The word Halloween or Hallowe'en dates to about 1745 and is of Christian origin. The word "Hallowe'en" means "hallowed evening" or "holy evening". It comes from a Scottish term for All Hallows' Eve (the evening before All Hallows' Day). In Scots, the word "eve" is even, and this is contracted to e'en or een. Over time, (All) Hallow(s) E(v)en evolved into Hallowe'en. Although the phrase "All Hallows'" is found in Old English "All Hallows' Eve" is itself not seen until 1556.
George Marston of Newsarama explaining why he felt that Spider-Man rogues gallery was the best was the thematic elements that the villains of Spider-Man manifested. He explained that just like the superhero they have the same concept of science gone wrong. They are "like him, great men with great minds, great power, and great determination." But instead they fail to use their powers responsibly. Separating the thin line between being a hero from being a villain.
One of the newest bearded gents to hit the superhero scene is Jason Momoa's Aquaman! With just a glimpse of the character in 2016's Batman V Superman, he's going full bore in the Justice League movie. So, now would be the perfect time to showcase both your scruffy beard and your swimming prowess! Add a wig along with your own long beard when you go in this jumpsuit to get the perfect DC Comics look.
Following Davis's lead, Spider-Man sneaked into the ferry and went looking for the Vulture. During his scouting, Stark called him, but Spider-Man hung up on him to focus on his targets. Spider-Man interrupted the deal and defeated Vulture's gang and Mac Gargan, but the FBI interrupted Spider-Man's ambush and proceeded to arrest everyone at the scene.
American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first book-length history of Halloween in the US; The Book of Hallowe'en (1919), and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America". In her book, Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic; "Americans have fostered them, and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. All Halloween customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries".
Upgraded Web-Shooters: The suit came with Stark's version of Parker's original Web-Shooters. The Web-Shooters allow Spider-Man to display or project holographic information, from a Spider-Signal with the motif of his mask to the tracking coordinates of his Reconnaissance Drone and Spider-Tracers. The Web-Shooters are configurable to allow Spider-Man to use up to 576 different combinations of his synthetic webbing dialed through either hand gestures or voice commands, with the suit's HUD showing the different selections. The Web-Shooters can assemble themselves onto Parker's wrists and can be worn inconspicuously by retracting the trigger mechanism.
In an early recollection of the character's creation, Ditko described his and Lee's contributions in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965): "Stan Lee thought the name up. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal." At the time, Ditko shared a Manhattan studio with noted fetish artist Eric Stanton, an art-school classmate who, in a 1988 interview with Theakston, recalled that although his contribution to Spider-Man was "almost nil", he and Ditko had "worked on storyboards together and I added a few ideas. But the whole thing was created by Steve on his own... I think I added the business about the webs coming out of his hands.":14
Raimi was also initially slated to direct a fourth Spider-Man film, with a release date of May 6, 2011. The ill-fated movie was intended to continue with the same cast and crew with plot-lines established in the first three films. Disagreement between Raimi and producers Laura Ziskin and Avi Arad over the script -- and over the choice of villains in particular -- as well as concerns with the rising cost of production (Raimi and series star Tobey Maguire would have claimed a large portion of any film royalties) led to a cancellation of that film's production. Instead, the Sony owned Columbia Pictures decided on a reboot of the franchise.
