After Peter had his aunt returned, he decided to stop being Spider-man for good. He started living in a new apartment with his aunt May and wife Mary-Jane. All of New York was wondering where Spider-Man could have gone after his seemingly final battle with the Green Goblin. He would not even react to messages send by Peter's good friend the Human Torch. Peter had found a job at a science-center where he did good work and stayed out of the superhero life, although it turned out that was harder then it seemed. It was at this time that a seemingly new Spider-Man appeared on the scene. It turned out that this was Mattie Franklin, a participant in the Gathering of the Five, whom got the gift of Power. She acted as Spider-man and later as Spider-Woman, when Peter finally accepted that he was needed as Spider-man and returned to the life as a superhero.
^ Jump up to: a b Mary Mapes Dodge, ed. (1883). St. Nicholas Magazine. Scribner & Company. p. 93. 'Soul-cakes,' which the rich gave to the poor at the Halloween season, in return for which the recipients prayed for the souls of the givers and their friends. And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: 'Soul, souls, for a soul-cake; Pray you good mistress, a soul-cake!'
In Batman: Year One, it is depicted that Batman hid a few pieces of his arsenal in his leather boots, such as a blow gun with fast-acting anesthetic darts and an ultrasonic device built into his left heel. Batman's boots are highly unique. The basic design of the boots are modeled on Tactical boots, but they are made from lightweight rubbers and are much more flexible to allow for full extension when kicking. The boots feature a unique "slingshot" ankle reinforcement design that acts as both the armor and as reinforcement for the ankle joint when kicking or landing from high distances. The bottom is a flexible split sole design and is textured for a variety of surfaces. The boots also have steel toes, making them much more effective when on the offensive. Although Batman is already an accomplished Olympic level swimmer, during the Batman: Hush storyline, it is revealed that he installed underwater propellers on the heels. In Batman Begins, a boot heel is revealed to contain an ultrasonic signaling device capable of calling live bats to it as a form of protection and cover for Batman during a getaway. This device was originally introduced in the Batman: Year One series.
Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes.[11] As Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in countless forms of media, including several animated and live action television series, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and in a series of films. The character was first portrayed in live action by Danny Seagren in Spidey Super Stories, a The Electric Company skit which ran from 1974 to 1977.[12] In films, Spider-Man has been portrayed by actors Tobey Maguire (2002–2007), Andrew Garfield (2012–2014),[13] and Tom Holland (2016–present), who has portrayed the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe since 2016. Reeve Carney starred as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[14] Spider-Man has been well received as a superhero and comic book character, and he is often ranked as one of the most popular comic book characters of all time, alongside DC Comics' most famous superheroes, Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman.
The Marvel Zombies universe features a Spider-Man who has been turned into a flesh-eating zombie after being infected by Zombie Captain America.[12] Although Spider-Man is just as ravenous as the other zombies when hungry, when he has eaten, Spider-Man is racked with guilt at what he has done, especially for having eaten Mary Jane and Aunt May, but unable to change his nature.[13] At the conclusion of the original series, Spider-Man is one of the heroes who become The Galacti, having consumed the original Galactus and subsequently acquiring his cosmic powers.[14]
According to The Washington Post, “several students in Silliman said they cannot bear to live in the college anymore.” These are young people who live in safe, heated buildings with two Steinway grand pianos, an indoor basketball court, a courtyard with hammocks and picnic tables, a computer lab, a dance studio, a gym, a movie theater, a film-editing lab, billiard tables, an art gallery, and four music practice rooms. But they can’t bear this setting that millions of people would risk their lives to inhabit because one woman wrote an email that hurt their feelings?
See also: Ethnic stereotypes in comics, African characters in comics, List of black superheroes, List of Asian superheroes, List of Latino superheroes, List of Native American superheroes, List of Jewish superheroes, List of Filipino superheroes, List of Middle Eastern superheroes, List of Russian superheroes, and List of Italian and Italian-American superheroes and villains
If your son wants to showcase his warrior side, a boys ninja Halloween costume is a fabulous way to look super cool. Our red, green, blue and black ninja costumes harken back to those fighters of ancient Japan, with a thoroughly modern twist that’s perfect to wear while trick or treating or to any costume party. We carry everything from officially licensed Power Rangers Ninja Steel costumes to our Blackstone Ninja, Ice Dragon Ninja and Ghost Dragon Ninja costumes.
The Iron Spider returns in Avengers: Infinity War (2018), with Peter now wearing the armor to aid the Avengers against Thanos. However, when Peter is erased from existence by Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet, the suit fades with him. The suit uses nanotechnology and allows Peter to survive at high altitude and on Titan which has low gravity levels and has a set of four 'waldoes', which Spider-Man uses in combat and enhances his mobility and agility.
In Civil War, Spider-Man is introduced as a young vigilante operating out of Queens. Tony Stark tracks down Peter and recruits him to help stop Captain America's team of fugitive heroes before the situation can escalate any further. During the battle, Spider-Man faces off against the Falcon and the Winter Soldier, but is thwarted by Falcon's Redwing drone. He later fights against Captain America, but is outsmarted and defeated by the veteran hero's superior tactical abilities. Spider-Man plays a major role in taking down Giant-Man, allowing Iron Man and War Machine to finish him off. However, Peter is injured in the process, causing Iron Man to send him back home.

