Batman stands tall above Gotham City, and often times he has the weight of the entire world on his shoulders. Does he have what it takes to defeat The Joker ? Bane? Doomsday? When your little one takes the mantle of The Dark Knight, there will be no need to fret over which villain is threatening the neighborhood, because we’re sure he’ll be able to just focus on his Halloween party and all of the trick-or-treating fun. But when it’s time to strike a pose and show the world that he’s The Bat, you’re going to want to get the picture just right. A little breeze will make his cape look epic, and when he has his fists on his hips, the molded effect of this premier costume really stands out. A stern face will project his newfound power, but if he happens to crack a smile, that photo will look just as epic.


The following day, Peter learns from Doctor Strange that the psychic blindspot put in place to defend his secret identity has been destroyed, because of a viral video of spider-powered Peter defending people. Carlie deduces who Peter is and promptly breaks up with him for lying to her. Mary Jane admits her love for Peter, and Peter administers an antidote to her. The two look up at the Empire Stats Building, which is projecting a red and blue light, thanking Spider-Man for his heroic deeds.

Spider-Man possesses the uncanny speed, agility and reflexes of a spider. He can move at a speed that surpasses that of the finest human athletes. This is particularly evident over short distances. He has frequently speed-blitzed many foes- including those with enhanced speed and reflexes, moving so fast that he leaves blurring after images. He has been described as moving with the speed of machine gun fire, moving faster than the eye can follow, and moved so fast that Daredevil (who has enhanced reflexes and senses) could barely register him, and was unable react to a punch he was knew Spider-Man was going to land. Over longer distances, his speed seems less pronounced, but he was still able to outrun Kraven and his cheetahs (both of whom can run at over 60 mph) and has easily outran speeding cars. However, this could be due to his preference of Web-Slinging over longer distances than due to an inability to maintain higher levels of speed over longer distances. Spider-Man can easily perform the most complicated acrobatic moves as his body is extremely flexible, giving him agility, balance and bodily coordination that surpass those of the finest human athletes. Spider-Man is considered the best when it comes to balance in the Marvel Universe, as he possesses excellent equilibrium allowing him to balance himself on any object. Even some of the most agile street-level heroes like Captain America, Daredevil and Wolverine are nowhere near Spider-Man's level of speed and agility. Spider-Man's reflexes are forty times greater than peak level humans, and when combined with his Spider-Sense, speed and agility, enable him to dodge bullets and other conventional projectiles with ease. During the Grim Hunt storyline, he even dodged sniper rifle fire at point blank range- after the bullet had been fired.
Fright Fest Fright Nights HalloWeekends Halloween Haunt California's Great America Canada's Wonderland Dorney Park Kings Dominion Kings Island Halloween Horror Nights Halloween Spooktacular Howl-O-Scream Busch Gardens Tampa Bay Busch Gardens Williamsburg SeaWorld San Antonio Knott's Scary Farm Mickey's Halloween Party Halloween Screams Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party SCarowinds ValleyScare
The Batsuit is the costume Batman wears to conceal his identity and to frighten criminals. Unable to create it by himself, Bruce Wayne needed Lucius Fox to provide him some sort of armor. Fox presented him a prototype armor suit that was rejected by the army due to cost. After receiving the suit, Bruce sprays it with black rubber and adds a bat symbol.
The Spider-Mobile would first appear in The Amazing Spider-Man #130 in 1974. Spider-Man would be approached by Corona Motors who offers him a non-polluting vehicle in which they wanted him to promote. However, Peter turned it down and approaches his friend Johnny Storm to create their own vehicle. They customized a dune buggy to have web-launchers and a spider-signal. It could also be disguised as a regular car so that no one would suspect that he was Spider-Man. Spider-Man would put it into action but it is quickly wrecked because Mysterio tricked Peter into driving it off a pier. Later the Tinkerer would be able to recover the wrecked dune buggy and re-modify it to be able to drive up walls and to drive itself. The Tinkerer sent it to fight Spider-Man, in which he would barely defeat his own car.
