Upgraded Web-Shooters: The suit came with Stark's version of Parker's original Web-Shooters. The Web-Shooters allow Spider-Man to display or project holographic information, from a Spider-Signal with the motif of his mask to the tracking coordinates of his Reconnaissance Drone and Spider-Tracers. The Web-Shooters are configurable to allow Spider-Man to use up to 576 different combinations of his synthetic webbing dialed through either hand gestures or voice commands, with the suit's HUD showing the different selections. The Web-Shooters can assemble themselves onto Parker's wrists and can be worn inconspicuously by retracting the trigger mechanism.

On top of his spider-given powers Peter is of genius level intelligence. It has even been stated that Peter scored as high on some of the same testing scores as Reed Richards did when he was Peter's age. He is especially gifted in the sciences such as mechanics, biology and physics. This has become particularly apparent during his time working at Horizon Labs, where he was able to create a device to drain Alpha of his powers in less than 24 hours.


After being defeated on two more occasions by Spider-Man, Doctor Octopus became more determined to defeat his foe and formed the Sinister Six, a group consisting of five other villains who all share the same grudge against the young hero. Ock had each villain face Spider-Man individually so that every member could reap the glory of Spider-Man's death, but he secretly devised this plan to ensure the other villains' defeat each time. After rendering Spider-Man tired, Otto lured him to a fight by kidnapping Aunt May and Betty Brant. Despite everything, Spider-Man came out victorious and saved the two hostages. On his high school graduation, Spider-Man battled the Molten Man, who would turn out to be the stepbrother of Liz Allen. During his early career, Spider-Man would frequently team up with other heroes such as Daredevil, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, and the Human Torch in particular. Peter and Betty broke up after her brother was killed. She couldn't bear the thought of losing another loved one as she feared that Peter would die while taking pictures of Spider-Man. She later settled in with Ned Leeds.
IKEA viert dit jaar zijn 75ste verjaardag. Als verjaardagscadeau boden we de Zweedse woongigant een interview in het septembernummer van ons magazine. Victoria van Keulen vertelt over hoe zij twee jaar geleden verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, waarna zij tot de schrikbarende ontdekking kwam dat het onderwerp weinig leefde. Voor haar dus het doel het thema concreet te maken en te vertalen. Hoe dat is gelukt? Dat lees je in de coverstory van dit nummer.
The Utility Belt is a specialized belt Batman wears to equip his crime-fighting gear. The utility belt is a modified climbing harness, with magnetized impact-resistant pouches, and canisters attached to the belt at ergonomic points for ease of reach. It carries a magnetic gas-powered grapple gun, an encrypted cell phone, Batarangs, a medical kit, smoke bombs, mini explosives, periscope, remote control for the Tumbler, mini-cam, money, and other unspecified equipment. Batman removed the belt's shoulder and chest straps because they constricted his movements.
During Grim Hunt, Peter is already weakened and exhausted from his "gauntlet". After a loud knocking at his apartment door and he opens it only to see his estranged clone Kaine, beaten and bloodied. Before passing out, Kaine reveals to Peter that the "Spiders" are being hunted. A loud explosion is heard nearby his apartment and Peter goes to check it out only to see Arachne fighting off Ana and Alyosha Kravinoff. Peter, being weakened by the swine flu, struggles to put up a fight and manages to impale Alyosha on a broken pipe, gaining him time to retrieve Arachne and to escape. After retreating to Mattie Franklin's apartment, they are approached by a dead Ezekiel. He then tells Spider-Man and Arachne that they have to save Arana from the clutches of the Kravinoff's. As they finally reach her, they become outnumbered and defeated and Arachne and Arana are captured. Kaine eventually arrives to help out but was too late to make a difference. He tries to warn Peter from following Ezekiel but Peter lashes out in anger and the two set off to find Kraven's base.