What if someone else besides Spider-Man had been bitten by the radioactive spider explores what would have happened if Flash Thompson, Betty Brant or John Jameson were bitten by the spider, but all three prove to be failures as the 'new' Spider-Man. Each story ends with Peter extracting the residual radioactive venom from the dead spider and using it to create a serum to give himself powers, thus becoming Spider-Man.[47] Versions of all three appear in Spider-Verse where John is the only one that isn't killed by the Inheritors.[citation needed]


In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea. He said the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, and the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.[16]:1 In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter the Spider as a great influence,[15]:130 and in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so often he has become unsure of whether or not this is true.[note 1] Although at the time teenage superheroes were usually given names ending with "boy", Lee says he chose "Spider-Man" because he wanted the character to age as the series progressed, and moreover felt the name "Spider-Boy" would have made the character sound inferior to other superheroes.[17] At that time Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval. In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections.[note 2] Goodman eventually agreed to a Spider-Man tryout in what Lee in numerous interviews recalled as what would be the final issue of the science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, which was renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15 (cover-dated August 1962, on sale June 5, 1962).[18] In particular, Lee stated that the fact that it had already been decided that Amazing Fantasy would be cancelled after issue #15 was the only reason Goodman allowed him to use Spider-Man.[17] While this was indeed the final issue, its editorial page anticipated the comic continuing and that "The Spiderman [sic] ... will appear every month in Amazing."[18][19]


In addition, because some meta-human criminals have the power to see through solid objects, Batman lines the cowl with lead to protect his identity. One of the cowl's ears carries a high-gain antenna for an internal comm-link on the left side of the cowl, allowing Batman to stay in contact with his allies. The comm-link can also scan police radios and other communication frequencies. It also carries an inertial navigation unit to keep him in balance when facing foes such as the Scarecrow or Count Vertigo.
On "In Darkness Dwells," it is shown that there's an infrared scope built within the cowl, along with a rebreather that can be folded within it. There's a wireless relay communicator in the cowl. Its signals are locked with quantum cryptology and bounced through a dozen different satellites (presumably the WayneComs). As per the animation styles, the suit varies between versions of the Batman Begins standard black suit and the Comic Book original.

