Arcade Beetle Abner Jenkins Leila Davis Janice Lincoln Big Wheel Black Tarantula Boomerang Bullseye Calypso Carrion Clash Cyclone Demogoblin Doctor Doom Doppleganger Dracula Foreigner Gibbon Gog Grey Goblin Grim Hunter Grizzly Hippo Human Fly Hypno-Hustler Jack O' Lantern Jason Macendale Jigsaw Juggernaut Kangaroo Living Brain Lobo Brothers Looter Man-Wolf Kraven the Hunter (Ana Kravinoff) Kraven the Hunter (Alyosha Kravinoff) Lady Octopus Leap-Frog Magneto Man-Bull Massacre Mephisto Menace Mister Hyde Molten Man Morlun Nightmare Overdrive Owl Red Skull Ringer Scarecrow Scorcher Scorpia Scream Screwball Shathra Shriek Sin-Eater Speed Demon Spider Queen Spot Stegron Stilt-Man Styx and Stone Swarm Tarantula Taskmaster Trapster Phil Urich Vermin Walrus White Rabbit Will o' the Wisp
In Forest Hills, Queens, New York,[44] Midtown High School student Peter Benjamin Parker is a science-whiz orphan living with his Uncle Ben and Aunt May. As depicted in Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), he is bitten by a radioactive spider (erroneously classified as an insect in the panel) at a science exhibit and "acquires the agility and proportionate strength of an arachnid".[45] Along with heightened athletic abilities, Parker gains the ability to adhere to walls and ceilings. Through his native knack for science, he develops a gadget that lets him fire adhesive webbing of his own design through small, wrist-mounted barrels. Initially seeking to capitalize on his new abilities, Parker dons a costume and, as "Spider-Man", becomes a novelty television star. However, "He blithely ignores the chance to stop a fleeing thief, [and] his indifference ironically catches up with him when the same criminal later robs and kills his Uncle Ben." Spider-Man tracks and subdues the killer and learns, in the story's next-to-last caption, "With great power there must also come—great responsibility!"[46]
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 25. ISBN 978-0756692360. The Amazing Spider-Man #13 saw [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko return to the creation of new super villains. This issue marked the debut of Mysterio, a former special effects expert named Quentin Beck.
Pursuing the Vulture once again, Peter Parker went to grab his homemade suit from beneath the school lockers. After changing hastily into his suit, Spider-Man went outside only to be ambushed by the Shocker, who subsequently knocked Spider-Man's Web-Shooters off his wrists, putting him at a disadvantage. Shocker relentlessly kept attacking Spider-Man, smashing him through school buses. Before Shocker could strike Spider-Man again, Ned used one of the Web-Shooters to distract the Shocker, and Spider-Man bound him to a school bus.[2]
And there’s (at least) one more angle to this as well…where did the idea of the superhero come from? As Meg suggested to me at dinner last night, was there a cultural need for a superhero during a super-crisis like the Great Depression? Or did the idea evolve gradually from regular heros (cowboys, space cowboys, etc.) to heros who were magicians (with special powers…it’s not that much of a stretch to imagine a magician possessing supernatural powers) to classic superheroes like Superman?
Whoo! The Nature Boy knows a thing or two about the ladies, and he's been Whoo-ing and strutting his stuff for close to 40 years now. And his sexy swagger hasn't diminished at all over the years, like a fine wine, The Nature Boy just keeps on walking down the aisle stylin' and profilin'. With this exclusive, you can suit up just like Ric Flair for some timeless sex appeal. As Ric says, "Because all the women want to be with me, all the men want to be like me."
Jump up ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 29. ISBN 978-0756692360. While he wouldn't have the same staying power as many other Stan Lee/Steve Ditko creations, the Crime Master gave villainy a good shot in this first half of a two-part Spider-Man adventure.
The Memory cloth is a piece of equipment that Bruce is shown by Lucius Fox at Applied Sciences. The item itself is normally soft and light, but when an electric current is passed through it the cape takes a rigid shape. Bruce took it, and the gloves then customized the skeleton and cut into bat wing shape scalloped cape and somehow made it a functional paraglider contraption.
Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character and has often been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.[9]:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world.[160] Spider-Man is the world's most profitable superhero.[161] In 2014, global retail sales of licensed products related to Spider-Man reached approximately $1.3 billion.[162] Comparatively, this amount exceeds the global licensing revenue of Batman, Superman, and the Avengers combined.[161]
All this is, I feel, a bit part of what feeds into making a hero a superhero in our minds - when they become larger than life, existing outside the boundaries that we normally exist in. Ironically, history in real life has probably seen more “super villains” than real super heroes; it’s much more tempting to human weakness and easier, to go outside the normal boundaries and cause harm or perform selfish acts. Many of the colorful supervillains from comic books, especially Batman’s rogue gallery of criminals, are not very far removed in some cases from the activities of real life villains who are epic in scope.