Both Spider-Men face off against Mysterio's Avatar. Miles blindly attacks, but due to his lack of combat experience and tactics, he is easily thrown back into Peter and both end up in the East River. Mysterio then deploys high-technology and a strong chemical in order to create the illusion that a mob of Spider-Man's enemies from both realities is attacking them. During the battle, Peter figures out the trick and demands Mysterio to return him to his home universe. Angered, Mysterio decides to instead strand Peter in a world where he is believed to be dead. The avatar self-destructs rendering Miles unconscious. He later wakes up to see that the Ultimates and Nick Fury are on the scene. While his version of Tony Stark begins to work on deciphering Mysterio's dimension technology, Miles asks where Peter went. Fury surmised that he went off to find out the truth about his alternate self. Peter decides to investigate on his own and goes to the location where his apartment in his home universe is supposed to be. He finds it to be converted into a store, and while posing some questions to the cashier, he stops an armed gunman who was attempting a robbery. He is shocked to find out that the Peter Parker of this other world had died in battle and that the city was still mourning his tragic end. It is also common knowledge that Peter Parker was Spider-Man. Distraught over the news, he swings over to Queens where the Parker Residence is currently up for sale. May Parker is seeing off Gwen Stacy to school. When they both see Peter in his costume, they believe he is some lunatic who is disrespecting the memory of the deceased Peter Parker and threaten to call the police. They become shocked beyond words as Peter unmasks himself with tears in his eyes.[5]
Bob mentioned the epic Ramayana, which is itself the story of a “superhero” — the god Rama, who does some pretty nifty stunts, along with his brother Lakshama and monkey hero side-kick Hanuman (my personal favorite). I think he’s probably right about Asia being the earliest origins of superheroism; Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religions and it’s full of larger-than-life men/gods who right wrongs and fight for truth and justice.
Here’s one of the ways that white men at Yale are most privileged of all: When a white male student at an elite college says that he feels disempowered, the first impulse of the campus left is to show him the extent of his power and privilege. When any other students say they feel disempowered, the campus left’s impulse is to validate their statements. This does a huge disservice to everyone except white male students. It’s baffling that so few campus activists seem to realize this drawback of emphasizing victim status even if college administrators sometimes treat it as currency.
Jump up ^ Portaro, Sam (25 January 1998). A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and Fasts. Cowley Publications. p. 199. ISBN 1461660513. All Saints' Day is the centerpiece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival celebrations of All Hallows' Eve our ancestors used the most powerful weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to confront the power of death. The following day, in the commemoration of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness embodied in remarkable deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy of darkness and devils. And in the commemoration of All Souls we proclaimed the hope of common mortality expressed in our aspirations and expectations of a shared eternity.

The items first appeared in the Very Scary Halloween Special event. They could be collected in the Eyeaduct map during the annual Haunted Halloween Special where a Haunted Halloween Gift would appear every five minutes on a server with 10 or more non-bot players. They were also available through the Mann Co. Store before November 8, 2011. Any gifts collected in the Underworld of Eyeaduct were awarded in the Haunted quality. Additionally, if the complete item set is worn, a special set effect could be applied.
Michele Gonzales: Michele is a criminal defense lawyer and the hot-tempered sister of Peter's roommate Vin Gonzales, as well his temporary roommate while Vin serves time for his involvement in the Spider-Tracer Killings frame-up (to which she got him a plea bargain[6]). When Michelle attempts to kick Peter out (who is actually the Chameleon in disguise) she is instead seduced by him and become infatuated with him.[7] She is almost constantly angry, and questioning her or drawing attention to the size of her buttocks really sets her off.[8] However, she is also a helpful and kind person, by trying hard to help her clients get their lives back on track. After pestering and bothering Peter tirelessly, she returned to her previous home in Chicago shortly after Vin's release.[9]
Jump up ^ Carter, Albert Howard; Petro, Jane Arbuckle (1998). Rising from the Flames: The Experience of the Severely Burned. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780812215175. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of devils who could move freely on that night. Fires lit on that night served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens for the future. Modern children go from house to house at Halloween with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns (perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lught bulb) glow from windows and porches.
With the reveal of Tom Holland’s Spider-Man in the Captain America: Civil War trailer, we wanted to go back and look at the many Spider-Man costumes over the years! Peter Parker being the thrifty science-nerd that he is, we can’t include every version of the wall crawler that has appeared in Marvel comics as some only make single issue appearances (though we did include some of those). Starting from Peter’s first appearance in Amazing Fantasy #15 to the Ultimate Spider-Man Miles Morales and every major version of the webslinger in-between, check out the gallery below for a look at the Spider-Man costumes.