Simon concurred that Kirby had shown the original Spider-Man version to Lee, who liked the idea and assigned Kirby to draw sample pages of the new character but disliked the results—in Simon's description, "Captain America with cobwebs".[note 5] Writer Mark Evanier notes that Lee's reasoning that Kirby's character was too heroic seems unlikely—Kirby still drew the covers for Amazing Fantasy #15 and the first issue of The Amazing Spider-Man. Evanier also disputes Kirby's given reason that he was "too busy" to draw Spider-Man in addition to his other duties since Kirby was, said Evanier, "always busy".:127 Neither Lee's nor Kirby's explanation explains why key story elements like the magic ring were dropped; Evanier states that the most plausible explanation for the sudden change was that Goodman, or one of his assistants, decided that Spider-Man, as drawn and envisioned by Kirby, was too similar to the Fly.:127
Christian Bale found the original Batsuit to be very uncomfortable and restrictive, as it was still very much derived from the standard WB batsuits of the past first established by Michael Keaton, with little improvement. The "bat suit wrangler", Day Murch from the 90's films was brought on to assist Bale and stuntmen like Buster Reeves. From Christopher Nolan's point of view, he was dissatisfied with the appearance of the foam rubber cowl, within the fiction it supposed to be made of a solid graphite material. For these reasons, Bruce's desire for a new costume in the movies was put into the story.
The radioactive, complex mutagenic enzymes in the spider's blood that were transferred at the time of the bite triggered numerous body-wide mutagenic changes within Parker, granting him superhuman strength, speed, toughened flesh, and numerous arachnid-like abilities. Like many superhuman powers, the effectiveness of Spider-Man's abilities varies based on the author and the needs of the story.
With help from the Invisible Woman and some of her husband's technology, Spider-Man kidnaps and imprisons Mac Gargan, (they ambushed him in an alleyway, caught him in an invisible force-field, all while Bullseye picks and eats a bogey) then poses as him to infiltrate Avengers Tower, donning a special suit made by Reed Richards, allowing him to appear as Mac Gargan with the Venom symbiote. Norman has revealed a nefarious plot to his Avengers involving his son Harry entitled "American Son". While alone, Spider-Man was ambushed by Daken, who claims that Peter smells too clean for Gargan. Daken attacks and uses his pheromones to shut down Peter's senses, however Peter focuses on his spider-sense alone, and eventually defeats Daken by throwing him into an electrical machine that electrocutes and knocks out Daken. However, Harry reveals Spider-Man's disguise in front of Osborn's Avengers,(even though Norman had known it all along, and only wanted to ensure he had his son's trust) and he was held captive and tortured by Bullseye. Identity intact thanks to his unstabilized mask, he escaped (subduing Norman and Bullseye in succession out of anger). Unfortunately Spider-Man was weakened by captivity, saved from Norman by a guilt-ridden and angry Harry, who now knew the truth about his father's relationship with Lily Hollister (Harry's girlfriend,) and began using the American Son Armor to beat up Norman. Peter watched the Osborns fight until Menace became involved, whom he incapacitated. With Harry victorious, Spider-Man convinced him not to kill Norman as it was exactly what the madman wanted.
Janine Godbe a.k.a. Elizabeth Tyne The one great love of Ben's life. Ben found out Janine was living under an assumed name after she murdered the father who molested her. Ben confided in Janine that he was a clone of Spider-Man. Later Kaine forced Janine to fake her death to hurt Ben. Janine later turned herself into the police for killing her father. In the MC2 universe Darkdevil is Ben and Janine's son.
Spider-man meets a strange individual named Ezekiel, whom knows that he is truly Peter Parker, and warns him of a powerful enemy whom will try to kill him, known as Morlun. Peter follows Ezekiel and tries to find out why he knows so much about him. Ezekiel tells Spider-man that he is part of a "Spider-Totem", witch is why his enemies all are animals as well (Rhino, Lizard, Doctor Octopus, Vulture). Spider-man does not care much about these strange stories, but is happy with the help that Ezekiel provides when he finally encounters Morlun. He barely defeats Morlun, and struggles back home after the fight. He lands on his bed, with a torn-up Spider-man costume and falls asleep. It is at this time that aunt May enters the room and sees Peter as Spider-Man. The secret is finally out! Aunt May walks away and uses a full day to comprehend the facts before she finally confronts Peter with it. Peter tried to talk his way out of it, but finally sees that it is no use and then told his aunt May about why he became Spider-Man. It was during this time that Peter and Mary-Jane again renewed their relationship and their marriage-vows. Marry-Jane returned to live with Peter and the two where a happy couple once more.
