessed with divine gifts. They were often agents of change bringing culture, social change or advancement to a civilization. Their stories were more than just historical lessons - there was an element of religion and cult worship. I would argue that they are part of the archetype of the superhero - even if they are foreign to our current definition.
A few months after Spider-Man's introduction, publisher Goodman reviewed the sales figures for that issue and was shocked to find it was one of the nascent Marvel's highest-selling comics.[29]:97 A solo ongoing series followed, beginning with The Amazing Spider-Man #1 (cover-dated March 1963). The title eventually became Marvel's top-selling series[9]:211 with the character swiftly becoming a cultural icon; a 1965 Esquire poll of college campuses found that college students ranked Spider-Man and fellow Marvel hero the Hulk alongside Bob Dylan and Che Guevara as their favorite revolutionary icons. One interviewee selected Spider-Man because he was "beset by woes, money problems, and the question of existence. In short, he is one of us."[9]:223 Following Ditko's departure after issue #38 (July 1966), John Romita, Sr. replaced him as penciler and would draw the series for the next several years. In 1968, Romita would also draw the character's extra-length stories in the comics magazine The Spectacular Spider-Man, a proto-graphic novel designed to appeal to older readers. It only lasted for two issues, but it represented the first Spider-Man spin-off publication, aside from the original series' summer annuals that began in 1964.[30]

While the previous game featured a straightforward, traditional turn-based combat system akin to most fantasy role-playing games, this game has a new grid-based combat system that remains turn-based but is much more refined. The player can now move their characters every turn, as well as build larger parties of allies that can be in play at once, against larger groups of opponents. This system encourages strategy from player and opponent alike, as attacks now knock back, or even forward, characters, which can make them more or less susceptible to certain attacks. Movement on the grid opens up some attacks and closes others.
Arthur Stacy: Gwen Stacy's uncle, a private investigator, first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man (vol. 1) #93 and #95. He was reintroduced only in the 1990s, in Peter Parker: Spider-Man #70 (in the last part of 'Clone Saga'). He is George's younger brother, but was originally presented in the 1970s as the older brother. For a time, Spider-Man would call on Stacy's skills as an investigator.
^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy.[140][143][144] Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[140] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[145]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself and not just only as his Goblin persona.[146]
In Justice League (2001-2004) the Batsuit is once again redesigned, but combining elements from previous costumes, the design of The New Batman Adventures is retained, but with the blue highlights of the Batman: The Animated Series costume and the long ears of the Batman Beyond costume. It is also used again in Justice League: Unlimited (2004-2006).
If your son is the type who’s eager to be all grown up so he can join the military or start a job, these occupation and military Halloween costumes are perfect for him. He can get to “work” collecting candy dressed up as a doctor in scrubs, a Wild West sheriff or a scientist in a lab coat. If he always stops to stare at construction sites, he’ll adore The Builder costume. These costumes, which include a police officer and fireman, will help make him feel like a grownup for a day while still getting to enjoy the kid fun of trick or treating.
In an alternate Civil War reality where the conflict continued after the anti-registration side's attempt to escape the Negative Zone prison triggered a self-destruct that destroyed most of New York, Peter continued serving on Captain America's side in the conflict and was given new upgrades such as wings that bear a resemblance to the Falcon, with Rogers noting that Peter is now his fastest operative. Since Mary-Jane and his daughter Maybelle live on Iron Man's terrain due to them not getting the chance to evacuate, he hardly gets the chance to see them. Following Steve's death in the final battle, Peter becomes the leader of Steve's side called "the Blue" and collaborates with Jennifer Walters who is the new leader of "The Iron."
Here’s one of the ways that white men at Yale are most privileged of all: When a white male student at an elite college says that he feels disempowered, the first impulse of the campus left is to show him the extent of his power and privilege. When any other students say they feel disempowered, the campus left’s impulse is to validate their statements. This does a huge disservice to everyone except white male students. It’s baffling that so few campus activists seem to realize this drawback of emphasizing victim status even if college administrators sometimes treat it as currency.
Janine Godbe a.k.a. Elizabeth Tyne The one great love of Ben's life. Ben found out Janine was living under an assumed name after she murdered the father who molested her. Ben confided in Janine that he was a clone of Spider-Man. Later Kaine forced Janine to fake her death to hurt Ben. Janine later turned herself into the police for killing her father. In the MC2 universe Darkdevil is Ben and Janine's son.
It's been three weeks since spider-man foiled Doc Ock's plan and now Peter is invited to MJ's, which is Mary Jane's Club, but he is still under the weather because he was not able to prevent Silver Sables death, but while Peter is "having fun" at the party Carlie calls and tells Spider-man to come meet her at the cemetery. Spider-Man arrives and Carlie tells him that the grounds keeper saw a pale man digging the grave of Billie Connors with his bare hands and then vanishing into the dark with the body. Spider-Man instantly realized that this pale powerful man was Morbius and he goes to face him at Horizon labs. Spider-Man, disgusted by Morbius' actions, starts to attack him, but eventually stops when Michael explains that the reason he dug up the grave was to find a cure for the Lizard, and he tells Peter that he has already accomplished his goal. Spider-Man, hearing this, plans an attack on the Lizard and the confronts him in the sewers and fights him for a long period for time, but finaly Morbius and Spider-Man stab the Lizard with enough hypodermic harpoons for Max to bring Connor's back. But the Lizard is still in control, even in Kurt's body. The Lizard awakens Morbius' violent vampire side, with the smell of blood. And while Spider-Man was distracted with Morbius, Connors created the new serum that will turn him into the Lizard again, but this serums turns everyone into lizards except Connors himself, so while testing this serum Connors turns the entire Horizon Labs crew into Lizards. When he finally created the serum for himself, it turned him into a new version of the Lizard. When Spider-Man comes after capturing Morbius, Carlie tells him what has happened. Spidey creates a new cure and a battle ensures between Spider-Man and the Lizard. When Spider-Man stabs the Lizard with a harpoon filled with the cure, nothing happens, the cure doesn't work. Only at the end we see that the cure has actually worked and now Connors' mind is secretly in control of the Lizard's body.
From at least the 16th century,[64] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[65] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[66] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[67] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[68] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[65] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[64] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod.[65] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.[65]
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