At Horizons Labs, the combination of a well paying job and access to numerous tech has allowed Peter to expand on the equipment he uses. So far he has developed a Spider-Glider, Thermodynamic Foam, Cryo Pellets, voice activated web-shooters and various types of webbing, including magnetic and acidic variants. Many of the equipment have usage in day-to-day usage as well- for example the cryo pellet technology was used to help keep organs and limbs viable for longer periods of time. The Thermodynamic foam also has use in the stopping and prevention of fires.


Spider-Man is a fictional superhero in the Marvel Universe debuting in the anthology comic book series issue Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962) in the Silver Age of Comics published by Marvel Comics. After his debut he would get his own comic book entitled The Amazing Spider-Man. The comic book series would introduce many of what would become his major supervillain adversaries. Spider-Man would then be popular enough for more Spider-Man comic spinoffs (The Spectacular Spider-Man, Marvel Team-Up, Web of Spider-Man, Peter Parker: Spider-Man etc.) which introduced more recurring enemies of the web-slinger.
In addition to the suit's continuous evolution, Batman keeps variant costumes for dealing with extraordinary situations; for example, he has been shown in a Scuba variant of his costume, a fireproof version for fighting his enemy Firefly, a thermally insulated version for fighting Mr. Freeze, as well as others. Many versions of the hero show him swapping his cloth costume for a suit of powered armor.
In parts of Britain, these customs came under attack during the Reformation as some Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatible with their notion of predestination. Thus, for some Nonconformist Protestants, the theology of All Hallows' Eve was redefined; without the doctrine of purgatory, "the returning souls cannot be journeying from Purgatory on their way to Heaven, as Catholics frequently believe and assert. Instead, the so-called ghosts are thought to be in actuality evil spirits. As such they are threatening."[101] Other Protestants maintained belief in an intermediate state, known as Hades (Bosom of Abraham),[107] and continued to observe the original customs, especially souling, candlelit processions and the ringing of church bells in memory of the dead.[71][108] Mark Donnelly, a professor of medieval archæology, and historian Daniel Diehl, with regard to the evil spirits, on Halloween, write that "barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effect of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveled the earth."[109] In the 19th century, in some rural parts of England, families gathered on hills on the night of All Hallows' Eve. One held a bunch of burning straw on a pitchfork while the rest knelt around him in a circle, praying for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames went out. This was known as teen'lay.[110] The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland.[111] There and in Ireland, they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween since at least the early Middle Ages, and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic approach to Halloween, seeing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passage of communities and thus ensuring its survival in the country.[111]
This series debuted September 12, 1981 and ended on September 11, 1982. This was the second animated production of Spider-Man after its original series that started in 1967. This series was produced by the newly formed Marvel Productions, having risen from the ashes of DePatie-Freleng Enterprises. The company that had produced the 1978 New Fantastic Four and 1979 Spider-Woman animated series. This version's character design would be later used for the series Spider-Man And His Amazing Friends series and would have some of the same people play as the same characters. The character designs for the series were based on the classic style of Spider-Man artist John Romita and were very similar to the visual look of the comics from the mid 60s to the early 80s. This series tells the life of Peter Parker a
When Marvel approached Hasbro about the prospect of including Spider-Man in the third issue of the Generation 1 comic book, they initially turned the idea down, since Spider-Man was currently licensed to rival toy company Mattel for the Secret Wars toyline. Marvel convinced them to permit the appearance by putting Spidey in his black costume, whereas the Secret Wars toy was clad in his traditional red and blue, and therefore wouldn't be "advertised" by the comic.[4] This meant adding a footnote to the story explaining that it took place prior to the recent issue of Spidey's own title in which he ditched the black threads upon finding out they were a symbiote.