Secret Identity Male Characters Clones Single Characters Hazel Eyes Brown Hair Earth-616 Characters J.M. DeMatteis/Creator Mark Bagley/Creator Characters Living Characters Modern-Age Characters 1995 Character Debuts Power Grid Added Power Grid Complete Gifted Intelligence Superhuman (800 lbs-25 ton) Strength Superhuman Speed Regenerative Durability No Energy Projection Fighting Ability - Experienced fighter Clones Created By Miles Warren Shapeshifters Strength Class 10 Wallcrawling Superhuman Durability Leaping Killed by Kaine Human/Spider Hybrids Clones of Peter Parker Precogs Stretching Density Manipulation Cellular Degeneration Regeneration
In keeping with their origins as representing the archetypical hero stock character in 1930s American comics, superheroes are predominantly depicted as white Anglo-Saxon American middle- or upper-class heterosexual young adult males who are typically tall, athletic, educated, physically attractive and in perfect health. Beginning in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States, and increasingly with the rising concern over political correctness in the 1980s, superhero fiction centered on cultural, ethnic, national, racial and language minority groups (from the perspective of US demographics) began to be produced. This began with depiction of black superheroes in the 1960s, followed in the 1970s with a number of other ethnic superheroes. In keeping with the political mood of the time, cultural diversity and inclusivism would be an important part of superhero groups starting from the 1980s. In the 1990s, this was further augmented by the first depictions of superheroes as homosexual. In 2017, Sign Gene emerged, the first group of deaf superheroes with superpowers through the use of sign language.
Since the school's decathlon team were heading to Washington, D.C. for the national tournament, Parker rejoined the team. Once the decathlon team arrived, Parker prepared to pursue the Vulture's gang once more. While removing the tracker from his suit, Leeds learned that the Training Wheels Protocol monitored his suit. Eager to prove himself to Tony Stark, Parker convinced Leeds to disable the protocol before pursuing the criminals.
Spider-Man has become Marvel's flagship character and has often been used as the company mascot. When Marvel became the first comic book company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1991, the Wall Street Journal announced "Spider-Man is coming to Wall Street"; the event was in turn promoted with an actor in a Spider-Man costume accompanying Stan Lee to the Stock Exchange.:254 Since 1962, hundreds of millions of comics featuring the character have been sold around the world. Spider-Man is the world's most profitable superhero. In 2014, global retail sales of licensed products related to Spider-Man reached approximately $1.3 billion. Comparatively, this amount exceeds the global licensing revenue of Batman, Superman, and the Avengers combined.
Anthony "Henry" Harper (appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man, voiced by David Lodge): Nothing much is known about District Attorney Henry Harper's past. In one side-mission in the game, he is kidnapped by Iguana and is dragged into the sewers through the train docking station. After saving a civilian, Spider-Man learns that Harper was a pawn for Oscorp. After Spider-Man defeats Iguana, Harper is rescued and he escapes out of the sewers. Sometime before the events of the game, Harper had focused on exposing Quest Aerospace's evil schemes after he successfully prosecuted some of the city's most notorious criminals. The corrupt corporation lost millions of dollars to Harper, but they fired back when they had evidence of funds contributed to the D.A.'s reelection campaign were sourced by Oscorp Industries. These allegations were never revealed, but Harper's reputation was severely damaged in the eyes of many citizens. He is not seen in The Amazing Spider-Man 2, but he is mentioned when Spider-Man tells the Shocker that he could get into protective custody in exchange for telling Harper about the gang war.
In 2008, Art Asylum/Diamond Select Toys released their 24th set of Marvel Minimates figures which included Captain Universe/Cosmic Spider-Man. The figure came bundled in a two-pack with a Venom figure. It featured a removable mask and the face of a very determined-looking and angry Peter Parker with a non-removable reused hairpiece from Set 18's "Black Unmasked Spidey" figure.