Following decades of false starts and numerous unused scripts, Spider-Man finally made it to the big screen in the year 2000. Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007) comprised a trilogy of films starring Tobey Maguire as the title character, with Sam Raimi directing each installment. The trilogy featured a large host of characters from the comics, including Kirsten Dunst as Mary Jane Watson, James Franco as Harry Osborn, Willem Dafoe as Norman Osborn/Green Goblin, J.K. Simmons as J. Jonah Jameson, Alfred Molina as Otto Octavius/Doc Ock, Thomas Haden Church as Flint Marko/Sandman, Topher Grace as Eddie Brock/Venom, Rosemary Harris as Aunt May, Cliff Robertson as Uncle Ben, Dylan Baker as Dr. Curt Connors, Elizabeth Banks as Betty Brant and Bryce Dallas Howard as Gwen Stacy.
The Sailor Moon series is known for featuring a substantial number of openly LGBT characters since its inception, as Japan have traditionally been more open about portraying homosexuality in its children's media compared to many countries in the West.[65][66] Certain characters who are presented as homosexual or transgender in one continuity may not be presented as such in others, particularly with dubbed versions made for international release.[67]
There also contain many other versions of Spider-Man outside of comic books. Some in film, in television or in video games among countless other media. Some characters have crossed over in the comic book canon as one of the separate incarnations such as the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series version and the live-action Japanese show version appearing in "Spider-Verse". Also, one of the alternate Spider-Men from the series final of the 90s TV Show appeared in Spider-Verse as a background character, and the two live-action versions from the original trilogy and Amazing Spider-Man series are mentioned.
Spider-Man Noir: Eyes Without a Face is a sequel to Spider-Man Noir, which takes place a few months after the Goblin's death. In 1934, Peter Parker, Spider-Man, has a new problem: The Crime Master is a masked criminal who has taken over as the city’s crime boss. As he investigates, his relationship with Felicia Hardy, owner of The Black Cat speakeasy, develops. He returns home to find Joe and Robbie Robertson talking with Aunt May. As a struggling black reporter, Robbie asks Peter to set up a meeting with Doctor Otto Octavius who is experimenting on Ellis Island. A few days later they meet with him and learn that he is experimenting on monkeys to understand more about the human mind. Octavius himself is wheelchair bound but employs controlled robotic arms, attached to the back of his chair, to help him. After they leave, Robbie suggests the story is deeper. That night a delivery of black slaves are delivered to Ellis Island.[5]
Jump up ^ Döring, Alois; Bolinius, Erich (31 October 2006), Samhain – Halloween – Allerheiligen (in German), FDP Emden, Die lückenhaften religionsgeschichtlichen Überlieferungen, die auf die Neuzeit begrenzte historische Dimension der Halloween-Kultausprägung, vor allem auch die Halloween-Metaphorik legen nahe, daß wir umdenken müssen: Halloween geht nicht auf das heidnische Samhain zurück, sondern steht in Bezug zum christlichen Totengedenkfest Allerheiligen/ Allerseelen.

Your son can cheer on his favorite football, baseball, hockey or basketball team by dressing up as his favorite player for Halloween! Our wide assortment of officially licensed sports costumes for boys will have him looking like he just got off the field after a big game (except cleaner). Football fans can dress up as players on the New Orleans Saints, Oakland Raiders, Seattle Seahawks or other teams, complete with color coordinated helmet.
At the end of the Silver Age, Norman Osborn's memories began to flood back. He decided to hurt Peter as much as possible as the Green Goblin. He kidnapped Gwen Stacy and held her hostage at the Brooklyn Bridge. Spider-Man went to save Gwen and, despite being ill at the time, managed to defeat the Goblin. The Goblin threw Gwen off the bridge and, although Peter caught her by attaching a web line to her leg as she fell, the drop caused her neck to snap. As Spider-Man held Gwen's dead body, he vowed to kill the Goblin. He tracked him down to one of his warehouses. He brutally pummeled the Goblin in a fit of rage but managed to stop himself from committing murder. In one last attempt to achieve victory, Norman sent his Goblin Glider to impale Spider-Man from behind. Peter ducks and the Goblin is apparently killed from being impaled by his own glider. Mary Jane consoled Peter on the death of Gwen and the two started to date. Peter eventually proposed to her, but she refused and ended up breaking up with him. At this time Miles Warren, a college professor obsessed with Gwen became the deranged villain known as the Jackal. He hired the Punisher to kill Spider-Man and he also made copies of both Gwen and Peter. The Peter copy escaped and Gwen's copy eventually went back to Miles. Harry Osborn followed in the footsteps of his father and became the next Green Goblin. He blamed Peter for his father's death. Harry later lost his memory after a fight with Spider-Man. Harry's psychologist, Bart Hamilton attempted to take up the mantle of the Goblin himself but was killed by his own bomb while fighting Peter.