Cosplay, a word of Japanese origin that in English is short for "costume play", is a performance art in which participants wear costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea that is usually always identified with a unique name (as opposed to a generic word). These costume wearers often interact to create a subculture centered on role play, so they can be seen most often in play groups, or at a gathering or convention. A significant number of these costumes are homemade and unique, and depend on the character, idea, or object the costume wearer is attempting to imitate or represent. The costumes themselves are often artistically judged to how well they represent the subject or object that the costume wearer is attempting to contrive.
Spider-Man's exposure to the mutated spider venom induced a mutagenic, cerebellum-wide alteration of his engrams resulting in the ability to mentally control the flux of inter-atomic attraction (electrostatic force) between molecular boundary layers. This overcomes the outer electron shell's normal behavior of mutual repulsion with other outer electron shells and permits the tremendous potential for electron attraction to prevail. The mentally controlled sub-atomic particle responsible for this has yet to be identified. This ability to affect the attraction between surfaces is so far limited to Spider-Man's body (especially concentrated in his hands and feet) and another object, with an upper limit of several tons per finger. Limits to this ability seem to be psychosomatic, and the full nature of this ability has yet to be established. Spider-man utilizes this ability in his locomotion across New-York, but also has the ability to use it offensively, in a manner resembling the Mark of Kaine. Spider-Man rarely uses this ability though, due to its brutal and disfiguring effects. It also works differently, ripping off layers of skin and muscle, rather than burning it as Kaine does via the HCL secreted through his palms.
“We are not asking to be coddled,” the open letter insists. “The real coddling is telling the privileged majority on campus that they do not have to engage with the brutal pasts that are a part of the costumes they seek to wear.” But no one asserted that students should not be questioned about offensive costumes––only that fellow Yale students, not meddling administrators, should do the questioning, conduct the conversations, and shape the norms for themselves.  “We simply ask that our existences not be invalidated on campus,” the letter says, catastrophizing.
The Post-Crisis version of the bodysuit is not constructed from simple fabric but from Kevlar thread and carbon nanotube fibers. This imparts it with a unique sheen and makes it heavily resistant to tearing. In addition, the suit also is constructed with a full body electric shock delivery system, which is also layered into the suit's fabric. The basic version of the Batsuit is insulated against electricity and is mildly fire resistant. Batman utilizes many different body armor designs, some of which are constructed into his Batsuits, and others which are separate. In its most basic version, the suit is bulletproof around the upper torso and back and can withstand a point-blank range blast from a 12-gauge shotgun. Other versions are entirely bulletproof to small arms fire and have advanced flexible armor plating made from Carbon composites and lightweight metal polymers.
In 1952, Osamu Tezuka's manga Tetsuwan Atom, more popularly known in the West as Astro Boy, was published. The series focused upon a robot boy built by a scientist to replace his deceased son. Being built from an incomplete robot originally intended for military purposes Astro Boy possessed amazing powers such as flight through thrusters in his feet and the incredible mechanical strength of his limbs.
Follow Spider-Man’s action-packed journey, from his struggle to harness the extraordinary gifts that will prove to be both blessing and curse, to his fight to save innocent lives while the media tears him to pieces. It all leads up to his ultimate battle high above New York streets, against the death-dealing madman known as the Green Goblin. While the city watches helplessly and countless lives hang in the balance, Spider-Man confronts his archnemesis, and the Goblin puts Spider-Man’s vow to fight crime to the ultimate test...
In parts of Britain, these customs came under attack during the Reformation as some Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatible with their notion of predestination. Thus, for some Nonconformist Protestants, the theology of All Hallows' Eve was redefined; without the doctrine of purgatory, "the returning souls cannot be journeying from Purgatory on their way to Heaven, as Catholics frequently believe and assert. Instead, the so-called ghosts are thought to be in actuality evil spirits. As such they are threatening."[101] Other Protestants maintained belief in an intermediate state, known as Hades (Bosom of Abraham),[107] and continued to observe the original customs, especially souling, candlelit processions and the ringing of church bells in memory of the dead.[71][108] Mark Donnelly, a professor of medieval archæology, and historian Daniel Diehl, with regard to the evil spirits, on Halloween, write that "barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effect of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveled the earth."[109] In the 19th century, in some rural parts of England, families gathered on hills on the night of All Hallows' Eve. One held a bunch of burning straw on a pitchfork while the rest knelt around him in a circle, praying for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames went out. This was known as teen'lay.[110] The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward, saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead, and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain, with the noteworthy exception of Scotland.[111] There and in Ireland, they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween since at least the early Middle Ages, and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic approach to Halloween, seeing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passage of communities and thus ensuring its survival in the country.[111]
Jump up ^ Hutton, Ronald (15 February 2001). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 369, 373. ISBN 9780191578427. Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony ... families still assembled at the midnight before All Saints' Day in the early nineteenth century. Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork. The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en. He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution, and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.
Enhanced Durability: Woven with durable fabric, Spider-Man's new suit is highly tear resistant, as seen when it received no damage after being dragged along the streets after a van, withstood the strain of Spider-Man holding the Staten Island Ferry together, and when it was unscathed by shards of shattered glass during the Rescue at the Washington Monument. In addition, the suit is waterproof, as showcased when the suit and its technological capabilities were unaffected despite being submerged in water.
The Dude. His Dudeness. El Duderino if you're not into the whole brevity thing. Whatever you want to call him, well, now you can be him when you go in one of our authentic The Big Lebowski costumes for men! Officially licensed by Paramount Pictures, we have exclusive designs that you're only going to find right here at HalloweenCostumes.com. A classic men's Halloween choice, when you go in this bathrobe costume, you're sure to feel like a much laid back individual. Just make sure you know how to whip up a killer White Russian!
Eerder dit jaar zeiden we het al: het chatbot-tijdperk neemt een vlucht in 2018. De typische vraag-antwoord-bots kennen we inmiddels allemaal. Maar de vraag is waar de kansen van AI liggen bij ‘complex’ klantcontact, bijvoorbeeld in geval van een klacht, technisch support of voor aankoopadvies. Consumenten willen veelal goed, snel en persoonlijk geholpen worden, maar welke rol...
All this is, I feel, a bit part of what feeds into making a hero a superhero in our minds - when they become larger than life, existing outside the boundaries that we normally exist in. Ironically, history in real life has probably seen more “super villains” than real super heroes; it’s much more tempting to human weakness and easier, to go outside the normal boundaries and cause harm or perform selfish acts. Many of the colorful supervillains from comic books, especially Batman’s rogue gallery of criminals, are not very far removed in some cases from the activities of real life villains who are epic in scope.
First, to the guy who said “Jesus” was a superhero. Jesus wasn’t a superhero, he was a human being who actually lived on earth. Superheros are fictional. Second, to the guy who said Gilgamesh was a superhero. Gilgamesh isn’t a superhero, he is an archtypal hero from mythology. A “superhero” is from a comic book, a “hero” is from mythology. You might say that comic books are just a modern form of mythology, but that is not true. Comic books are made for one reason; profit. They try to sell an entertaining story for money. Myths don’t. Myths served an important purpose in ancient times, they weren’t sold and they weren’t just for entertainment value.
Following decades of false starts and numerous unused scripts, Spider-Man finally made it to the big screen in the year 2000. Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007) comprised a trilogy of films starring Tobey Maguire as the title character, with Sam Raimi directing each installment. The trilogy featured a large host of characters from the comics, including Kirsten Dunst as Mary Jane Watson, James Franco as Harry Osborn, Willem Dafoe as Norman Osborn/Green Goblin, J.K. Simmons as J. Jonah Jameson, Alfred Molina as Otto Octavius/Doc Ock, Thomas Haden Church as Flint Marko/Sandman, Topher Grace as Eddie Brock/Venom, Rosemary Harris as Aunt May, Cliff Robertson as Uncle Ben, Dylan Baker as Dr. Curt Connors, Elizabeth Banks as Betty Brant and Bryce Dallas Howard as Gwen Stacy.

