Batman's utility belt is his most characteristic prop next to the Batarang, much like Wonder Woman's Lasso of Truth, or Green Lantern's power ring. The exact contents of this belt are not known because Batman usually changes it to suit his needs. His uncanny ability to carry unusually appropriate tools is legendary. Batman's enemies are especially interested in the utility belt as they believe it will give them an advantage over him, but the belt's pockets are locked and only Batman knows how to open them. Occasionally, the utility belt is depicted as having defense mechanisms such as electric shock or stun gas in order to prevent tampering.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.
Jump up ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.
Within the context of the stories, Dr. Max Borne is from the year 2211, the Spider-Man of that year. In his first appearance he aids two other Spider-Men, Peter Parker and Miguel O'Hara, in defeating the Hobgoblin of 2211, his main enemy. This Hobgoblin is Robin Borne, his daughter, driven insane when she was infected by a nanovirus. Spider-Man 2211 is later shot and killed by the Chameleon of the year 2211, posing as Uncle Ben.
All I can say is that the Peter Parker of the Ultimate Universe casts a huge shadow over Miles' spiritual and emotional development. What will he do when he's confronted with the Peter Parker from another universe? Well, that's the story. And there are a couple of things going on. First, Miles is meeting someone who's the closest flesh-and-blood thing to his actual biggest hero. Second, he's being shown a window into an entire new universe. That's mind-bending stuff for a young kid to come to terms with." Alonso went on to reveal that "there's a super-cool villain involved in all of this and it's mind-bending, twisted stuff that puts these two in each others' orbit. We don't break down the wall between the Marvel Universe and the Ultimate Universe lightly."
Spider-Man Noir returns in the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse" Part 3", where he finds the "Ultimate" Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid tangle with Mr. Fixit (a Noir version of the Hulk) and his minions, Thunderbolt and A-Bombardier, who are in a gang war with the Noir version of Hammerhead. When Spider-Man Noir shows up, he doesn't want Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid to break up the gang war because since they last saw him, he lost his Mary Jane in an accident caused by Hammerhead's gang, for which he blames Mr. Fixit. Spider-Man finds the Siege Perilous fragment in the new machine gun that was provided by Hammerhead's minion Martin Li. Upon touching the Siege Perilous, Martin Li becomes the Mister Negative in order to become the new crime lord; he can transmutate anything to stone, and overthrows Hammerhead. After Mister Negative fends off Wolf Spider, Spider-Man and Kid Arachnid persuade Spider-Man Noir and Mr. Fixit to work together to help to stop Mister Negative. During the final fight, Noir Peter sacrifices himself by turning to stone after taking a blast meant for Fixit, but Fixit manages to restore everyone back to normal after taking the shard from Mr. Negative, which also restores the world to color. Noir Peter thanks Ultimate Peter and Miles before they leave and begins a partnership with Fixit. In the episode "Return to the Spider-Verse: Part 4", Noir Spider-Man is among the spider-powered individuals who had their life-force drained by Wolf Spider. He gets his life-force back upon Wolf Spider's defeat.
Add your other half and the kids for a night of Halloween fun the entire family will remember, and get matching costumes for everyone! Become a king and queen with the little members of royalty, dress them up as their favorite farm animals, turn them into little Halloween monsters, and more. They'll love joining enchanted lands and making their own unforgettable memories with you!
Jump up ^ Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added".
^ Jump up to: a b Pulliam, June; Fonseca, Anthony J. (26 September 2016). Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend. ABC-CLIO. p. 145. ISBN 9781440834912. Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions. Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost. This is likely because ... when Halloween customs began to be influenced by Catholicism, the incorporation of the themes of All Hallows' and All Souls' Day would have emphasized visitations from the spirit world over the motifs of spirites and fairies. ... The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: in some cultures, the poor would go door to door to collect them in exchange for praying for the dead (a practice called souling), often carrying lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips. Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise (a practice called guising) to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses (a practice called mumming). Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.
Spider-Man also seems to have at least some degree of Super-Human sight, at least in order to assist his Superhuman speed, reflexes and agility. Ever since obtaining his powers, he has not needed his glasses, and has frequently pulled off impressive aiming feats with his webbing, although this is assisted with his Spider-Sense. Perhaps most impressively, during Spider-Island, a depowered Hercules with Spider-Man's power-set said he could see bullets in slow motion.
