Marvel published a limited series called Powerless in 2004, which tells how the Marvel Universe would be without super-powers. In this series, Peter Parker appears as a young man nicknamed Spider-Man on the internet. This version had also been bitten by a radioactive spider, but instead of getting super-powers his hand became atrophic. In this continuity, Peter is in love with Gwen Stacy; Mary Jane is not featured.[23]
After the " Other" story arc, Tony Stark designed for Peter a specialized Red & Gold costume that is similar to Tony Stark's Iron Man costume. It was designated as Spider-Man Armored Fighting suit Version 1.1 which was made of a liquid nano-fiber. It provided Peter with the added functions of a short-ranged gliding function, increased strength, heat-resistant Kevlar microfiber that provided resistance to small caliber bullets, built-in fire, police and emergency scanners, visual amplifications such as infrared and ultraviolet, carbon filter in the mouth to prevent inhalation of airborne toxins, and a short-range GPS microwave communication system. All of which are controlled in the computerized control system in the titanium chest piece in the costume. Another very useful addition was a stealth mode which allowed Spider-Man to blend with the environment or even disappear completely in some backgrounds. Along with this came the customization option to instantly switch between any former style he's worn (Spidey suit, black suit, normal clothes, etc); all on the same suit. It also contained three retractable spider legs called "waldoes" which can be used as offensive weapons. Spidey wore this costume before and during the Civil War but Tony, in order to keep an eye on Peter, had the costume feed him with information about Peter, notably the Spider-Sense. When Peter revealed that he was going to switch sides and fought Iron Man, the latter used a voice activated override which incapacitated Peter for a while. He had already known about this and used his computer expertise to disable the override and managed to defeat Iron Man with a surprise attack. He then discarded the costume and returned to wear his original costume when he joined Captain America's team during the Civil War. The members of the initiative team known as the Scarlet Spiders would start wearing costumes of similar design and functions.
When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were usually relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist. The Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a high school student from Queens behind Spider-Man's secret identity and with whose "self-obsessions with rejection, inadequacy, and loneliness" young readers could relate.[9] While Spider-Man had all the makings of a sidekick, unlike previous teen heroes such as Bucky and Robin, Spider-Man had no superhero mentor like Captain America and Batman; he thus had to learn for himself that "with great power there must also come great responsibility"—a line included in a text box in the final panel of the first Spider-Man story but later retroactively attributed to his guardian, the late Uncle Ben.

Janine Godbe a.k.a. Elizabeth Tyne The one great love of Ben's life. Ben found out Janine was living under an assumed name after she murdered the father who molested her. Ben confided in Janine that he was a clone of Spider-Man. Later Kaine forced Janine to fake her death to hurt Ben. Janine later turned herself into the police for killing her father. In the MC2 universe Darkdevil is Ben and Janine's son.
May The Force be with your son this year in one of our 2018 boys Star Wars Halloween costumes! Whoever his favorite character is, your son can dress up in his image in our officially licensed costumes. These include our Darth Vader costume, featuring a jumpsuit with armor and 3D boot tops along with a mask, cape and molded belt. For extra authenticity, he can also get a lightsaber to complete the look of this feared villain. We also offer several Luke Skywalker costumes so he can join the Rebel Alliance in his tan tunic, belt, pants and boot covers.

The suit is derived from Lucius Fox's Research and Development program, within Wayne Enterprises' Applied Sciences Division. It is described by Fox as a "Nomex survival suit" originally intended for advanced military use, but, with its $300,000 price tag, was considered to be too expensive for the United States Army and military in general. Based on an advanced infantry armor system constructed from Nomex, the first layer of protection is an undersuit with built-in temperature regulators designed to keep the wearer at a comfortable temperature in almost any condition. The second layer of protection consists of armor built over the chest, calves, thighs, arms, and back. This armor features a kevlar bi-weave that can stop slashing weapons and can also deflect any bullet short of a straight shot impact, and reinforced joints that allow maximum flexibility and mobility.
Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[65] From at least the 18th century, "imitating malignant spirits" led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century.[65] Traditionally, pranksters used hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels often carved with grotesque faces as lanterns.[65] By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits,[65] or were used to ward off evil spirits.[69][70] They were common in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands in the 19th century,[65] as well as in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.[65]
At the end of the Silver Age, Norman Osborn's memories began to flood back. He decided to hurt Peter as much as possible as the Green Goblin. He kidnapped Gwen Stacy and held her hostage at the Brooklyn Bridge. Spider-Man went to save Gwen and, despite being ill at the time, managed to defeat the Goblin. The Goblin threw Gwen off the bridge and, although Peter caught her by attaching a web line to her leg as she fell, the drop caused her neck to snap. As Spider-Man held Gwen's dead body, he vowed to kill the Goblin. He tracked him down to one of his warehouses. He brutally pummeled the Goblin in a fit of rage but managed to stop himself from committing murder. In one last attempt to achieve victory, Norman sent his Goblin Glider to impale Spider-Man from behind. Peter ducks and the Goblin is apparently killed from being impaled by his own glider. Mary Jane consoled Peter on the death of Gwen and the two started to date. Peter eventually proposed to her, but she refused and ended up breaking up with him. At this time Miles Warren, a college professor obsessed with Gwen became the deranged villain known as the Jackal. He hired the Punisher to kill Spider-Man and he also made copies of both Gwen and Peter. The Peter copy escaped and Gwen's copy eventually went back to Miles. Harry Osborn followed in the footsteps of his father and became the next Green Goblin. He blamed Peter for his father's death. Harry later lost his memory after a fight with Spider-Man. Harry's psychologist, Bart Hamilton attempted to take up the mantle of the Goblin himself but was killed by his own bomb while fighting Peter.
Peter Parquagh is a counterpart to Peter in the miniseries Marvel 1602, albeit without powers. In the series he acts as an apprentice to the royal spymaster Sir Nicholas Fury. A running gag involves Peter repeatedly almost getting bitten by unusual spiders, something that finally occurs at the very end. In the sequel, 1602: New World, he takes the identity of the Spider. Later, Peter's dual identity is revealed, and with the death of his beloved Virginia Dare at the hands of Norman Osborne, he returns to Europe and falls in love with Marion Jane Watson and joins her family of theater performers. During a battle with Baron Octavius, Norman Osborn, and Curtis Connors in Venice, a bystander picks up some of Peter's webbing which eventually served as the basis for the Super Soldier Serum and created Captain America in World War II in this universe.[26] While in the Globe theatre, he is attacked and killed by the supervillain Morlun.[27][28]
To create a zombie costume, first make your clothes look old and tattered. Try using a 1:1 bleach solution to fade clothes or make them look worn out by running a grater over areas to create small tears. Make some fake blood with corn syrup, red food coloring, and chocolate syrup to spatter on your clothes so you’ll look bloody and gory! Remember to zombify your face and hair, too, using dark purplish-brown makeup around your eye socket and eyelids so your eyes look sunken in, for example.
Spider-Man discovered the symbiote costume during the Secret Wars and it became his primary costume until he discovered that it was an alien feeding on him. With it, he had an unlimited supply of webbing, and the suit could mimic his civilian clothing. It didn't, contrary to popular belief, enhance his powers. After meeting with Mr Fantastic, he decided it must be destroyed and would later get rid of it using the sounds of a church bell. It would later bond with Eddie Brock to form the deadly villain known as Venom. The Black Cat would later give Spidey a cloth version of the black suit which he would start wearing for a time, switching between it and the red & blue costume. After the Kraven's last Hunt story and the appearance of Venom for the first time, Mary Jane urged Peter to stop wearing the costume because it reminded her of those traumatizing events. During the Back In Black story, after Aunt May was shot by a sniper, a darkness filled Spider-Man's heart like never before. He wore the black costume to show this dark side, becoming much more ruthless towards enemies (using torture for example). Peter attempted to infiltrate Stark Tower to stop Norman Osborn, he used a black costume made of unstable molecules to disguise himself as the Venom. During the Grim Hunt story, after Kraven was recovered, he presented Peter with a black costume as a calling card after the Kravinoffs killed Peter's "brother" Kaine. He once again wore this costume and became aggressive towards the villains, vowing to hunt them all down. He was about to kill Kraven with a spear until he was convinced otherwise by Arachne and Arana. The black suit represents Spider-Man's dark side.
