We also have plenty of bad guy costumes, so if he wants to dress up as Thanos from Avengers: Infinity War, in a padded shirt plus gauntlet, mask and pants with boot covers, he can. These detailed superhero costumes for boys will make him feel totally powerful. Whether he’s setting out on his own or wants to form a group costume with his friends, such as the Power Rangers Ninja Steel, our superhero costumes fit boys of all ages. From Batman to Guardians of the Galaxy to Big Hero 6, plus many more, Spirit is here to give your son a truly heroic Halloween!
Here, you’ll find all of the latest and greatest costumes, including officially licensed offerings like Black Panther, Wonder Woman, Disney princesses, Batman, PJ Masks, Star Wars, Harley Quinn, Deadpool, the Wizard of Oz, Spider-Man and many, many more. So, if your little girl has her heart set on dressing as Frozen’s Elsa, your son wants nothing more than to get in character as Kylo Ren, or you want to treat yo’ self with an ultimate Batman ensemble, you’ll find exactly what you’re looking for in the size and price that’s right for you.
When they finally reach the base, Chameleon reveals himself as being disguised as Ezekiel the entire time. Spider-man then gets ambushed and killed by the Kravinoff's. With Kraven finally back from the dead, he shows his anger at Sasha by confirming that the blood was not that of the real Spider-Man but of his clone Kaine. When Peter awakens, he finds Kaine's body in a coffin with a note reading "Hunt me" and his black costume lying beside the coffin. Spider-Man begins to hunt the Kravinoff's one by one, first taking out Chameleon and nearly killing Vladimir with a giant tombstone before dodging a point-blank shot from Alyosha's rifle. Spider-man than appears on the roof of the mansion and attacks Sasha, leaving the mark of Kaine on her face (using his finger's abilities to rip the skin off of her face) in revenge for the death of his clone and "brother". Spider-Man and Kraven then proceed to engage into battle and the fight proves to be completely one-sided as Peter goes all out with the intentions of killing Kraven for the murders of his friends. As he is about to deliver the killing blow to Kraven with his own spear, Arachne (As the new Madame Web) appears and shows Spider-man a grim future that would follow if he decided to murder Kraven. Spider-Man lets Kraven live and tells him that it's his second and last chance to live.
This Spider-Man toy transforms into a streamlined futuristic "Spider-Car" based loosely on a Peugeot 908 V12 HDi DPFS LeMans-style racer. It is fairly compact and unfolds into a roughly 7" tall robot with much more angular features than the original motorcycle version. Unlike nearly every other Crossovers figure, this one lacks a gimmick of any kind other than being a transforming Spider-Man.

The following day, Peter learns from Doctor Strange that the psychic blindspot put in place to defend his secret identity has been destroyed, because of a viral video of spider-powered Peter defending people. Carlie deduces who Peter is and promptly breaks up with him for lying to her. Mary Jane admits her love for Peter, and Peter administers an antidote to her. The two look up at the Empire Stats Building, which is projecting a red and blue light, thanking Spider-Man for his heroic deeds.


At the behest of a deadly benefactor known only as the Gentleman, the Chameleon must assemble a new Sinister Six: Dr. Octopus, the Vulture, Electro, Mysterio, and the Gentleman's mysterious ward, Pity. But Mysterio, the master of illusion, has a plan of his own! A number of Hollywood people has been targeted for murder, and the Webhead must halt Mysterio's deadly rampage before more lives are claimed.
When primary series The Amazing Spider-Man reached issue #545 (December 2007), Marvel dropped its spin-off ongoing series and instead began publishing The Amazing Spider-Man three times monthly, beginning with #546–548 (all January 2008).[38] The three times monthly scheduling of The Amazing Spider-Man lasted until November 2010 when the comic book was increased from 22 pages to 30 pages each issue and published only twice a month, beginning with #648–649 (both November 2010).[39][40] The following year, Marvel launched Avenging Spider-Man as the first spinoff ongoing series in addition to the still twice monthly The Amazing Spider-Man since the previous ones were cancelled at the end of 2007.[38] The Amazing series temporarily ended with issue #700 in December 2012, and was replaced by The Superior Spider-Man, which had Doctor Octopus serve as the new Spider-Man, having taken over Peter Parker's body. Superior was an enormous commercial success for Marvel,[41] and ran for 31-issue before the real Peter Parker returned in a newly relaunched The Amazing Spider-Man #1 in April 2014.[42]