In 2012, the 50th anniversary of Spider-Man and 10 years since the first Spider-Man movie, a reboot of the Spider-Man movie franchise was launched. The Amazing Spider-Man saw then-unknown British actor Andrew Garfield step into the role, with a supporting cast that included Emma Stone as Gwen Stacy, Rhys Ifans as Curst Connors/The Lizard, Dennis Leary as Captain George Stacy, Sally Field as Aunt May and Martin Sheen as Uncle Ben. Directed by Marc Webb, the film was the first Spider-Man movie to be filmed in 3D, and featured a new, heavily modified costume design that proved to be highly controversial among the fans.


^ Jump up to: a b The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Service for All Hallows' Eve: This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.


This beggars belief. Yale students told to talk to each other if they find a peer’s costume offensive helplessly declare that they’re unable to do so without an authority figure specifying “any modes or means to facilitate these discussions,” as if they’re Martians unfamiliar with a concept as rudimentary as disagreeing in conversation, even as they publish an open letter that is, itself, a mode of facilitating discussion.
Like the previous game, farting is the single most important system mechanic that will come to save your ass time and time again, pun intended. As you explore and discover the true abilities of your asshole, with a little help from Morgan Freeman and some Mexican food, these abilities help you gain you advantages over enemies in combat, and assist in helping others around town. Be careful as you rip holes in space and time, as before long you may just find yourself with a fracture...

You don’t have to be a feminist to understand that the superhero game isn’t exclusively for men. Ladies have been busting up the bad guys for years in the pages of the comics, and they’ve started making a splash on the screen in a big way. If you have your eye on women’s superhero costumes , we’re sure you’ll be amazed with our selection. Check out some of these top picks and see if they give you inspiration in making your choice!

The traditions and importance of Halloween vary greatly among countries that observe it. In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include children dressing up in costume going "guising", holding parties, while other practices in Ireland include lighting bonfires, and having firework displays.[239][240] In Brittany children would play practical jokes by setting candles inside skulls in graveyards to frighten visitors.[241] Mass transatlantic immigration in the 19th century popularized Halloween in North America, and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a significant impact on how the event is observed in other nations. This larger North American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as Ecuador, Chile,[242] Australia,[243] New Zealand,[244] (most) continental Europe, Japan, and other parts of East Asia.[245] In the Philippines, during Halloween, Filipinos return to their hometowns and purchase candles and flowers,[246] in preparation for the following All Saints Day (Araw ng mga Patay) on 1 November and All Souls Day —though it falls on 2 November, most of them observe it on the day before.[247] In Mexico and Latin American in general, it is referred to as " Día de los Muertos " which translates in English to "Day of the dead". Most of the people from Latin America construct altars in their homes to honor their deceased relatives and they decorate them with flowers and candies and other offerings.[248]
As with Spider-Man, the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology and also tend to have animal-themed costumes or powers (Vulture, Doctor Octopus, Beetle, Lizard, Rhino, Scorpion, Jackal and Black Cat). There also are supervillains with the powers over the elements (Sandman, Shocker, Electro, Molten Man and Hydro-Man), some that are horror-themed (the Goblins, Morbius, Morlun, and the Symbiotes) some that are crime lords (Kingpin, Tinkerer, Tombstone, Hammerhead, Silvermane and Mister Negative),[1] and some that are masters of trickery (Chameleon and Mysterio).[2] These villains oftentimes form teams such as the Sinister Six to oppose the superhero.

Peter Benjamin Parker was born to C.I.A. agents Richard and Mary Parker, who were killed when Peter was very young. After the death of his parents, Peter was raised by his Uncle Ben and Aunt May in a modest house in Forest Hills, New York. While still in High School, Peter attended a science exhibition about radiology where he was bitten by a radioactive spider, granting him the proportionate strength and agility of a spider as well as a " Spider-Sense" that warns him of nearby danger. In order to test his new abilities – and earn some cash, Peter participated in a wrestling challenge against Crusher Hogan. He easily won the challenge and also gained the attention of the media. Afterwards while backstage, Peter saw a burglar run past him but did nothing to stop him as it wasn’t his problem. Later that night when Peter arrived home, he was told by a policeman that his Uncle Ben had been murdered by someone who broke into their house. The cop mentioned they had tracked the killer to a warehouse. In his anger Peter put on his wrestling costume and went after the murderer himself. After arriving at the warehouse and easily defeating Uncle Ben’s killer, Peter saw that it was the same burglar he didn’t stop at the arena… thus learning that "with great power comes great responsibility".