In 1966, Marvel Comics introduced the Black Panther, an African monarch who became the first non-caricatured black superhero.[53] The first African-American superhero, the Falcon, followed in 1969, and three years later, Luke Cage, a self-styled "hero-for-hire", became the first black superhero to star in his own series. In 1989, the Monica Rambeau incarnation of Captain Marvel was the first female black superhero from a major publisher to get her own title in a special one-shot issue. In 1971, Red Wolf became the first Native American in the superheroic tradition to headline a series.[54] In 1973, Shang-Chi became the first prominent Asian superhero to star in an American comic book (Kato had been a secondary character of the Green Hornet media franchise series since its inception in the 1930s.[55]). Kitty Pryde, a member of the X-Men, was an openly Jewish superhero in mainstream American comic books as early as 1978.[56]
Dressing up in costumes and going "guising" was prevalent in Ireland and Scotland at Halloween by the late 19th century.[125] Costuming became popular for Halloween parties in the US in the early 20th century, as often for adults as for children. The first mass-produced Halloween costumes appeared in stores in the 1930s when trick-or-treating was becoming popular in the United States.
Karen: The suit has a built-in A.I. named Karen, similar to Tony Stark ’s F.R.I.D.A.Y., that informs Spider-Man on changing tactical situations and provides diagnostic reports. This feature was initially set to activate after Parker completed the Training Wheels Protocol, but Ned Leeds unlocked it with the rest of the suit's abilities. Karen records and stores data while the suit is in use through the Baby Monitor Protocol, allowing Spider-Man to access a personal database and review information he may have overlooked previously, or to research people or events he has previously encountered. Karen also provides suggestions and activates features autonomously, such as when she enabled the suit's 'Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode' when Parker needed help surveying a couple of criminals.

Tele’Train heeft opnieuw haar Cedeo-erkenning voor Maatwerk Bedrijfsopleidingen toegekend gekregen. Een onmisbare erkenning van onze opdrachtgevers, waar alle collega’s terecht heel trots op zijn.   Aan de hand van een diepgaand klanttevredenheidsonderzoek heeft Cedeo de maatwerktrainingen van Tele’Train beoordeeld. Met een score van 97,3% heeft Tele’Train wederom laten zien ruimschoots aan de gestelde criteria te...
furthermore, to my knowledge Superman did not at all debut in 1928 but rather in 1938. Detective Comics (the U.S.A.’s first widely distributed super-hero comic book printing house) started up with Batman in 1935, though this may have been in response to numerous small press releases of other Batman-ish books like The Phantom and other detective pulp in the couple of years previous.
We have all of the costumes, accessories and decorations that you, your friends and your family are looking for to make your celebration the best one yet. We offer a wide variety of categories, including men’s, women’s, girls’, boys’, men’s and women’s plus size, baby, accessories, decorations, and many more. There is truly something for everyone here—from sexy costumes to family-friendly ensembles—and we make it easy to find your fit by including size charts with each costume. We also understand that everyone’s budget is different, which is why we offer costumes, accessories and decorations in a wide variety of prices. We want to make sure that you love your costume, and we understand that fit and affordability are two of the most important factors when shopping online.
Spider-Man's plight was to be misunderstood and persecuted by the very public that he swore to protect. In the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man, J. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle, launches an editorial campaign against the "Spider-Man menace." The resulting negative publicity exacerbates popular suspicions about the mysterious Spider-Man and makes it impossible for him to earn any more money by performing. Eventually, the bad press leads the authorities to brand him an outlaw. Ironically, Peter finally lands a job as a photographer for Jameson's Daily Bugle.[9]:212
He’ll be ready for battle in his Silver Mirror Ninja costume, which includes a hood with mirror mask. This fierce garb will look amazing on any budding fighter. For extra fierceness, get him the Skull Dragon Ninja costume, so he can be even more intimidating and feel extra powerful. He can practice his ninja moves in the days leading up to October 31 so that when he makes his debut in front of his classmates or goes around the neighborhood he’s perfected his role for the day.