"Costume" often refers to a particular style of clothing worn to portray the wearer as a character or type of character at a social event in a theatrical performance on the stage or in film or television. In combination with other aspects of stagecraft, theatrical costumes can help actors portray characters' and their contexts as well as communicate information about the historical period/era, geographic location and time of day, season or weather of the theatrical performance. Some stylized theatrical costumes, such as Harlequin and Pantaloon in the Commedia dell'arte, exaggerate an aspect of a character.
The cowl's basic design has remained unchanged; however, it has been frequently updated to advance Batman's crusade. The one aspect of the cowl that does undergo variations is the ears, although the length and pointiness of the ears are supposedly primarily due to the style of the artist drawing Batman, and tends not to be tied to the functionality of the cowl in any way. However, artist, Karl Kerchl has drawn Batman's costume vault showing that he has a wide selection of cowls with ears of different lengths (Adventures of Superman #643).
When he arrived most of the remaining heroes had been murdered by either Set's fearsome power or at the hands of his seven mind controlled brides. Quasar found The Silver Surfer attempting to keep the creature at bay. Filled with an immeasurable amount of rage the Quasar/Captain Universe entity summoned the Eye of Agamotto and pulled himself and Set into the Eye's pocket dimension where they would do battle for all Eternity. Later on Quasar of Earth-616 viewed his counterpart facing Set.
The Iron Spider armor costume has been duplicated and used by MVP's three genetic clones in the Initiative who identify themselves as Red Team and also labeled the Scarlet Spiders. It is unknown what new powers the team possesses, but they have been shown to be using some of the built-in powers such as the cloaking device, communications, and waldoes which the original costume possessed.[4] One change is that there are now four waldoes, as opposed to three. These suits have the original's morphing ability,[5] as well as web-shooters, and wall-crawling capability.[6]
^ Jump up to: a b The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Church Publishing, Inc. 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Service for All Hallows' Eve: This service may be used on the evening of October 31, known as All Hallows' Eve. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service, and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place.
Bruce Banner--the Incredible Hulk--and his wife, Betty, travel to New York to meet an old friend. There, they discover that their friend is a target for assassination by the notorious Super-Skrull, an alien possessing all the powers of the Fantastic Four. Teaming-up with the amazing Spider-Man, the Hulk must stop the shapeshifting villain from carrying out his mission.
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, theme parks entered the business seriously. Six Flags Fright Fest began in 1986 and Universal Studios Florida began Halloween Horror Nights in 1991. Knott's Scary Farm experienced a surge in attendance in the 1990s as a result of America's obsession with Halloween as a cultural event. Theme parks have played a major role in globalizing the holiday. Universal Studios Singapore and Universal Studios Japan both participate, while Disney now mounts Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party events at its parks in Paris, Hong Kong and Tokyo, as well as in the United States.[190] The theme park haunts are by far the largest, both in scale and attendance.[191]
Spirit Halloween is your number one shop for boys Halloween costumes for 2018! We’re costume experts, so we have options for your son no matter what his interests. With brand new 2018 outfits along with classic costume looks like mummies and pirates, we have festive attire from masks to accessories and full oufits that will make him wish Halloween took place every single day. He can look just like his favorite movie and TV characters, reciting their most popular lines from memory, or go very old school with a historical time period costume.

Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character and has often been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.[9]:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world.[160] Spider-Man is the world's most profitable superhero.[161] In 2014, global retail sales of licensed products related to Spider-Man reached approximately $1.3 billion.[162] Comparatively, this amount exceeds the global licensing revenue of Batman, Superman, and the Avengers combined.[161]

The Iron Spider armor appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series. It is initially used by Peter Parker in the episodes "Flight of the Iron Spider", "The Iron Octopus" and "Venom Bomb". Subsequent seasons depict the armor in the hands of Amadeus Cho under the Iron Spider mantle. Additionally the episode "Rampaging Rhino" features a variant Iron Spider Hulkbuster created by Curt Connors at the time when the Hulk fights with the Rhino.
The toy's instructions are also somewhat crazy as they go through the entire transformation sequence, then end with a picture of Spider-Man transformed a totally different way from the waist down (resembling the picture on the back of the card). This was likely done because transforming him the correct way makes it impossible for him to stand without splaying his legs far out to the sides. The instructions also fail to note the step wherein his legs extend slightly to reveal double-jointed knees.
That's where we come in. We can help you to look like almost any kind of superhero you want to be. If you have a particular favorite character, chances are we have a costume for him/her. We have officially licensed costumes for most of the major DC and Marvel Comics characters. Plus, we have independent or spoof characters such as Ace & Gary, Kick-Ass, Duffman, Hellboy and the Watchmen.  
IKEA viert dit jaar zijn 75ste verjaardag. Als verjaardagscadeau boden we de Zweedse woongigant een interview in het septembernummer van ons magazine. Victoria van Keulen vertelt over hoe zij twee jaar geleden verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, waarna zij tot de schrikbarende ontdekking kwam dat het onderwerp weinig leefde. Voor haar dus het doel het thema concreet te maken en te vertalen. Hoe dat is gelukt? Dat lees je in de coverstory van dit nummer.
The Iron Spider armor appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series. It is initially used by Peter Parker in the episodes "Flight of the Iron Spider", "The Iron Octopus" and "Venom Bomb". Subsequent seasons depict the armor in the hands of Amadeus Cho under the Iron Spider mantle. Additionally the episode "Rampaging Rhino" features a variant Iron Spider Hulkbuster created by Curt Connors at the time when the Hulk fights with the Rhino.

^ Another character commonly described as archenemy is Venom. Eddie Brock as Venom is commonly described as the mirror version or the evil version of Spider-Man in many ways.[8][9][123] Venom's goals are usually depicted as ruining Spider-Man's life and messing with Spider-Man's head.[86] Venom is also one of the most popular Spider-Man villains.[131] This popularity has led him to be an established iconic character of his own with own comic book stories.[8][132]


"People often say glibly that Marvel succeeded by blending super hero adventure stories with soap opera. What Lee and Ditko actually did in The Amazing Spider-Man was to make the series an ongoing novelistic chronicle of the lead character's life. Most super heroes had problems no more complex or relevant to their readers' lives than thwarting this month's bad guys.... Parker had far more serious concern in his life: coming to terms with the death of a loved one, falling in love for the first time, struggling to make a living, and undergoing crises of conscience."