Spider-Man Noir returns in the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse" Part 3", where he finds the "Ultimate" Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid tangle with Mr. Fixit (a Noir version of the Hulk) and his minions, Thunderbolt and A-Bombardier, who are in a gang war with the Noir version of Hammerhead. When Spider-Man Noir shows up, he doesn't want Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid to break up the gang war because since they last saw him, he lost his Mary Jane in an accident caused by Hammerhead's gang, for which he blames Mr. Fixit. Spider-Man finds the Siege Perilous fragment in the new machine gun that was provided by Hammerhead's minion Martin Li. Upon touching the Siege Perilous, Martin Li becomes the Mister Negative in order to become the new crime lord; he can transmutate anything to stone, and overthrows Hammerhead. After Mister Negative fends off Wolf Spider, Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid persuade Spider-Man Noir and Mr. Fixit to work together to help to stop Mister Negative. During the final fight, Noir Peter sacrifices himself by turning to stone after taking a blast meant for Fixit, but Fixit manages to restore everyone back to normal after taking the shard from Mr. Negative, which also restores the world to color. Noir Peter thanks Ultimate Peter and Miles before they leave and begins a partnership with Fixit. In the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse: Part 4", Noir Spider-Man is among the spider-powered individuals who had their life-force drained by Wolf Spider. He gets his life-force back upon Wolf Spider's defeat.
Arthur Stacy: Gwen Stacy's uncle, a private investigator, first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man (vol. 1) #93 and #95. He was reintroduced only in the 1990s, in Peter Parker: Spider-Man #70 (in the last part of 'Clone Saga'). He is George's younger brother, but was originally presented in the 1970s as the older brother. For a time, Spider-Man would call on Stacy's skills as an investigator.
The Crime Master arrives and starts destroying Octavius’ work. Spider-Man drives most of Crime Master’s gang away as Octavius gets his robotic arms on The Crime Master. He slices him apart with scalpels, desperate to save his work. Spider-Man then sets on Octavius for what he has done, crushing his robotic arms. DeWolff arrives before Spider-Man kills him and tells him to thank his girlfriend for calling them in. Spider-Man sees Robbie safe and swings to see Felicia. Her guard tells him that she does not ever want to see him again after she was hurt because of him.[8]
Spider-Man Noir: Eyes Without a Face is a sequel to Spider-Man Noir, which takes place a few months after the Goblin's death. In 1934, Peter Parker, Spider-Man, has a new problem: The Crime Master is a masked criminal who has taken over as the city’s crime boss. As he investigates, his relationship with Felicia Hardy, owner of The Black Cat speakeasy, develops. He returns home to find Joe and Robbie Robertson talking with Aunt May. As a struggling black reporter, Robbie asks Peter to set up a meeting with Doctor Otto Octavius who is experimenting on Ellis Island. A few days later they meet with him and learn that he is experimenting on monkeys to understand more about the human mind. Octavius himself is wheelchair bound but employs controlled robotic arms, attached to the back of his chair, to help him. After they leave, Robbie suggests the story is deeper. That night a delivery of black slaves are delivered to Ellis Island.[5]
Other Protestant Christians also celebrate All Hallows' Eve as Reformation Day, a day to remember the Protestant Reformation, alongside All Hallow's Eve or independently from it.[210][211] This is because Martin Luther is said to have nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to All Saints' Church in Wittenberg on All Hallows' Eve.[212] Often, "Harvest Festivals" or "Reformation Festivals" are held on All Hallows' Eve, in which children dress up as Bible characters or Reformers.[213] In addition to distributing candy to children who are trick-or-treating on Hallowe'en, many Christians also provide gospel tracts to them. One organization, the American Tract Society, stated that around 3 million gospel tracts are ordered from them alone for Hallowe'en celebrations.[214] Others order Halloween-themed Scripture Candy to pass out to children on this day.[215][216]
George Stacy (deceased): Gwen Stacy's father, Police Captain. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man (vol. 1) #56 (1968). He approves of Peter and Gwen's relationship as boyfriend and girlfriend. During a fight between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus, he is crushed by falling debris while saving a child. As he dies, he reveals to Peter that he had known his identity for some time (something Peter had suspected anyway), and asks Peter to take care of Gwen.
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The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but not trick-or-treating.[149] Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s, with the first U.S. appearances of the term in 1934,[150] and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939.[151]