When Marvel approached Hasbro about the prospect of including Spider-Man in the third issue of the Generation 1 comic book, they initially turned the idea down, since Spider-Man was currently licensed to rival toy company Mattel for the Secret Wars toyline. Marvel convinced them to permit the appearance by putting Spidey in his black costume, whereas the Secret Wars toy was clad in his traditional red and blue, and therefore wouldn't be "advertised" by the comic.[4] This meant adding a footnote to the story explaining that it took place prior to the recent issue of Spidey's own title in which he ditched the black threads upon finding out they were a symbiote.
The Big Time story arc mainly deals with Peter's luck getting better after going through much turmoil. As Spider-Man, Peter has become a much more respected member of the Super-Hero community. Additionally, thanks to Marla Jameson, Peter has become a think tank scientist at Horizon Labs under the employ of known scientist Max Modell. Roderick Kingsley is murdered by a crazed Phil Urich who takes up the mantle of the Hobgoblin. He takes on the mission Kingpin initially assigned to Kingsley, which involved stealing a metal called reverbium from Horizon Labs. On Peter's first day at Horizon Labs, the lab is attacked by the new Hobgoblin who is using new weapons. After a fight with Spider-Man, Phil steals the reverbium and delivers it to Kingpin who allows Phil to work for him. Spider-Man designs himself a new Stealth Suit (Which has the ability to turn invisible.) to overcome Phil's Goblin Laugh which incapacitated him in their previous encounter. Along with the Black Cat, he attempts to take down Kingpin and Hobgoblin and steal back the reverbium. At Fisk Towers, Spider-Man and the Black Cat fight the Hobgoblin, Kingpin and his Hand Ninjas. The reverbium is destroyed along with Fisk Towers, and Hobgoblin and Kingpin escape. But despite everything, Peter is now living a life with his dignity intact. He now has a new girlfriend, a new apartment and a proud Aunt May and Jay Sr. Part 2 Alistair Smythe and his Spider-Slayers are back and taking aim at Mayor J. Jonah Jameson and his astronaut son John once again. Smythe returns Mac Gargan to his Scorpion identity and attacks the launch site where John is flying the Vertex shuttle into orbit which will meet up with a Horizon Labs space station. Spider-Man appears and web lines to a shuttle that just took off. Smythe has locked down the controls and rigged its booster rockets to explode before it leaves the atmosphere. To make matters worse, the evolved Scorpion appears to kill Spider-Man. But with secret help from Otto Octavius Spider-Man saves John. He gets help from the New Avengers in defending Jonah but Smythe sends his Insect Army after Jonah's loved ones. But Spidey and his friends cannot hurt the Insect Army, they can barely even touch them, as Smythe gave them their own spider-sense. Peter with the help from Max Modell creates the spider-sense disruptor. He is given the detonator and must be far from the center of the "explosion" or his sense might be also caught in in. But during the second fight against the Scorpion, Scorpion destroys the detonator, and Spider-Man must do it manually. And when he detonates it he is caught in the epicenter. The Insect Army has lost the spider-sense, but so has Spider-Man. After Spider-Man defeats the Scorpion, he goes to check on the others but Smythe suddenly appears and Spider-Man had not seen it coming due to not having spider-sense, but Marla Jameson did. She jumps right in front of Jonah, and saves him but scarifies her own life in the process. Spider-Man then defeats Smythe and for the first time, Jonah refuses to blame Spider-Man and blames himself instead.
Erika Christakis was questioning that practice when she composed her email, adding nuance to a conversation that some students were already having. Traditionally, she began, Halloween is both a day of subversion for young people and a time when adults exert their control over their behavior: from bygone, overblown fears about candy spiked with poison or razorblades to a more recent aversion to the sugar in candy.
Following the death of Ben Parker, Peter, and May faced a great deal of financial difficulties. With Aunt May being rather weak, Peter decided to become the breadwinner of the household, despite Aunt May asking that Peter instead focus on his studies. Peter considered using his Spider-Man identity for crime but decided against it, both for moral reasons, but also because he knew it would hurt Aunt May if he went to prison.