Unlike well known rivalries in comics book depictions where heroes always still have more than one enemy but usually one archenemy (e.g., Joker, to Batman in DC Comics, Red Skull to Captain America, Doctor Doom to the Fantastic Four and the Brotherhood of Mutants to the X-Men in Marvel Comics etc.), Spider-Man is known to have three archenemies and it can be debated or disputed as to which one is worse:[123]
Spider-Man managed to find Vulture, and latched onto him with a web as they flew towards the Stark Cargo Plane. Unaware of Spider-Man's presence, Vulture continued his hijacking. Without his tech suit, Spider-Man improvised his moves and dodged Vulture's relentless attacks. Their fight caused significant damage to the plane's hull. When Spider-Man realized that the plane was in danger of crashing into New York City, he used his webs and strength to force the plane to crash into the beach at Coney Island instead.[2]
Spider-Man later tracked down and confronts Osborn, having dispatched all of his henchmen in turn. During their fight, it is revealed that Osborn is a former circus freak himself who hides his goblin-like visage behind one of the Chameleon’s masks. After Spider-Man refuses to kill Osborn, the spider-infested and barely still alive body of Kraven appears and attacks the Goblin, killing him.[4]
Not until 2000 would Spider-Man return in his own game. Spider-Man made his triumphant video game return in 2000, with not one, but two games, as a character in a fighting game and a special guest appearance that year. Spider-Man for the Game Boy Color was published by Activision and met with moderate success. Later that year Spider-Man, developed by NeverSoft, for the PlayStation was released. The game was met with critical and commercial success. The game was ported over to the Nintendo 64 the following year, but lacked the full motion cut scenes due the systems hardware. Spider-Man was also one of the playable character in the arcade game Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes (which later was released on the Sega Dreamcast, Sony PlayStation 2, Xbox). In September of that year, Spider-Man made a special appearance in Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2 as a hidden character. In 2001, sequels to the successful Activision titles were released. Spider-Man 2: Enter Electro for the PlayStation and Spider-Man 2: Sinister Six for the Gameboy Color. Spider-Man made an early appearance on Nintendo's new handheld system, the Gameboy Advance with Spider-Man: Mysterio's Menace. Spider-Man was also featured as a guest character in the fighting game X-Men: Mutant Academy 2.
The Batsuit also has "sonar-vision", where signals emitted by mobile phones are converted into images in a similar way to sonar. In order to view the-said images, white lenses fold down from Batman's cowl to cover his eyes. Fox ran the machine to enable the "sonar-vision", but since it went against Fox's morals to spy on 30 million people, Batman built a self-destruct mechanism to allow Lucius to destroy the machine, likely the glowing lcd lenses were never used again.

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Pursuing the Vulture once again, Peter Parker went to grab his homemade suit from beneath the school lockers. After changing hastily into his suit, Spider-Man went outside only to be ambushed by the Shocker, who subsequently knocked Spider-Man's Web-Shooters off his wrists, putting him at a disadvantage. Shocker relentlessly kept attacking Spider-Man, smashing him through school buses. Before Shocker could strike Spider-Man again, Ned used one of the Web-Shooters to distract the Shocker, and Spider-Man bound him to a school bus.[2]
Planet of the Symbiotes (1995) Spider-Man: Chapter One (1998) Spider-Man: Blue (2002) Spider-Man/Black Cat: The Evil that Men Do (2002) Trouble (2003) Venom vs. Carnage (2004) Spider-Man: House of M (2005) Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four (2007) Spider-Man: With Great Power (2008) Astonishing Spider-Man & Wolverine (2010) Spider-Man and the X-Men (2014)
Jump up ^ Claremont, Chris; David,, Peter (2014). Wolverine Epic Collection: Madripoor Nights. ISBN 0785189033. Issue #309 will culimate the Mary Jane storyline. I am introducing a new duo of bad guys called Styx and Stones. Styx is a mastermind who loves death, adores death, and he's got these plans to bring death in all of its wonderful forms. Stones is his partner who actually carries out these things.
In this example, the objects or instances are the individual superheroes described by the class Superhero. There could be an Ironman object, a Wonder Woman object, a Batman object, or a Spiderman object. The class Superhero associates certain attributes and methods with the superhero objects. For this example, each superhero will have the following attributes: strength, superpower, costume color, secret identity, points, and health. Additionally, each superhero will have the following methods (or actions): attack and heal.
Since the school's decathlon team were heading to Washington, D.C. for the national tournament, Parker rejoined the team. Once the decathlon team arrived, Parker prepared to pursue the Vulture's gang once more. While removing the tracker from his suit, Leeds learned that the Training Wheels Protocol monitored his suit. Eager to prove himself to Tony Stark, Parker convinced Leeds to disable the protocol before pursuing the criminals.