Peter is shown to be learning the 'Way of the Spider', from Shang-Chi, and also seen neutralizing a couple of robberies. Jackal is revealed to be working on a scheme, recruiting several spider-powered criminals for some kind of project. Later, Peter and Carlie Cooper are talking when Carlie reveals she has spider-powers. When news of several hundreds of New Yorkers having manifested spider-powers reaches them, Carlie web swings away to help. Peter then pretends to be another random spider-powered New Yorker and defends New York against the spider-powered villains, along with the Avengers. Anti-Venom is seen curing people of their spider-powers, as he showed the ability to do so in New Ways to Die. Jackal is seen working on the Spider-King, filled with tiny embryos. Horizon Labs and Mr Fantastic work on finding a cure while the Avengers keep Manhattan quarantined to stop the virus from spreading. While at an lab, Peter and Carlie are attacked by Chance, Scorcher, and White Rabbit, who also have spider-powers. Peter manages to defeat them using his training from Shang-Chi. Jackal has the battle taped and gives it to Tarantula to study, as he will soon be 'tested'. Reed Richards finally develops a vaccine that stops people from gaining spider-powers, but cannot cure those already infected. J. Jonah Jameson discovers that he, too, has gained spider powers. Anti-Venom continues curing people, however Madame Web faints from the massive excess of spiders accessing the 'web of life'. Carlie meets up with Spider-Man, when they attempt to take down Shocker, who has grown 6 extra arms. After taking off his mask, they find that his face is slowly mutating into a spider's face, and his body is doing the same. Carlie starts to mutate as well.The Spider-Queen tells Jackal that the people of New York will soon become spiders, and she will own New York.
^ Jump up to: a b c Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 36. ISBN 978-0756692360. Now it was time for [John Romita, Sr.] to introduce a new Spidey villain with the help of [Stan] Lee. Out of their pooled creative energies was born the Rhino, a monstrous behemoth trapped in a durable rhinoceros suit.
The earliest superhero I could find reference to was Mandrake the Magician, who debuted in 1934, four years before Superman, who was probably the first popular superhero. Mandrake’s super power was his ability to “make people believe anything, simply by gesturing hypnotically”. Does anyone out there know of any superheroes who made an earlier media appearance?

Spider-Queen has now evolved into a massive, spider-like monster, drawing strength from all infected New Yorkers. Mary Jane realizes that, because of her long relationship to Peter, she has some immunity against the disease, gaining spider-powers but not the subsequent mutations. Peter gives Kaine the Stealth Suit (immune to the Queen's sonic attacks) and Kaine goes to attack the Queen. Peter and Mary Jane gather several octobots, outfitting each with several doses of the cure, making them go out to cure people. Peter then connects with the antennae on top of the Empire State Building, curing many people at once, while Mary Jane fights off the spider-like creatures attacking them. Kaine jumps inside the Queen's mouth, killing her by reflecting her sonic scream on her insides. The Jackal uses a disguise to get samples of the Queen's bone marrow for future experiments.
The bringer of destruction and maker of doom, the feeble powers of any superhero are no match for the mighty Professor Chaos. A veteran of supervillainy with many foiled schemes behind him, few realize that he was once the lonely Butters Stotch, outcasted by society. Seeking vengeance on those who once wronged him, ten thousand dollars from a generous donor may be all he needs to defeat Coon and Friends once and for all...