And there’s (at least) one more angle to this as well…where did the idea of the superhero come from? As Meg suggested to me at dinner last night, was there a cultural need for a superhero during a super-crisis like the Great Depression? Or did the idea evolve gradually from regular heros (cowboys, space cowboys, etc.) to heros who were magicians (with special powers…it’s not that much of a stretch to imagine a magician possessing supernatural powers) to classic superheroes like Superman?


From his high-school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider-Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people. Fittingly, then, his comic book also contained some of the earliest references to the politics of young people. In 1968, in the wake of actual militant student demonstrations at Columbia University, Peter Parker finds himself in the midst of similar unrest at his Empire State University.... Peter has to reconcile his natural sympathy for the students with his assumed obligation to combat lawlessness as Spider-Man. As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftism and angry conservatives.[9]:234–235
On an unnamed Earth, Norman Osborn is a six-armed version of Spider-Man. As Norman is informed of Harry moving through Oscorp and having been secretly armed, he is told that Harry is on the 15th floor near Mr. Warren's lab. Becoming Spider-Man and arriving where a warped Cosmic Cube is located, Norman confronts Harry who dons the Kobold armor. It was revealed during the fight that Norman killed Peter Parker as Harry fires a laser beam at the warped Cosmic Cube. As Oscorp starts to disintegrate, Norman is pleased that Harry finally gave him what he wanted by accidentally giving Norman access to the multiverse. Just then, Spider-Punk arrives and pulls Norman out much to his dismay.[82]

^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 61. ISBN 978-0756692360. Stan [Lee] couldn't leave [the series] without gifting the readers one last new villain. With John Romita fulfilling the art chores, he crafted the Gibbon, an orphan named Martin Blank who was cursed from birth with a primitive, ape-like appearance.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.
Object-oriented programming provides a clear and modular structure for creating programs. It uses abstraction to hide away implementation details so that users and fellow programmers can use the code without getting weighed down by details — all that matters is that the code takes a given input and outputs an agreed upon output. It is easy to maintain and modify existing code using the class structure. The easy adaptation of code makes object-oriented code a good way to approach making software libraries since the software can be easily manipulated to suit the needs of a given programmer. [4]
Cartman's reference to not introducing solo films for "the black superhero" or "the chick", in "phase three", is a reference to the upcoming release of the 2018 film Black Panther by Marvel Studios, the first solo film about the titular black superhero, and the later 2019 release of Captain Marvel by the same studio, which will be Marvel Studios' first solo film with a female superheroine. They are considered part of Marvel's own third phase of films.
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 26. ISBN 978-0756692360. Spider-Man's arch nemesis, the Green Goblin, as introduced to readers as the 'most dangerous foe Spidey's ever fought.' Writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko had no way of knowing how true that statement would prove to be in the coming years.
It was during the 1930s, about the same time as trick-or-treating, that Halloween-themed haunted houses first began to appear in America. It was in the late 1950s that haunted houses as a major attraction began to appear, focusing first on California. Sponsored by the Children's Health Home Junior Auxiliary, the San Mateo Haunted House opened in 1957. The San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. Home haunts began appearing across the country during 1962 and 1963. In 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened, as well as the Children's Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis.[178]
Beneath the rubble, Parker called for help and writhed in pain, but he noticed an image of his mask in the water and his own reflection. Remembering Stark's words, Parker finally understood what his mentor meant about separating his identity from his suit: with or without the suit, he was Spider-Man. Spider-Man regained his resolve and pushed the rubble off his back, and he continued his pursuit of the Vulture.[2]