Mockingbird a.k.a. Barbara "Bobbi" Morse: As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel, Bobbi is S.H.I.E.L.D.'s liaison with Parker Industries. She and Peter build a relationship slowly, with he providing her a new costume and working together to defeat Norman Osborn in Symkaria. After Peter shut down Parker Industries to stop Hydra from using his company for their own devices, she learns of his secret identity and allows him to stay at her apartment. After having stopping crime together to help Peter's self-esteem, they share a wonderful kiss. Peter lives in her apartment while recovering from the dismantling of Parker Industries. They end their relationship after realizing that outside of work and crime fighting, they don't have anything in common.
From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a black costume with a white spider design on his chest. The new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains.[65] He continues wearing the costume when he returns, starting in The Amazing Spider-Man #252. The change to a longstanding character's design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman."[66] The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject after a difficult struggle,[67] though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge.[49]
As different artists have taken over the responsibility of drawing the character, the details of the suit have changed considerably. The original incarnation of the cape was a wing-like structure inspired by drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. This eventually evolved into a more cape-like design of varying length. Some artists draw the cape with protrusions on the shoulders, likely representing the "thumb" part of a bat's wing, though this is not a consistent addition. The cape is occasionally depicted as bulletproof.The cape varies according to the current writer, sometimes being depicted as bulletproof and fire resistant, and other times being nothing more than simple fabric that tears easily and sustains constant damage and is continuously replaced.
We all know zombies are sick. But in the case of this Zombie Sk8r Child Costume, "sick" is a good thing! They'll have more steeze than any other dude at the skate park. And he or she be just waiting for everyone else to bail. Which let’s face it, they are sure to do because, being alone at night in a skate park, with a zombie is just a bit sketchy.

“This year, we seem afraid that college students are unable to decide how to dress themselves on Halloween,” she wrote. “I don’t wish to trivialize genuine concerns about cultural and personal representation, and other challenges to our lived experience in a plural community. I know that many decent people have proposed guidelines on Halloween costumes from a spirit of avoiding hurt and offense. I laud those goals, in theory, as most of us do. But in practice, I wonder if we should reflect more transparently, as a community, on the consequences of an institutional (bureaucratic and administrative) exercise of implied control over college students.”
The true identity of this Captain Universe was never revealed but the host had more than likely had the Uni-Power for several years. During the battle that ensued between the Law Enforcement Squad and the Fantastic Four; Captain Universe and Dr. Druid ganged up on Reed Richards in order to destabilize the Fantastic Four's cohesion as a team. With only seconds to spare, Reed convinces Captain Universe that something is out of place and that the Fantastic Four are not his enemies. Captain Universe reveals to Druid that Reed is telling the truth, but before he can convince the others to stop fighting, he is struck down by Nova.
The suit is derived from Lucius Fox's Research and Development program, within Wayne Enterprises' Applied Sciences Division. It is described by Fox as a "Nomex survival suit" originally intended for advanced military use, but, with its $300,000 price tag, was considered to be too expensive for the United States Army and military in general. Based on an advanced infantry armor system constructed from Nomex, the first layer of protection is an undersuit with built-in temperature regulators designed to keep the wearer at a comfortable temperature in almost any condition. The second layer of protection consists of armor built over the chest, calves, thighs, arms, and back. This armor features a kevlar bi-weave that can stop slashing weapons and can also deflect any bullet short of a straight shot impact, and reinforced joints that allow maximum flexibility and mobility.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.

Gamers spend so much time immersed in the joy of entering another world that Halloween is a wonderful chance to take that love of gaming offline. Your son can take his pick of anything from World of Warcraft costumes to Halo, Donkey Kong and Five Nights at Freddy’s. Defend your homeland when dressing in an awesome Overwatch costume. Going trick-or-treating as Mercy, D.Va, Reaper, or even Solider: 76 will have you more than ready to become the world’s newest hero. Whether he’s dressing up on his own or joining his friends in group costumes for trick or treating, these boys gaming costumes are a wonderful way for him to show off his gamer favorites for Halloween 2018.