As one contemporaneous journalist observed, "Spider-Man has a terrible identity problem, a marked inferiority complex, and a fear of women. He is anti-social, [sic] castration-ridden, racked with Oedipal guilt, and accident-prone ... [a] functioning neurotic".[44] Agonizing over his choices, always attempting to do right, he is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by the authorities, who seem unsure as to whether he is a helpful vigilante or a clever criminal.[85]


Due to his accelerated metabolism, Spider-Man has a higher tolerance for drugs and diseases than normal humans, and he can recover from the effects of larger doses rapidly. During an encounter with the Swarm, Spider-Man was incapacitated by thousands of bee stings, but recovered in less than 24 hours. In another example, he was able to recover from the effects of gases nearly instantly. His resistance and recovery time to other toxins and diseases varies, but is typically significantly higher than normal. Spider-Man's unique physiology even allowed him to recover from the effects of vampirism. Spider-Man was able to recover completely from acid being spat into his eyes by the new Vulture; Jimmy Natale, although the extent of the damage may have been restricted due to his superhuman durability. However, Spider-Man has the normal human tolerance for alcoholic beverages.
Responding to the distress call they received earlier from the Asgardian ship, the Guardians of the Galaxy arrive only to discover that they are too late to stop Thanos, but are in time to save Thor who they find floating around in the ship's debris. After confirming with Thor about his altercation with Thanos, the heroes realize that if Thanos' goal is to assemble the Infinity Stones then he will eventually head to Knowhere in order to retrieve the Reality Stone which is currently in the Collector's possession. To stop Thanos from acquiring the Reality Stone; Thor, Rocket and Groot leave for Nidavellir to find the dwarf blacksmith Eitri, so that he might create a battle-axe capable of killing Thanos while Star-Lord, Gamora, Drax and Mantis go to Knowhere to protect the Reality Stone from Thanos till the others return with the axe. Unfortunately, by the time the guardians arrive at Knowhere, Thanos has already retrieved the Reality Stone from the Collector. The guardians try to take the stone back from Thanos, but are quickly defeated. Knowing that his adoptive daughter Gamora knows where the Soul Stone is, Thanos kidnaps her following his fight with her fellow guardians and trys to coerce her into revealing its location. When Gamora refuses Thanos threatens to torture her captive adoptive sister Nebula as punishment. Not wanting her sister to suffer, Gamora submits to Thanos' demands and reveals that the Soul Stone is located on the planet Vormir. Taking Gamora with him to the planet Vormir, Thanos discovers that the stone is guarded by the Red Skull who reveals that the stone can only be retrieved by someone who is willing to sacrifice someone they love. In response to this, Thanos reluctantly kills Gamora, earning him the stone.
A teen outcast Andy Maguire went on a trip from his school to Horizon Labs, where Peter Parker was holding an experiment. Tiberius Stone, not liking Peter, sabotages the experiment, and Andy is hit with a ray of Peter Particles. Soon after he discovers he has super-powers. When he is examined by top greatest superhuman specialists, Reed Richards, Tony Stark, Henry Pym and Hank McCoy, they discover that he has energy projection, flight, super speed, super strength and force field, but his limitation is he can control only one power at a time. Reed tells Peter that he had discovered these particles, but didn't publish his work, because he considered the particles too powerful and dangerous. He then assigns Alpha as Spider-Man's sidekick. Alpha is however very careless and eventually quits working with Spider-Man and goes solo. Spider-Man decides then that there should be Alpha no more! Soon when earth is under attack from Terminus, Alpha is called from Captain America to fight him. During the fight Alpha behaves most irresponsible and almost destroys planes flying in the air. Though Alpha defeats Terminus, Peter observes that Terminus' staff can redirect Alpha energy. Then Spider-Man calls Alpha for another "analysis" and uses the tech acquired from the Terminus to strip Andy of his Alpha power, leaving him as nobody again.