Sarah (last name unrevealed): Gwen's daughter by Norman Osborn. Norman convinced Sarah and her brother, Gabriel, that Peter Parker was their father and had killed their mother. Sarah becomes suspicious after she meets Spider-Man however. She is convinced of the truth when Spider-Man saves her life by giving her a blood transfusion after she is shot by police. Spider-Man later learns that the pain caused by her accelerated aging has led her to abuse painkillers, and her addiction has gotten her in trouble with the French authorities. However, she promises to seek help, and perhaps someday become a hero herself. Introduced in The Amazing Spider-Man #509.
I really liked the idea of Popeye as the first sequential art precedent! But the general Modernist and American concept of a superhero also has deep roots in the radio legacy of The Shadow and others. I don’t know enough about early european newsprint comics to hazard a guess; I wouldn’t be surprised to hear of one. Other western antecenants not mentioned in detail, King Arthur (most certainly magical, and indirectly religious being THE socialized mythic antecend to the Divine Right of Kings) Robin Hood, certainly Populist, but no superpowers…falls into the category of abnornally super abilities a la Batman, and if Batman isn’t included on this list, well….
Beneath the rubble, Parker called for help and writhed in pain, but he noticed an image of his mask in the water and his own reflection. Remembering Stark's words, Parker finally understood what his mentor meant about separating his identity from his suit: with or without the suit, he was Spider-Man. Spider-Man regained his resolve and pushed the rubble off his back, and he continued his pursuit of the Vulture.[2]
Here, you’ll find all of the latest and greatest costumes, including officially licensed offerings like Black Panther, Wonder Woman, Disney princesses, Batman, PJ Masks, Star Wars, Harley Quinn, Deadpool, the Wizard of Oz, Spider-Man and many, many more. So, if your little girl has her heart set on dressing as Frozen’s Elsa, your son wants nothing more than to get in character as Kylo Ren, or you want to treat yo’ self with an ultimate Batman ensemble, you’ll find exactly what you’re looking for in the size and price that’s right for you.
In Amazing Spider-Man: Renew Your Vows, a story that has Spider-Man and Mary Jane married with a daughter named Annie (who is developing Spider powers of her own). After being glimpsed at in the "Spider-Verse" storyline,[59] Peter saves his family from Venom while most of the heroes die to Regent. He retires as Spider-Man to avoid detection from Regent and to focus on raising his family. However, he is later forced to don the mask again to stop Regent and protect his family. The second volume of the comic series details the later adventures of Spider-Man and his family.
However, Parker still existed within Doctor Octopus's mind in the memories that he absorbed. The consciousness intent on stopping the villain and reclaiming his life, tries to influence Octavius, but fails to do so in any more than the slightest of ways. Parker's remnant also inadvertently causes Otto to share Peter's genuine love for Mary Jane Watson, and so pushes her away for her own safety. After Otto used a brain scanner to treat a young girl's brain injury, he decided to use the device on himself to discover Parker's presence within his mind. A mental battle ensues between himself and Parker, which Otto seemingly wins, erasing Peter's memories.
This version of Spider-Man appeared in a 4 issue miniseries (Feb-May 2009). He exists in the Great Depression Era of New York in the 1930s. Aunt May is a speaker of equality and spends time standing on a soap box shouting her beliefs. Uncle Ben was killed by a crime syndicate run by Norman Osborn, aka The Goblin. Shortly afterward, Peter is bitten by a strange spider and endowed with mystical spider-powers. Though he has a wall-crawling ability, he has increased agility, strength, a form of spider-sense, and can spray nets of webbing from his hand. He then dons a black mask, gloves, and a trenchcoat and sets out to stop Norman and his gang!
Thinking about spooky Halloween classics? From creepy clowns to dapper skeletons to vampire hosts—it'll be a monster mash when you take a look at the 2018 Halloween Costumes we have to offer. Become a stalwart warrior king ready to fight ferocious dragons, a brave member of the armed forces, or a famous video game character from tons of different eras. It's also simple to get a great costume based off of recent and classic movies and television shows like Elf, the Addams Family, Dr. Seuss, and the Wizard of Oz. It's all right here.