Be wary of the weather when Halloween arrives; it may be cold and rainy, so dress appropriately. Picking out a costume for Halloween is fun, but think about whether that same item may be useful for future events so it can be worn again. Our website also offers a large selection of props and decorations if you are planning to host a Halloween party in your home. This holiday is one of the most fun times of the year, but can also be pretty stressful. Take some time to go over safety tips so your children are able to enjoy themselves while you don’t need worry. Have fun and happy Halloween!
In 2012, the 50th anniversary of Spider-Man and 10 years since the first Spider-Man movie, a reboot of the Spider-Man movie franchise was launched. The Amazing Spider-Man saw then-unknown British actor Andrew Garfield step into the role, with a supporting cast that included Emma Stone as Gwen Stacy, Rhys Ifans as Curst Connors/The Lizard, Dennis Leary as Captain George Stacy, Sally Field as Aunt May and Martin Sheen as Uncle Ben. Directed by Marc Webb, the film was the first Spider-Man movie to be filmed in 3D, and featured a new, heavily modified costume design that proved to be highly controversial among the fans.
On Earth-3123, Aunt May was bitten by the radioactive spider instead of Peter, and takes the identity of Spider-Ma'am. She and her family are confronted by Karn. Sensing that he's too strong for her, she proposes to offer her life for the sake of her family, causing Karn to hesitate for a moment (because she reminded him of his mother). Before Karn tries to kill her, the other Spider Totems intervene and convince him to join them in their fight against the Inheritors.[80]
All seemed to go well again until Mary-Jane, whom had started acting again, was threatened by a stalker. It started with phone-calls, but when Mary-Jane took a plane, it exploded in mid-air and seemingly killed Mary-Jane. Peter, firstly stricken with grief, did not believe she had died. He knew it must have had something to do with the stalker, and Peter started a crusade to find out the truth. This brought him to Latveria and in a fight against the Hulk among others. Eventually, Peter learned that it was indeed the stalker that had faked Mary-Jane's death and had held her captive during it all. The stalker was a mutant that absorbed all of Peter's memories when he was saved by him during one of Spider-man's fights on the streets of New York. The Stalker needed Mary-Jan for himself because of it and he felled he knew her. Spider-man managed to save Mary-Jane and defeat the Stalker. Mary-Jane however was traumatized by the experience and needed time of from her life as the wife of a superhero. The two parted ways for some time.
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
Classic costumes are always crowd pleasures! Spirit’s wide range of affordable classic boys Halloween costumes let him pick from dozens of options that are sure to be a hit with his friends. He can practice his “Argh, matey” when he dresses up as a pirate captain, looking the part right down to the eyepatch and black hat with white skull and crossbones. As part of our Halloween accessories, he can get a pirate sword to complete the image.
Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.
What if Spider-Man had never become a crimefighter explores a world where Spider-Man stopped the burglar from robbing the TV studio and continued his television career, becoming a public relations 'specialist' for superheroes until Jameson's angry attack on him for slacking off with his powers results in Daredevil's death, inspiring Spider-Man to become a real hero.[48] This version of Spider-Man is seen in "Spider-Verse" and apparently survived.
Some of our top rated classic boys costumes include our Red and Gold Ninja Warrior costume, the Mad Hatter, a skeleton skin suit and our Blimpz Green Light Up Inflatable costume. Other classics on the more scary side include a mummy (practice making those spooky noises!) and a demon. These trusty costumes are wonderful for boys of all ages will definitely be in style.
During the Halloween seasonal event, which lasts from October 20th   / October 1st until November 1   / November 10th   , several enemies wear costumes that change their appearance, unique enemies spawn, and new items become available via enemy drops or via purchase. Goodie Bags also drop, offering random Halloween-themed items, mostly decorative or vanity.
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[92][93] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today.[94] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[95] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips".[96] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead.[97] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.[98][99] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights".[100][101][102] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[103] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee; their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things."[104] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties.[96][105][93][106]
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