An African-American woman acting as the newest Captain Universe joins the Avengers[22] in the fight against Ex Nihilo, his sister Abyss, and the Builder named Aleph on Mars. Captain Universe vaporizes Aleph when he does not agree to stop transforming or destroying planets.[23] She is revealed to be Tamara Devoux, a woman who remained in a coma for ten years after a car crash. During a talk with Nightmask, she translates his language and announces that not only is the universe dying, but the White Event is coming.[24]
Indira "Indy" Daimonji (appeared in Spider-Man: The New Animated Series): She is Peter Parker's potential love interest and a rival of Mary Jane Watson. She works at a news network down in Manhattan. She is seriously injured by Spider-Man in the series finale when Spider-Man is tricked by the Gaines Twins into injuring Indy. This led to Peter giving up being Spider-Man

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“We are not asking to be coddled,” the open letter insists. “The real coddling is telling the privileged majority on campus that they do not have to engage with the brutal pasts that are a part of the costumes they seek to wear.” But no one asserted that students should not be questioned about offensive costumes––only that fellow Yale students, not meddling administrators, should do the questioning, conduct the conversations, and shape the norms for themselves.  “We simply ask that our existences not be invalidated on campus,” the letter says, catastrophizing.
Almost all the characters listed first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man with the exception of Kaine and Humbug first appearing in Web of Spider-Man. The Prowler is the oldest character appearing in The Amazing Spider-Man in the 1960s in the Silver Age. Many other anti-heroes were introduced in the 1970s in between the Silver Age and the Bronze Age while Humbug was introduced in the 1980s right around the start of the Modern Age. Kaine is the youngest debuted character while Cardiac is the second youngest. Both Kaine and Cardiac appeared around the 1990s.

As students saw it, their pain ought to have been the decisive factor in determining the acceptability of the Halloween email. They thought their request for an apology ought to have been sufficient to secure one. Who taught them that it is righteous to pillory faculty for failing to validate their feelings, as if disagreement is tantamount to disrespect? Their mindset is anti-diversity, anti-pluralism, and anti-tolerance, a seeming data-point in favor of April Kelly-Woessner’s provocative argument that “young people today are less politically tolerant than their parents’ generation.”