Not until 2000 would Spider-Man return in his own game. Spider-Man made his triumphant video game return in 2000, with not one, but two games, as a character in a fighting game and a special guest appearance that year. Spider-Man for the Game Boy Color was published by Activision and met with moderate success. Later that year Spider-Man, developed by NeverSoft, for the PlayStation was released. The game was met with critical and commercial success. The game was ported over to the Nintendo 64 the following year, but lacked the full motion cut scenes due the systems hardware. Spider-Man was also one of the playable character in the arcade game Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (which later was released on the Sega Dreamcast, Sony PlayStation 2, Xbox). In September of that year, Spider-Man made a special appearance in Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2 as a hidden character. In 2001, sequels to the successful Activision titles were released. Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro for the PlayStation and Spider-Man 2: Sinister Six for the Gameboy Color. Spider-Man made an early appearance on Nintendo's new handheld system, the Gameboy Advance with Spider-Man: Mysterio's Menace. Spider-Man was also featured as a guest character in the fighting game X-Men: Mutant Academy 2.
In 1982, Parker Brothers published the first Spider-Man game for the Atari 2600 titled Spider-Man. The game involves climbing a sky scraper, rescuing hostages and defusing bombs set by the Green Goblin. The 1990's saw a flood of Spider-Man Video Games. The first game of the decade released was The Amazing Spider-Man, a puzzle action game released for Amiga, PC:DOS, Commodore 64, and Atari ST. Another game, also titled The Amazing Spider-Man was released in 1990 for the Game Boy. The Game Boy titles spawned two sequels: The Amazing Spider-Man 2 and The Amazing Spider-Man 3: Invasion of the Spider-Slayers.
Possessing mental command over power tools, Toolshed is an extremely handy member of Freedom Pals. To the kids at school he is Stan Marsh but when darkness falls, Toolshed rushes into battle armed with contents of his dad’s workbench. The accident that give him the ability to control tools has sadly rendered his father an idiot, but he hopes one day to save him.
With the release of the Spider-Man films, the Spider-Man video games followed suit. Spider-Man: The Game was released in unison with the film in 2002. It was released on the PlayStation 2, the Nintendo GameCube, the Gameboy Advance, the Xbox and the PC. The game broke many sales records at the time. When Spider-Man 2 was released in June 2004, Spider-Man 2: The Game was released the day before. The game saw release on the same consoles as Spider-Man: The Game did, in addition to the Nintendo DS and Sony PSP. 2005 saw a comic related Spider-Man game hit the market; Ultimate Spider-Man followed many of the comic story arcs, and allowed the player to switch between Spider-Man and Venom. Spider-Man, voiced by Quinton Flynn, appears as one of the main characters in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance and he has special conversations with Mysterio, Lizard and Scorpion, and Dark Spider-Man. His simulator disk has him saving Dum Dum Dugan from the Scorpion and A.I.M in the Omega Base. His costumes are his classic, symbiote, Scarlet Spider and Stark Armor costumes. Spider-Man's latest film, Spider-Man 3 also saw the same video game treatment as its prequels. Spider-Man 3 was released on more consoles than any game before it. The game was available for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 2 and 3, Nintendo Wii , Gameboy Advance, Nintendo DS, the Sony PSP and PC. Spider-Man: Friend or Foe was released in October 2007 for Xbox 360, Wii, Playstation 2 , PC, PSP and Nintendo DS. This Spider-Man game features the villains from the Spider-Man films, but with a humorous twist.
Reaction to Spider-Man's rogues gallery has been overwhelmingly positive with many journalists citing it as one of the greatest comic book rogues galleries of all time, with Batman's rogues gallery being its most rivaled contender. Although editors such as The Hollywood Reporter's Graeme McMillan felt that only Flash's rogues gallery can compete with Spider-Man's rogues. Kyle Schmidlin of What Culture! described the superhero's rogues gallery as "one of the most colorful in comics" explaining that Batman could only be debated as having a great number of enemies as good as Spider-Man. IGN staff editors, Joshua Yehl and Jesse Schedeen, described the Spider-Man villains as "one of the most iconic and well-balanced in comics". They opined that the scope of their schemes, how cool their powers are, and how dramatically they have affected Spider-Man's life is what makes the Spider-Man villains so great. Newsarama ranked Spider-Man's rogues gallery as number one out ten as the greatest rogues gallery of all time.