Spider-Man has had a large range of supporting characters introduced in the comics that are essential in the issues and storylines that star him. After his parents died, Peter Parker was raised by his loving aunt, May Parker, and his uncle and father figure, Ben Parker. After Uncle Ben is murdered by a burglar, Aunt May is virtually Peter's only family, and she and Peter are very close.


Silk a.k.a. Cindy Moon: In the Original Sin storyline, When Spider-Man was exposed to the energies of the Watcher's eye, he recalled the first time the spider that bit him, but not before the radioactive spider that bit him managed to bite another before it died, Cindy Moon. Cindy shows remarkable abilities that are quicker and faster than Peter's. She felt a primal connection to Peter as they show an animalistic attraction to one another, and that bond was seen in a more tender, caring way throughout the Spider-Verse series. However, Cindy seems determined to keep Peter at a distance, as though attempting to come to terms with her own identity without the input of her famous ally.
When fighting Electro, Spidey had to modify his costume to defeat his foe. He once made a costume from a rubber air mattress that made victory over Electro possible. On another occasion, when Electro's powers were amplified, Spider-Man used an improved version of the insulated costume that was resistant to Electro's attacks. With the help of X-Man, Spider-Man once again defeated Electro.
Wonder Woman has finally made her debut on the silver screen, and for us, we’re just glad to have her around! There’s no saying what threats could be facing the world, so having the Amazing Amazonian around for backup seems like a good idea. If you’d like to make sure you have an Amazing Amazon of your own to help save the day, we’re sure your girl will be up for playing the part. Just accessorize her signature movie look with the included armbands, gauntlets, and headpiece, and she’ll have the style look that made Princess Diana of Themyscira famous. Let her pose with and give a stunning and stoic look towards the camera. The bad guys won’t stand a chance when your girl is on the DC Comics team!
The Spider-Girl comic book series, originally published under the MC2 imprint, features May "Mayday" Parker, Peter's daughter in an alternative continuity. This timeline diverged from regular continuity when Peter and Mary Jane's daughter is returned to them by Kaine. In Spider-Girl, Peter has been retired from crime fighting since his final battle with the Green Goblin, which cost him a leg. Peter has settled down to family life and works for the New York City Police Department as a forensic scientist. His teen daughter May follows in his footsteps against his wishes, but Peter eventually helps her train for her calling. Peter appears in costume several times in Spider-Girl, either to restrain and protect May, or to assist her. Peter is among the superheroes kidnapped by Loki in the spin-off Last Hero Standing.[volume & issue needed]
When fighting Electro, Spidey had to modify his costume to defeat his foe. He once made a costume from a rubber air mattress that made victory over Electro possible. On another occasion, when Electro's powers were amplified, Spider-Man used an improved version of the insulated costume that was resistant to Electro's attacks. With the help of X-Man, Spider-Man once again defeated Electro.
who lives a life as Peter and Spider-Man. They also used the same characters as before, such as: Peter's Aunt May, J. Jonah Jameson: Editor of the Daily Bugle, Betty Brant: Jameson's secretary and classic damsel in distress, and later on during the series, Robbie Robertson, Jameson's assistant. Spidey also faces some of his usual foes such as: Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio and the Chameleon. This also included a six part story arc where Spidey goes up against Doctor Doom throughout the series. Spidey was voiced by Ted Schwartz in this series.
In 2012 a tie in to The Amazing Spider-Man movie, titled The Amazing Spider-Man,was released on June 26th. Spider-Man also featured as a playable character in the fighting game Marvel vs. Capcom Origins which was a compilation of the arcade games Marvel Super Heroes and Marvel vs. Capcom: Clash of Super Heroes. The game was released in during September 2012 on the PlayStation 3 Network and Xbox 360 Xbox Live Arcade services.