According to The Washington Post, “several students in Silliman said they cannot bear to live in the college anymore.” These are young people who live in safe, heated buildings with two Steinway grand pianos, an indoor basketball court, a courtyard with hammocks and picnic tables, a computer lab, a dance studio, a gym, a movie theater, a film-editing lab, billiard tables, an art gallery, and four music practice rooms. But they can’t bear this setting that millions of people would risk their lives to inhabit because one woman wrote an email that hurt their feelings?
A Captain Universe costume pack, such as the classic Captain Universe Spider-Man costume and a brand new ones for the three other playable Spider-Men (Noir, 2099 and Ultimate Symbiote) appeared in Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions as downloadable content in PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 for limited time until 2014's digital store removal, and a bonus exclusive to PC.[citation needed] The costume pack contain an exclusive charge attack to all Spider-Men, but weak against a certain bosses.
Captain Universe's history in the Earth X series was relatively the same as it had been on Earth-616 up until the Infinity Gauntlet Saga, where an unknown Captain Universe fought alongside Kismet, the Silver Surfer, Comet Man, Carol Danvers, Nova and Star-Lord. Years later Arcturus Rann died in a battle against the Psycho Man and took the Enigma Force with him to the afterlife. Captain Universe was transferred into the Kree superhero Mar-Vell and eventually became part of a completed Cosmic Conscience which revived the Perfect Knowledge of the Perfect Universe which had been destroyed countless millennia ago by The Celestials. Captain Universe later joined with Reed Richards to form the new Eternity. They were last seen preparing to save Franklin from The Celestials and The Elders of the Universe.
Jump up ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011. All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st October each year, and is the day before All Hallows' Day, also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself.
Steeds meer consumenten gebruiken social media als contactkanaal met organisaties. Ook HTM, de openbaar vervoerder uit regio Den Haag, ziet al jaren een gestage groei van klantcontact over kanalen als Facebook, Twitter en WhatsApp. Een groot deel hiervan werd al afgehandeld door klantcontactspecialist PCS, maar een chatbot biedt inmiddels de helpende hand. De door PCS en OBI4wan ontwikkelde tool heeft tot...
A martial art garb designed around the totem of the bat. While retraining his body after having his back restored by a mutant with healing powers and then going through physical therapy Bruce Wayne was given the Mask of Tengu by Lady Shiva as a substitute Bat-Uniform during the final stages of his retraining, before this, he wore a standard ninja outfit with a hood.
Want to match with your number-one gal? We've got both of you covered. She can be a mad doctor, and you can be the monster. You can be the hot dog, she can be the bun. There are kings and queens, doctors and nurses, Uncle Sam and the Statue of Liberty, vampire kings and temptresses of the night, duos of disco dancers, Mary the mother of Jesus and Joseph, Joker and Harley Quinn, Superman and Supergirl, Captain America and Black Widow, Han Solo and Princess Leia, his and hers twenties gangsters, cowboys and cowgirls, and a bevy of other couples looks – just browse and you're sure to find a few styles you both love!

Born to Richard and Mary Parker in Queens, New York, Peter Parker lost his parents at a very young age when their plane went down overseas while they were on a mission as government spies. He was raised by his aunt and uncle (May and Ben Parker) who, along with his teachers at Midtown High School, thought he had a bright future due to his affinity for science. However, Peter struggled with bullies and being teased for his introverted nature (sometimes referring to him as a "professional wallflower") and interest in science that pegged him as a teacher's pet.
According to Alfred J. Kolatch in the Second Jewish Book of Why, in Judaism, Halloween is not permitted by Jewish Halakha because it violates Leviticus 18:3, which forbids Jews from partaking in gentile customs. Many Jews observe Yizkor, which is equivalent to the observance of Allhallowtide in Christianity, as prayers are said for both "martyrs and for one's own family".[227] Nevertheless, many American Jews celebrate Halloween, disconnected from its Christian origins.[228] Reform Rabbi Jeffrey Goldwasser has said that "There is no religious reason why contemporary Jews should not celebrate Halloween" while Orthodox Rabbi Michael Broyde has argued against Jews observing the holiday.[229] Jews do have the Purim holiday, where the children dress up in costumes to celebrate.[230]
At one time, candy apples were commonly given to trick-or-treating children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States.[193] While there is evidence of such incidents,[194] relative to the degree of reporting of such cases, actual cases involving malicious acts are extremely rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy.[195]

From at least the 16th century,[64] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[65] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[66] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[67] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[68] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[65] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[64] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod.[65] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.[65]
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