Jump up ^ Simon, Joe, with Jim Simon. The Comic Book Makers (Crestwood/II, 1990) ISBN 1-887591-35-4. "There were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all. ... Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman, Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story. Kirby... using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter... revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe. He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. Kirby had him turn into... Captain America with cobwebs. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who... ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles... and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider. ... Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added".
The modern imagery of Halloween comes from many sources, including Christian eschatology, national customs, works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy). Imagery of the skull, a reference to Golgotha in the Christian tradition, serves as "a reminder of death and the transitory quality of human life" and is consequently found in memento mori and vanitas compositions; skulls have therefore been commonplace in Halloween, which touches on this theme. Traditionally, the back walls of churches are "decorated with a depiction of the Last Judgment, complete with graves opening and the dead rising, with a heaven filled with angels and a hell filled with devils", a motif that has permeated the observance of this triduum. One of the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne, who, in 1780, made note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts), influencing Robert Burns' "Halloween" (1785). Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks, and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. Halloween imagery includes themes of death, evil, and mythical monsters. Black, orange, and sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors.
These are not mere mortals but they are blessed with divine gifts. They were often agents of change bringing culture, social change or advancement to a civilization. Their stories were more than just historical lessons - there was an element of religion and cult worship. I would argue that they are part of the archetype of the superhero - even if they are foreign to our current definition.
Spider-Man once again featured as a playable fighter in the 2011 release of Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds and its updated release of Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 and versions of the game would be released on the PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita and Xbox 360. October 2011 also saw the release of the next Spider-Man video game adventure with Spider-Man: Edge of Time, developed by Activision and Beenox, the latter being given free reign after the success of Shattered Dimensions, which bears a similar gameplay concept. The game involves Peter Parker and his future counterpart Miguel O'Hara. New villain created for the game, Walker Sloan, has created a time machine in order to go back in time and start Alchemex, the company which Miguel works for, now was established in his own views in the seventies. Miguel proceeds to stop him but is caught in the portal after Sloan has entered and somehow becomes a "viewer" in the events. This gives him the ability to communicate with Peter Parker, who now works for Alechemex in this time altered universe, and everything he does directly affects the year 2099. Both briefly navigate their own timelines until circumstances force them to switch, now residing in timelines alien to them they traverse obstacles in order to get home through the temporal portal and solve the dystopian effects of the timeline corruption. The two work together to prevent Peter's death at the hands of Anti-Venom, save Mary Jane from multiple danger, and even take on the CEO of Alchemex. Currently Beenox has been given rights to the creation of all future Spider-Man games.
Following the "reboot", Parker's identity was no longer known to the general public; however, he revealed it to other superheroes. and others have deduced it. Parker's Aunt May marries J. Jonah Jameson's father, Jay Jameson. Parker became an employee of the think-tank Horizon Labs. In issue #700, the dying supervillain Doctor Octopus swaps bodies with Parker, who remains as a presence in Doctor Octopus's mind, prompting a two-year storyline in the series The Superior Spider-Man in which Peter Parker is absent and Doctor Octopus is Spider-Man. Peter eventually regains control of his body. Following Peter Parker's return, The Amazing Spider-Man was relaunched in April 2014, with Peter Parker becoming a billionaire after the formation of Parker Industries. In December 2014, following the Death of Wolverine comic book, Spider-Man became the new headmaster of the Jean Grey School and began appearing more prominently in X-Men stories, taking Wolverine's role in the comic Wolverine and the X-Men.
Monty Walsh Montgomery Walsh Marvel Spotlight Vol. 2 #11 (1981) A cat burglar. He became Captain Universe after he was shot when trying to rob the house of a former Maggia boss named Guido Carboni. After Montgomery defeated Guido Carboni, the Enigma Power left him as Montgomery dies and the police find Guido raving that the dead man was Captain Universe.