Spidercide later betrayed Jackal to Scrier (who was eventually revealed to be an operative of a cult of Scriers working with Norman Osborn). Scrier also removed Spidercide's clone degeneration factor and the Jackal was incapable of triggering his degeneration like he had done with fellow clone Jack. He was killed when falling off the Daily Bugle after it was revealed that the Jackal had deceived him. Although apparently dead, he was put into a stasis chamber as a precaution.
During the Abraxas Saga, a team of Avengers-esque super heroes called the Law Enforcement Squad appeared in Earth-616. They were headed by an intelligent version of the Hulk who was not Bruce Banner. Joining this strange version of the behemoth were the World War II-era heroes Red Raven, Bucky, Namora and The Whizzer (Bob Frank). Other members included a heroic version of the Spider-Man villain The Rose, Doctor Druid, Living Lightning, the Shroud and a male Captain Universe.[volume & issue needed] (The membership of the Law Enforcement Squad paralleled the membership of DC Comics' Justice Society of America.[original research?] Captain Universe was the equivalent of DC's Starman.[original research?])
Working through his grief, Parker eventually develops tentative feelings toward Watson, and the two "become confidants rather than lovers". A romantic relationship eventually develops, with Parker proposing to her in issue #182 (July 1978), and being turned down an issue later. Parker went on to graduate from college in issue #185, and becomes involved with the shy Debra Whitman and the extroverted, flirtatious costumed thief Felicia Hardy, the Black Cat, whom he meets in issue #194 (July 1979).
Carlie Cooper: She is an officer of the NYPD's Crime Scene Unit and ex-best friend of Harry Osborn's ex-girlfriend, Lily Hollister. She had also been friends with Gwen Stacy. At Harry Osborn's goodbye party Peter asks her to be his girlfriend and the two share their first kiss. However they break up after Spider Island due to surmising that Peter was Spider-Man, and was angry that he'd lied to her. Carlie eventually left New York for her own safety.
In the X-Men Forever universe after the X-Men have faked their deaths, Spider-Man runs into Rogue during a patrol, Rogue having recently unintentionally absorbed Nightcrawler's powers and appearance. Testing her new powers, Rogue spends the night fighting crime alongside Spider-Man, later suggesting that the two kiss to see how her recent transformation has affected her original abilities. After Spider-Man assists the X-Men in destroying a group of Sentinels, the X-Men return to the manor, Cyclops concluding that Spider-Man can be trusted to keep the secret of their continued survival.
Despite his superpowers, Parker struggles to help his widowed aunt pay rent, is taunted by his peers—particularly football star Flash Thompson—and, as Spider-Man, engenders the editorial wrath of newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson. As he battles his enemies for the first time, Parker finds juggling his personal life and costumed adventures difficult. In time, Peter graduates from high school, and enrolls at Empire State University (a fictional institution evoking the real-life Columbia University and New York University), where he meets roommate and best friend Harry Osborn, and girlfriend Gwen Stacy, and Aunt May introduces him to Mary Jane Watson. As Peter deals with Harry's drug problems, and Harry's father is revealed to be Spider-Man's nemesis the Green Goblin, Peter even attempts to give up his costumed identity for a while. Gwen Stacy's father, New York City Police detective captain George Stacy is accidentally killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus (#90, November 1970).
Your son can be the ultimate fighter for justice in one of our boys superhero Halloween costumes! Superhero movies continue to dominate at the box office because we just can’t get enough of their ability to save the world. For Halloween 2018, your son can dress up as his favorite protectors of society (although, sorry to disappoint, these costumes don’t actually come with superpowers). What they do offer are officially licensed superhero looks that are precise down to the last detail. If he’s a Marvel fan, our Black Panther costume is a surefire winner for his trick or treating outfit.
Enter the archfiend Doc Ock, armed with a lethal invention powerful enough to destroy half the city. If Spider-Man tries to stop Doc Ock, he’ll be placing the lives of those closest to him in mortal danger. If he doesn’t, it could be the end of the Big Apple. With millions of lives hanging in the balance, high about Manhattan’s glittering skyline, Spider-Man confronts his destiny, his fiercest enemy, and himself.
In Judaism, a common practice is to dress up on Purim. During this holiday, Jews celebrate the change of their destiny. They were delivered from being the victims of an evil decree against them and were instead allowed by the King to destroy their enemies. A quote from the Book of Esther, which says: "On the contrary" (Hebrew: ונהפוך הוא) is the reason that wearing a costume has become customary for this holiday.