To fight the deranged villain known as Massacre, Peter built himself a dark colored bulletproof armored costume that deflects bullets, and equipped himself with magnetic webbing that can be used to disable the radio frequencies of Massacre's charges. It is also lightweight, but needs to recharge after a certain period of usage. Peter has also incorporated the technology in improving road safety.
For her trouble, a faction of students are now trying to get the couple removed from their residential positions, which is to say, censured and ousted from their home on campus. Hundreds of Yale students are attacking them, some with hateful insults, shouted epithets, and a campaign of public shaming. In doing so, they have shown an illiberal streak that flows from flaws in their well-intentioned ideology.

Follow Spider-Man’s action-packed journey, from his struggle to harness the extraordinary gifts that will prove to be both blessing and curse, to his fight to save innocent lives while the media tears him to pieces. It all leads up to his ultimate battle high above New York streets, against the death-dealing madman known as the Green Goblin. While the city watches helplessly and countless lives hang in the balance, Spider-Man confronts his archnemesis, and the Goblin puts Spider-Man’s vow to fight crime to the ultimate test...
As Jobs explains, object-oriented programming allows programmers to use code written by other coders without having to know all of the details of the code. This is a vital feature for writing large pieces of software and making software-based products like search engines, apps, social media site, and more. Object-oriented code essentially sets up an agreement between the program and the computer: “If you give me these inputs, I will give you this output.” This allows for easy modular and collaborative programming.
The Post-Crisis version of the bodysuit is not constructed from simple fabric but from Kevlar thread and carbon nanotube fibers. This imparts it with a unique sheen and makes it heavily resistant to tearing. In addition, the suit also is constructed with a full body electric shock delivery system, which is also layered into the suit's fabric. The basic version of the Batsuit is insulated against electricity and is mildly fire resistant. Batman utilizes many different body armor designs, some of which are constructed into his Batsuits, and others which are separate. In its most basic version, the suit is bulletproof around the upper torso and back and can withstand a point-blank range blast from a 12-gauge shotgun. Other versions are entirely bulletproof to small arms fire and have advanced flexible armor plating made from Carbon composites and lightweight metal polymers.
Though only a few classes are available to the player at the start of the game, a total of twelve classes can be unlocked altogether, and the player has the option of occasionally changing their class or eventually being able to dual-class or further. Abilities can be upgraded individually, allowing the player to establish a custom, one-of-a-kind hero unlike any other that fits their playing style.
During Grim Hunt, Peter is already weakened and exhausted from his "gauntlet". After a loud knocking at his apartment door and he opens it only to see his estranged clone Kaine, beaten and bloodied. Before passing out, Kaine reveals to Peter that the "Spiders" are being hunted. A loud explosion is heard nearby his apartment and Peter goes to check it out only to see Arachne fighting off Ana and Alyosha Kravinoff. Peter, being weakened by the swine flu, struggles to put up a fight and manages to impale Alyosha on a broken pipe, gaining him time to retrieve Arachne and to escape. After retreating to Mattie Franklin's apartment, they are approached by a dead Ezekiel. He then tells Spider-Man and Arachne that they have to save Arana from the clutches of the Kravinoff's. As they finally reach her, they become outnumbered and defeated and Arachne and Arana are captured. Kaine eventually arrives to help out but was too late to make a difference. He tries to warn Peter from following Ezekiel but Peter lashes out in anger and the two set off to find Kraven's base.
By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing church bells for the souls in purgatory. In addition, "it was customary for criers dressed in black to parade the streets, ringing a bell of mournful sound and calling on all good Christians to remember the poor souls."[82] "Souling", the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls,[83] has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating.[84] The custom dates back at least as far as the 15th century[85] and was found in parts of England, Flanders, Germany and Austria.[55] Groups of poor people, often children, would go door-to-door during Allhallowtide, collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead, especially the souls of the givers' friends and relatives.[85][86][87] Soul cakes would also be offered for the souls themselves to eat,[55] or the 'soulers' would act as their representatives.[88] As with the Lenten tradition of hot cross buns, Allhallowtide soul cakes were often marked with a cross, indicating that they were baked as alms.[89] Shakespeare mentions souling in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[90] On the custom of wearing costumes, Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognized by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[91]
×