In 2005, after a four-year break from comic appearances, Captain Universe returned in the second series of Amazing Fantasy. Also in 2005, a series of one-shot specials linked together by the Uni-Power/Captain Universe were released featuring different characters from the Marvel Universe as the Uni-Power each imbues them with power of Captain Universe. These titles were Captain Universe/Hulk, Captain Universe/Daredevil, Captain Universe/X-23, Captain Universe/Invisible Woman and Captain Universe/Silver Surfer. The Uni-Power made a brief appearance in Nextwave, he also made a "cameo" as Cosmic Spider-Man for the variant cover of Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #3 and played an important part in the Death's Head 3.0 saga chronicled in Amazing Fantasy.
Spider-Man Noir or just Spider-Man (Peter Parker) is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. This alternate version of Spider-Man is a darker take on Spider-Man and the mythos is set in 1933 – during the Great Depression and is a part of the Marvel Noir universe. An inexperienced but idealistic apprentice of a respected yet troubled reporter, Peter Parker is accidentally bitten by an illegally imported and highly-venomous spider, while secretly investigating a smuggling ring of ancient spider statues. Instead of killing him, the bite gave him super-human abilities, similar to that of a spider. Taking advantage of his new abilities, Parker begins to wage a one-man war against the criminal underworld in New York City as a brutal and feared vigilante, known as the "Spider-Man", partly to avenge the deaths of his uncle Ben Parker and his mentor: Ben Urich, at the hands of the city's major crime lord: Norman Osborn.
In the second volume of Spider-Verse set during the Secret Wars event, Spider-Man Noir found himself in the domain of the Battleworld called Arachnia, where he found and observed Spider-Gwen, Spider-Ham, Spider-Man: India, Spider-UK, and Anya Corazon (neither of them remembering their previous encounter during the original Spider-Verse), though he chose not to reveal himself to them until they crashed into one of his operations.
If you want to make your Halloween costume something no one will ever be able to forget, add some incredible accessories! There are lots of different ways to add to your style. If you're dressed as a superhero, get weapons, gloves, boot tops, capes, and masks. If you're getting ready to battle the Sith as a powerful Jedi, or want to try the Kessel run as a smooth-talking smuggler, you can get lightsabers, blaster pistols, and helmets. There are lots of generic items you can use for almost any look, like solid-color capes, skin suits, hats, and boots, to help you create a look all your own.
A few days after amazing crowds numerous times, Peter was walking home when he saw a police car in front of his house. Wondering what was going on he asked the policeman what happened. He was shocked when he was told that his Uncle Ben was murdered by a burglar attempting to steal from the Parkers. Ben was shot after attempting to stop him, dying almost instantly. Furious, Peter donned his costume and set out for vengeance. Tracking the murderer to an abandoned warehouse, Spidey confronted the criminal, knocking out the man with one punch. When he looked at the fugitive's face he realized this burglar was the guy the security guard was chasing at the TV set! With his uncle paying the ultimate price for his inaction and indifference, he found out with great power comes great responsibility. From then on, Peter decided to use his newfound powers not for personal gain, but to fight crime and protect the innocent.
Jump up ^ Ditko, Steve (2000). Roy Thomas, ed. Alter Ego: The Comic Book Artist Collection. TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 1-893905-06-3. "'Stan said a new Marvel hero would be introduced in #15 [of what became titled Amazing Fantasy]. He would be called Spider-Man. Jack would do the penciling and I was to ink the character.' At this point still, Stan said Spider-Man would be a teenager with a magic ring which could transform him into an adult hero—Spider-Man. I said it sounded like the Fly, which Joe Simon had done for Archie Comics. Stan called Jack about it but I don't know what was discussed. I never talked to Jack about Spider-Man... Later, at some point, I was given the job of drawing Spider-Man'".
Anyone ever read “Monkey”? It is a translation of “Journey to The West”, a 16th Century folk tale of Sun Wukong, the Monkey King accompanying the Monk XuanZang to India to retrieve the Ramayana. This translation presents the folk tale as the fantasy it was undoubtedly intended to be. Sun Wukong is presented as a superhero in this telling. It makes for a great read because this author bolied the translation down into a pulp tale.