How long can any man fight the darkness before he finds it in himself? Peter Parker has finally managed to strike a balance between his devotion to M.J. and his duties as a Super Hero. But there is a storm brewing on the horizon. When his suit suddenly changes, turning jet-black and enhancing his powers, it transforms Peter as well, bringing out the dark, vengeful side of his personality that he is struggling to control. Under the influence of the suit, Peter becomes overconfident and starts to neglect the people who care about him most. Forced to choose between the seductive power of the new suit and the compassionate hero he used to be, Peter must overcome his personal demons as two of the most feared villains yet -- Sandman and Venom -- gather unparalleled power and a thirst for retribution to threaten Peter and everyone he loves.
Following the 2015 Secret Wars event, a number of Spider-Man-related titles were either relaunched or created as part of the "All-New, All-Different Marvel" event. Among them, The Amazing Spider-Man was relaunched as well and primarily focuses on Peter Parker continuing to run Parker Industries, and becoming a successful businessman who is operating worldwide.[43]
The Post-Crisis version of the bodysuit is not constructed from simple fabric but from Kevlar thread and carbon nanotube fibers. This imparts it with a unique sheen and makes it heavily resistant to tearing. In addition, the suit also is constructed with a full body electric shock delivery system, which is also layered into the suit's fabric. The basic version of the Batsuit is insulated against electricity and is mildly fire resistant. Batman utilizes many different body armor designs, some of which are constructed into his Batsuits, and others which are separate. In its most basic version, the suit is bulletproof around the upper torso and back and can withstand a point-blank range blast from a 12-gauge shotgun. Other versions are entirely bulletproof to small arms fire and have advanced flexible armor plating made from Carbon composites and lightweight metal polymers.

Tele’Train heeft opnieuw haar Cedeo-erkenning voor Maatwerk Bedrijfsopleidingen toegekend gekregen. Een onmisbare erkenning van onze opdrachtgevers, waar alle collega’s terecht heel trots op zijn.   Aan de hand van een diepgaand klanttevredenheidsonderzoek heeft Cedeo de maatwerktrainingen van Tele’Train beoordeeld. Met een score van 97,3% heeft Tele’Train wederom laten zien ruimschoots aan de gestelde criteria te...

i would say that that, in the comic book format, the first super-powered character would be popeye, who was capable of superhuman feats of strength by eathing spinach (1929). the same year also provided the comic book format with the first sort of vigilante-crime-fighter, the shadow. the full costumed crime fighter debuted in 1936 with the phantom. you can argue that the first time the medium of the comic book, the costume, and the super powers (not of magical origin - and i make that distinction because science, technology, mutation, etc. are devices that influence literature far more prominently post-industrial revolution, wheras magic and divinity were devices with long histories) were brought together was, indeed, the action comics superman debut issue.
Spider-Man was featured in a trilogy of live-action films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire as the titular superhero. The first Spider-Man film of the trilogy was released on May 3, 2002; followed by Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007). A third sequel was originally scheduled to be released in 2011, however Sony later decided to reboot the franchise with a new director and cast. The reboot, titled The Amazing Spider-Man, was released on July 3, 2012; directed by Marc Webb and starring Andrew Garfield as the new Spider-Man.[189][190][191] It was followed by The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014).[192][193] In 2015, Sony and Disney made a deal for Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[194] Tom Holland made his debut as Spider-Man in the MCU film Captain America: Civil War (2016), before later starring in Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017); directed by Jon Watts.[195][196] Holland reprises his role as Spider-Man in Avengers: Infinity War (2018).[197][198]
Want to match with your number-one gal? We've got both of you covered. She can be a mad doctor, and you can be the monster. You can be the hot dog, she can be the bun. There are kings and queens, doctors and nurses, Uncle Sam and the Statue of Liberty, vampire kings and temptresses of the night, duos of disco dancers, Mary the mother of Jesus and Joseph, Joker and Harley Quinn, Superman and Supergirl, Captain America and Black Widow, Han Solo and Princess Leia, his and hers twenties gangsters, cowboys and cowgirls, and a bevy of other couples looks – just browse and you're sure to find a few styles you both love!
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[92][93] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today.[94] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[95] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips".[96] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead.[97] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.[98][99] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights".[100][101][102] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[103] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee; their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things."[104] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties.[96][105][93][106]
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