Spider-Man also has incredible durability to blunt trauma as his body is much tougher than that of a normal person. He can withstand such levels of damage and punishment that would kill non-super powered individuals. For example he has frequently taken blows from characters with high levels of superhuman strength (Hulk, Venom, Rhino, Puma, Green Goblin etc) without sustaining significant injury. He has also survived the force of having a building collapse on him multiple times. This durability extends to falling from great heights. For example, he was once knocked through three buildings by Mr Negative before falling multiple stories to the ground, yet still remained conscious. His durability to blunt trauma also extends to explosive forces, and he has taken explosions with the force of a hand grenade and recovered nearly instantly in a recent fight with the Juggernaut. In the Sins Past Storyline he tanked a building destroying explosion, but was significantly weakened afterwards. The toughness of Spider-Man is such that he often rolls with the blows of punches thrown by non-powered foes to avoid injuring them- when he once decided to tense his abdominal muscles against the blows of a trained boxer, the boxer broke his wrists. Scorpion once described Spider-Man's body "as being as hard as concrete".
Here’s one of the ways that white men at Yale are most privileged of all: When a white male student at an elite college says that he feels disempowered, the first impulse of the campus left is to show him the extent of his power and privilege. When any other students say they feel disempowered, the campus left’s impulse is to validate their statements. This does a huge disservice to everyone except white male students. It’s baffling that so few campus activists seem to realize this drawback of emphasizing victim status even if college administrators sometimes treat it as currency.
The Negative Suit's black-and-white design comes from a history that is not all from your new villain Mister Negative, but from Spider-Man's visit to the Negative Zone, where his suit transformed in a realm with no color. However, in other stories, Peter's suit was also transformed into the Negative Suit after being attacked by Mister Negative himself.
Español: hacer un disfraz de superhéroe, Italiano: Realizzare un Costume da Supereroe, Português: Fazer uma Fantasia de Super Herói, Français: créer un costume de super héros, 中文: 制作一套超级英雄服, Русский: сделать костюм супергероя, Deutsch: Ein Superheldenkostüm basteln, Bahasa Indonesia: Membuat Kostum Superhero, Nederlands: Een superheldenkostuum maken
A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010, at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night on June 14, 2011.[199][200] The music and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor, Glen Berger, Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa.[201] Turn Off the Dark is currently the most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $70 million.[202] In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to have been about $1.2 million per week.[203]
Supported by a system similar to that of Tony Stark's classic Iron Man design, The Iron Spider armor features many gadgets, including four mechanical spider-arms, or "waldoes", that can be used to see around corners (via cameras in the tips) and to manipulate objects indirectly. Stark describes them as too delicate to use in combat, yet Spider-Man shortly afterward uses them to smash through the sensors in Titanium Man's helmet. Later on during the "Civil War" storyline, he uses them (reluctantly) during his fight with Captain America.

B-ankh! · Wrap Battler · Futankhamun ·  Idiot Box · Infernal Impaler · Steel Pipes · Shoestring Budget ·  Blazing Bull · Fallen Angel · Tail From the Crypt · Apparition's Aspect · Last Breath · Hair of the Dog · Scottish Snarl · Pickled Paws ·  Can Opener · Soviet Stitch-Up · Steel-Toed Stompers ·  Buzz Killer · Frontier Flyboy · Legend of Bugfoot ·  Dr. Gogglestache · Emerald Jarate · Einstein ·  Holy Hunter · Silver Bullets · Garlic Flank Stake ·  Griffin's Gog · Intangible Ascot · Under Cover · Bombinomicon · MONOCULUS! · Ghastlierest Gibus · Seal Mask · Spine-Chilling Skull 2011


. The story begins with Peter already having his Spider powers and is a part-time photographer for the Daily Bugle. Spider-Man would battle many classic villains and newer villains such as Green Goblin (Norman and Harry Osborn), Hobgoblin, the Chameleon, the Lizard, the Scorpion, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio, Rhino, the Kingpin of Crime, the Shocker, Vulture, Venom, and Carnage. Peter would eventually get into a romantic relationship with Felicia Hardy/Black Cat, and eventually fall for Mary Jane Watson. Although Gwen Stacy was never in the series, Marvel gave us a little teaser in the series finale story arc, having Spider-Man go to an alternate universe and meeting Gwen Stacy herself. A very important story arc in this series began as the finale of Season 3 in the episode entitled "Turning Point." In which the Green Goblin kidnaps Mary Jane and throws her off the George Washington Bridge, similar to the story arc "The Night Gwen Stacy Died." However, with the heavy censorship in the 1990s not allowing television to have heavy violence, death being a part of it. Marvel decided to have Mary Jane and the Green Goblin fall into an inter-dimension vortex instead. Season 4 was mostly about the guilt that Spider-Man has to carry for losing Mary Jane. He tries to rebound with the Black Cat, but Mary Jane eventually mysteriously returns to life. Season 5 starts off with the much anticipated Wedding of Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson-Parker. With season 5 being the last season, Marvel dropped a bomb on us by revealing that Mary Jane was actually a clone created by Dr. Miles Warren.