American Upper Midwest, Pacific Northwest, the northern portions of the Great Lakes Basin, and Maine – Due to the cold weather, the garb in rural areas tends to more closely adhere to heavier materials, such as flannel or Buffalo plaid mackinaw jackets, the occasional parka, and trapper hat. A good example is seen in the typical attire of Paul Bunyan, a folk hero popular in areas where logging was a common occupation, as well as lumberjacks working in the area.
Regardless of his handicap, Peter returned to the role of Spider-Man several times. Once was to aid his daughter and Darkdevil, the son of Ben Reilly, against Kaine, another to convince the latest Spider-Man (the son of Jessica Drew), to cease risking his life, and in the 100th issue of the Spider-Girl title to save May from the Hobgoblin. Peter and MJ ultimately have a second child, Benjamin "Benjy" Parker Jr, who is temporarily rendered deaf after possession by the Carnage symbiote and being blasted with high-frequency sonics. Benjy later develops powers of his own at an infant age.[volume & issue needed] Peter was killed by Daemos, the brother of Morlun, during the Spider-Verse event while trying to protect Benjy and Mayday.
If your son is the type who wants to put part of his costume together himself, he can explore our Halloween accessories to customize his ensemble and make it his own. For younger boys, they can go for a cuddly costume like Mr. Peabody. Or if he’s looking to dress up with his best friend or sibling, he can opt for a group costume such as panda hoodies or superhero friends or enemies. You can sort by types of costumes if he knows he wants a humorous outfit or prefers to go fully into spooky territory.
With world-altering research to support, graduates who assume positions of extraordinary power, and a $24.9 billion endowment to marshal for better or worse, Yale administrators face huge opportunity costs as they parcel out their days. Many hours must be spent looking after undergraduates, who experience problems as serious as clinical depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, and sexual assault. Administrators also help others, who struggle with financial stress or being the first in their families to attend college.
On The Batman vs. Dracula, Batman briefly extended the design of his utility belt to his shoulders and chest for carrying a vast number of vampire-fighting gadgetry such as garlic bombs and vials of vaccine made to counteract a vampiric virus spread from the vampire lord Count Vlad Dracula. The extension of the belt would also create a shape of a cross, which also commonly known able to ward off the creatures.
After the war, Peter remains a fugitive and his Aunt May is shot by a sniper hired by the Kingpin. Peter finds himself in a place he has never been before. He dons his black costume and goes on a rampage to find his aunt's shooter. May has fallen into a coma and is in critical condition. Eventually Peter discovers that the Kingpin is the man responsible and tracks the crime-lord to Riker's Island Prison. He savagely beats Fisk to a bloody pulp but decides to leave him with his humiliating defeat as it's worse than death for Fisk. Peter warns the other inmates to stay away from his family and tells Fisk that when May dies, Peter will come back and finish him. Since Spider-Man is a fugitive, he is unable to get proper help for May and is forced to commit felonies to try and save her, before realizing that he has finally become what he has spent his life fighting, a criminal.
 Researchers conducted a survey for the National Retail Federation in the United States and found that 53.3 percent of consumers planned to buy a costume for Halloween 2005, spending $38.11 on average (up $10 from the year before). They were also expected to spend $4.96 billion in 2006, up significantly from just $3.3 billion the previous year. The troubled economy has caused many Americans to cut back on Halloween spending. In 2009, the National Retail Federation anticipated that American households would decrease Halloween spending by as much as 15% to $56.31. In 2013, Americans spent an estimated $6.9 billion to celebrate Halloween, including a predicted $2.6 billion on costumes (with more spent on adult costumes than for children's costumes) and $330 million on pet costumes. In 2017 it was estimated that Americans would spend $9.1 billion on Halloween merchandise with $3.4 billion of that being on spend on Halloween costumes.