In subsequent decades, popular characters like Dazzler, She-Hulk, Elektra, Catwoman, Witchblade, Spider-Girl, Batgirl and the Birds of Prey became stars of long-running eponymous titles. Female characters began assuming leadership roles in many ensemble superhero teams; the Uncanny X-Men series and its related spin-off titles in particular have included many female characters in pivotal roles since the 1970s.[33] Volume 4 of the X-Men comic book series featured an all-female team as part of the Marvel NOW! branding initiative in 2013.[34] Superpowered female characters like Buffy the Vampire Slayer[35] and Darna[36][37] have a tremendous influence on popular culture in their respective countries of origin.
Classic costumes are always crowd pleasures! Spirit’s wide range of affordable classic boys Halloween costumes let him pick from dozens of options that are sure to be a hit with his friends. He can practice his “Argh, matey” when he dresses up as a pirate captain, looking the part right down to the eyepatch and black hat with white skull and crossbones. As part of our Halloween accessories, he can get a pirate sword to complete the image.
Popular choices for boys costumes include classic horror icons such as vampires and zombies. Maybe your son loves video games and wants to portray Freddy Fazbear or the Super Mario Bros.! Some hilarious options can turn them into food, drinks, and animals. Whatever and whoever they wish to become, there are so many great options for boy’s Halloween costumes. Look through all of our costumes to find the perfect outfit for Halloween nights, celebrations and parties!
Jump up ^ "Night of Light Beginnings". Cor et Lumen Christi Community. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2012. In its first year – 2000 AD – over 1000 people participated from several countries. This included special All Saints Vigil masses, extended periods of Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and parties for children. In our second year 10,000 participated. Since these modest beginnings, the Night of Light has been adopted in many countries around the world with vast numbers involved each year from a Cathedral in India to a convent in New Zealand; from Churches in the USA and Europe to Africa; in Schools, churches, homes and church halls all ages have got involved. Although it began in the Catholic Church it has been taken up be other Christians who while keeping its essentials have adapted it to suit their own traditions.
In 2008, Art Asylum/Diamond Select Toys released their 24th set of Marvel Minimates figures which included Captain Universe/Cosmic Spider-Man. The figure came bundled in a two-pack with a Venom figure. It featured a removable mask and the face of a very determined-looking and angry Peter Parker with a non-removable reused hairpiece from Set 18's "Black Unmasked Spidey" figure.
"Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" is a fundraising program to support UNICEF,[84] a United Nations Programme that provides humanitarian aid to children in developing countries. Started as a local event in a Northeast Philadelphia neighborhood in 1950 and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools (or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small-change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $118 million for UNICEF since its inception. In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to discontinue their Halloween collection boxes, citing safety and administrative concerns; after consultation with schools, they instead redesigned the program.[161][162]
who lives a life as Peter and Spider-Man. They also used the same characters as before, such as: Peter's Aunt May, J. Jonah Jameson: Editor of the Daily Bugle, Betty Brant: Jameson's secretary and classic damsel in distress, and later on during the series, Robbie Robertson, Jameson's assistant. Spidey also faces some of his usual foes such as: Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio and the Chameleon. This also included a six part story arc where Spidey goes up against Doctor Doom throughout the series. Spidey was voiced by Ted Schwartz in this series.