During Grim Hunt, Peter is already weakened and exhausted from his "gauntlet". After a loud knocking at his apartment door and he opens it only to see his estranged clone Kaine, beaten and bloodied. Before passing out, Kaine reveals to Peter that the "Spiders" are being hunted. A loud explosion is heard nearby his apartment and Peter goes to check it out only to see Arachne fighting off Ana and Alyosha Kravinoff. Peter, being weakened by the swine flu, struggles to put up a fight and manages to impale Alyosha on a broken pipe, gaining him time to retrieve Arachne and to escape. After retreating to Mattie Franklin's apartment, they are approached by a dead Ezekiel. He then tells Spider-Man and Arachne that they have to save Arana from the clutches of the Kravinoff's. As they finally reach her, they become outnumbered and defeated and Arachne and Arana are captured. Kaine eventually arrives to help out but was too late to make a difference. He tries to warn Peter from following Ezekiel but Peter lashes out in anger and the two set off to find Kraven's base.
In this new design, the bodysuit is made of hardened kevlar plates on a titanium-dipped fiber and is broken into multiple pieces of armor over a more flexible bodysuit for greater mobility. The cowl of the Batsuit, which previously had been attached to the shoulder and neck, is now a separate component inspired by the design of motorcycle helmets, allowing the wearer to freely swivel and move his neck without moving the rest of his upper torso.. Also, a strong electric current runs through it that prevents anyone except Bruce Wayne from removing it, further protecting his identity. But this cowl was later shattered by Bane, a man of great strength.
Some Christians feel concerned about the modern celebration of Halloween because they feel it trivializes – or celebrates – paganism, the occult, or other practices and cultural phenomena deemed incompatible with their beliefs.[217] Father Gabriele Amorth, an exorcist in Rome, has said, "if English and American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no harm in that."[218] In more recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "Saint Fest" on Halloween.[219] Similarly, many contemporary Protestant churches view Halloween as a fun event for children, holding events in their churches where children and their parents can dress up, play games, and get candy for free. To these Christians, Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage.[220] Christian minister Sam Portaro wrote that Halloween is about using "humor and ridicule to confront the power of death".[221]
Add your other half and the kids for a night of Halloween fun the entire family will remember, and get matching costumes for everyone! Become a king and queen with the little members of royalty, dress them up as their favorite farm animals, turn them into little Halloween monsters, and more. They'll love joining enchanted lands and making their own unforgettable memories with you!
In subsequent decades, popular characters like Dazzler, She-Hulk, Elektra, Catwoman, Witchblade, Spider-Girl, Batgirl and the Birds of Prey became stars of long-running eponymous titles. Female characters began assuming leadership roles in many ensemble superhero teams; the Uncanny X-Men series and its related spin-off titles in particular have included many female characters in pivotal roles since the 1970s.[33] Volume 4 of the X-Men comic book series featured an all-female team as part of the Marvel NOW! branding initiative in 2013.[34] Superpowered female characters like Buffy the Vampire Slayer[35] and Darna[36][37] have a tremendous influence on popular culture in their respective countries of origin.
Follow Spider-Man’s action-packed journey, from his struggle to harness the extraordinary gifts that will prove to be both blessing and curse, to his fight to save innocent lives while the media tears him to pieces. It all leads up to his ultimate battle high above New York streets, against the death-dealing madman known as the Green Goblin. While the city watches helplessly and countless lives hang in the balance, Spider-Man confronts his archnemesis, and the Goblin puts Spider-Man’s vow to fight crime to the ultimate test...
Jump up ^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780252029318. Retrieved 14 December 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival. Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.
From at least the 16th century,[64] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[65] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[66] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[67] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[68] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[65] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[64] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod.[65] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.[65]
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