Spider-Man is zombified by Captain America. Unlike many of his zombie compatriots, Spider-Man is consumed with guilt over his need to eat flesh, though he is unable to prevent himself from satiating his hunger. He later eats Galactus, and becomes one of The Galactus, a number of heroes who obtain Galactus' powers due to consuming him. When his hunger begins to fade he turns on his fellow zombies, and later travels to Earth Z, where he kills the Sinister Six. He makes attempts to find a cure and succeeds, filling Sandman with nanobites and using him to wipe out all zombies, including himself.
There are so many Halloween costumes for boys based on some popular characters. Turn into heroes and villains from Avengers: Infinity War. Stomp around as the dinosaurs seen in Jurassic World: The Fallen Kingdom. Make the Kessel Run in time as characters from Solo: A Star Wars Story. Your child can enter a pixelated world and become some of their favorite video game characters from Super Mario Bros., Pokemon, and Minecraft.
The next night, May drove Parker and Leeds to the Toomes Residence. Despite wearing his Spider-Man suit underneath his clothes, Parker was adamant to be himself. They greeted Toomes and noticed that Michelle Jones was also attending the party. However, after another taunt from Thompson, Parker excused himself and donned his costume outside on the residence's roof. On the roof, Parker spotted a nearby explosion, which he proceeded to investigate.
The word 'superhero' dates to at least 1917. Antecedents of the archetype include such folkloric heroes as Robin Hood, who adventured in distinctive clothing. The 1903 play The Scarlet Pimpernel and its spinoffs popularized the idea of a masked avenger and the superhero trope of a secret identity. Shortly afterward, masked and costumed pulp fiction characters such as Jimmie Dale/the Gray Seal (1914), Zorro (1919), The Shadow (1930) and comic strip heroes, such as the Phantom (1936) began appearing, as did non-costumed characters with super strength, including Patoruzú (1928), the comic-strip character Popeye (1929) and novelist Philip Wylie's character Hugo Danner (1930).
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
Within the context of the stories, Jessica Drew, the original Spider-Woman, had retired from super heroics, and gotten married. She gives birth to a baby boy, Gerry, who was diagnosed with a strange blood-borne disorder due to radiation exposure in the womb. With doctors and medicines unable to help her son, Jessica recreates the experiment that cured her of her radiation poisoning, the experiment that made her Spider-Woman. The experiment imbues Gerry with spider-like powers, but did not cure him. Gerry's illness strains his parents' marriage and leads to their divorce. Feeling responsible for the break-up, Gerry becomes withdrawn. Jessica tries to alleviate his pain by telling him stories from her past, his favorites involving Spider-Man.[volume & issue needed]
Following the "reboot", Parker's identity was no longer known to the general public; however, he revealed it to other superheroes. and others have deduced it. Parker's Aunt May marries J. Jonah Jameson's father, Jay Jameson. Parker became an employee of the think-tank Horizon Labs. In issue #700, the dying supervillain Doctor Octopus swaps bodies with Parker, who remains as a presence in Doctor Octopus's mind, prompting a two-year storyline in the series The Superior Spider-Man in which Peter Parker is absent and Doctor Octopus is Spider-Man. Peter eventually regains control of his body. Following Peter Parker's return, The Amazing Spider-Man was relaunched in April 2014, with Peter Parker becoming a billionaire after the formation of Parker Industries. In December 2014, following the Death of Wolverine comic book, Spider-Man became the new headmaster of the Jean Grey School and began appearing more prominently in X-Men stories, taking Wolverine's role in the comic Wolverine and the X-Men.
Maybe they need a full size Dark Knight to help them take on their task? Whether it’s trick-or-treating the toughest neighborhood or they’re preparing for an epic showdown with a top villain, we’re confident having an adult Batman will make sure they come out victorious. He’ll probably have all kinds of extra gadgetry in his adult-sized utility belt, and with his authentic Dawn of Justice Batman costume, your children’s costumes will achieve their full effect. For posing, Wonder Woman can show her muscles while Superman prepares to take flight, and no matter what the mission is, Batman will be there to look over the young ones, but he’s going to look pretty fantastic in his own right, too. This will definitely be a superhero costume team for the history books!