A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is usually known as ethnic costume (also ethnic dress, ethnic wear, ethnic clothing, traditional ethnic wear or traditional ethnic garment). Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear.
From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a black costume with a white spider design on his chest. The new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains.[65] He continues wearing the costume when he returns, starting in The Amazing Spider-Man #252. The change to a longstanding character's design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman."[66] The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject after a difficult struggle,[67] though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge.[49]
Toen Victoria van Keulen twee jaar geleden bij IKEA verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, vroeg ze de MT-leden wat zij vonden van dit onderwerp. Het antwoord was: nogal fluffy en weinig actionable. En dus was haar doel om het thema customer experience concreet te maken. ‘Ik wil dat managers en medewerkers het kunnen vastpakken en vertalen naar wat zij kunnen doen om de klantervaring te verbeteren.’ De Quality Observer onderzoeksmethode vervult hierin een cruciale rol.

Have you ever wanted to have super powers? Sure you have. It’s one of the most common (and satisfying) daydreams there ever was. While we can’t say you’ll have superpowers when you dress yourself in one of our superhero outfits, we do think you’ll feel super, look incredible, and inspire others to pursue truth, justice, and the American partying way. A good hero starts at a good costume and that’s exactly where we come in! We carry adult superhero costumes as well as styles for kids and toddlers, so you can find superhero family costumes for the whole clan. If you’re already impressed by our staggering collection of superhero suits and gear and need just a little extra help in making your decision, we’ve gone the extra mile to assemble a few tips and tricks to help you come to the right conclusion. This guide will give you a run down on taking the best photos with your little ones and finding the best superhero or superheroine to be this year. We have all of the top choices for female superhero costumes for the ladies, and styles that will transform any man into a muscled do-gooder. And for good measure. we’ve included the top hero groups if you’ve got a team in mind for your mission. Just check out the best superhero costumes and get some ideas below for the ultimate costume inspiration!
On Earth-11638, this version of Spider-Man is called the Amazing Spider who is rich, powerful, and popular where none of his loved ones has died. Peter runs Parker Technologies and his Uncle Ben spurs him to be the best. Upon inventing a portal technology, he unknowingly brought Earth-616's Spider-Man, Deadpool, and Hulk to Earth-11638. During a scuffle with Spider-Man in Amazing Spider's lair called the Web, Uncle Ben was about to plug Spider-Man into the machine. Amazing Spider was caught between the machine and was placed in a comatose state.[60] While in a coma, Amazing Spider's soul arrived in Hell where Bruce Banner's Sorcerer Supreme counterpart died fighting the Infernal Hulk. Though Bruce's astral form stayed alive and helped return the Amazing Spider to life with the souls of the repentant damned which gave him a second chance to live. When he awoke, he found himself transformed into a new character called the Ghost Spider. To make amends with Spider-Man, Ghost Spider transported him, Deadpool, and Hulk back to Earth-616.[61]
During the Spider-Verse storyline which featured Spider-Men from various alternate realities, Spider-Man Noir starred in one-shot comic Edge of Spider-Verse #1, at the end of which he was recruited by The Superior Spider-Man into his army of Spiders.[9] He was also featured prominently in Spider-Verse Team-Up #1, alongside a six-armed Spider-Man.[10] In Spider-Woman Vol. 5 #1, Spider-Man Noir found himself defending the lives of Silk and Spider-Woman (Jessica Drew) and got wounded in the process, after which he was returned to his home reality to heal and recuperate.[11]
In this example, the objects or instances are the individual superheroes described by the class Superhero. There could be an Ironman object, a Wonder Woman object, a Batman object, or a Spiderman object. The class Superhero associates certain attributes and methods with the superhero objects. For this example, each superhero will have the following attributes: strength, superpower, costume color, secret identity, points, and health. Additionally, each superhero will have the following methods (or actions): attack and heal.
From at least the 16th century,[64] the festival included mumming and guising in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales.[65] This involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food. It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf, similar to the custom of souling (see below). Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[66] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[67] In parts of southern Ireland, the guisers included a hobby horse. A man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[68] In Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[65] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient festival included people in costume representing the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[64] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod.[65] In the late 19th and early 20th century, young people in Glamorgan and Orkney cross-dressed.[65]
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