Spider-Man once again featured as a playable fighter in the 2011 release of Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds and its updated release of Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 and versions of the game would be released on the PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita and Xbox 360. October 2011 also saw the release of the next Spider-Man video game adventure with Spider-Man: Edge of Time, developed by Activision and Beenox, the latter being given free reign after the success of Shattered Dimensions, which bears a similar gameplay concept. The game involves Peter Parker and his future counterpart Miguel O'Hara. New villain created for the game, Walker Sloan, has created a time machine in order to go back in time and start Alchemex, the company which Miguel works for, now was established in his own views in the seventies. Miguel proceeds to stop him but is caught in the portal after Sloan has entered and somehow becomes a "viewer" in the events. This gives him the ability to communicate with Peter Parker, who now works for Alechemex in this time altered universe, and everything he does directly affects the year 2099. Both briefly navigate their own timelines until circumstances force them to switch, now residing in timelines alien to them they traverse obstacles in order to get home through the temporal portal and solve the dystopian effects of the timeline corruption. The two work together to prevent Peter's death at the hands of Anti-Venom, save Mary Jane from multiple danger, and even take on the CEO of Alchemex. Currently Beenox has been given rights to the creation of all future Spider-Man games.
In an alternate Civil War reality where the conflict continued after the anti-registration side's attempt to escape the Negative Zone prison triggered a self-destruct that destroyed most of New York, Peter continued serving on Captain America's side in the conflict and was given new upgrades such as wings that bear a resemblance to the Falcon, with Rogers noting that Peter is now his fastest operative. Since Mary-Jane and his daughter Maybelle live on Iron Man's terrain due to them not getting the chance to evacuate, he hardly gets the chance to see them. Following Steve's death in the final battle, Peter becomes the leader of Steve's side called "the Blue" and collaborates with Jennifer Walters who is the new leader of "The Iron."
A tokusatsu series featuring Spider-Man was produced by Toei and aired in Japan. It is commonly referred to by its Japanese pronunciation "Supaidā-Man". Spider-Man also appeared in other print forms besides the comics, including novels, children's books, and the daily newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man, which debuted in January 1977, with the earliest installments written by Stan Lee and drawn by John Romita, Sr. Spider-Man has been adapted to other media including games, toys, collectibles, and miscellaneous memorabilia, and has appeared as the main character in numerous computer and video games on over 15 gaming platforms.
But the reason I say you’re thinking about it to hard is because the idea of super-heros is prehistoric. It goes back to before the dawn of human civilization. Think about all the ancient Myths you learned about when you were a kid. Hercules is a particularly well televised example of this but its actually one of the better documented and more recent mythical hero stories of all time, being that its greek and all. There were probably early homo sapiens somewhere in africa about 900,000 years ago telling super hero stories to each other within minutes of the development of speech. Its just how humans think. We look at our own frailties and failings and then imagine a man (or woman) who is like us but without those frailties. A Superman.
When Marvel wanted to issue a story dealing with the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the company chose the December 2001 issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. In 2006, Spider-Man garnered major media coverage with the revelation of the character's secret identity, an event detailed in a full page story in the New York Post before the issue containing the story was even released.
Though only a few classes are available to the player at the start of the game, a total of twelve classes can be unlocked altogether, and the player has the option of occasionally changing their class or eventually being able to dual-class or further. Abilities can be upgraded individually, allowing the player to establish a custom, one-of-a-kind hero unlike any other that fits their playing style.
^ Jump up to: a b The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Service for All Hallows' Eve: This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.
Work it, brother! We all know the reputation that Halloween costumes for women have, but sometimes, guys just want to feel sexy too! And we most definitely have costumes that will let you show off your man assets, whether you're a total beefcake...or even if you just want to be sexy in your own way. Whatever your intentions, check out these styles for some of our most popular costumes for men that will let you show off your sex appeal!
Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.
Samhain/Calan Gaeaf marked the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year. Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned. This meant the Aos Sí (/iːsˈʃiː/ eess-SHEE), the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more easily come into this world and were particularly active. Most scholars see the Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods [...] whose power remained active in the people's minds even after they had been officially replaced by later religious beliefs". The Aos Sí were both respected and feared, with individuals often invoking the protection of God when approaching their dwellings. At Samhain, it was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí. The souls of the dead were also said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality. Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them. The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world. In 19th century Ireland, "candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. After this the eating, drinking, and games would begin".