We have all of the costumes, accessories and decorations that you, your friends and your family are looking for to make your celebration the best one yet. We offer a wide variety of categories, including men’s, women’s, girls’, boys’, men’s and women’s plus size, baby, accessories, decorations, and many more. There is truly something for everyone here—from sexy costumes to family-friendly ensembles—and we make it easy to find your fit by including size charts with each costume. We also understand that everyone’s budget is different, which is why we offer costumes, accessories and decorations in a wide variety of prices. We want to make sure that you love your costume, and we understand that fit and affordability are two of the most important factors when shopping online.
In the Marvel Nemesis: Rise of the Imperfects series, set in Earth-50701, Spider-Man was abducted by an alien scientist name Doctor Niles Van Roekel. The Thing, Wolverine, Elektra, Human Torch, and Storm are also abducted and injected with a drug in an attempt to corrupt them. Once infected Spider-Man's costume is brown-and-bronze with a blue spider mark in his chest. Spider-Man and the other heroes are eventually able to fight off the corrupting infection and defeat Van Roekel. In the aftermath of the invasion, Paragon and the Imperfects join together to share the Earth with the heroes.[11]
One day, Peter was at a science exhibit witnessing a scientist attempting to harness the power of radioactivity. Suddenly, a tiny spider fell, unseen by all, into the beam of radiation. Soon, that spider bit Peter on his hand. Dazed and woozy, Peter fled the room and accidentally ran into the path of an incoming car. Warned by a tingle in the back of his head, he quickly dodged the car. Somehow, he stuck to the wall he landed on. Crawling up the wall he grabbed and accidentally crushed a steel pipe. Then he started walking on a power line, with ease. Realizing the spider somehow its power to him, he began to wonder what to do with his new abilities. Soon after, Peter was walking down the street when he noticed a poster of a wrestling challenge. Thinking that this was another way to test his powers, he eagerly, ran home. After easily defeating his opponent, Crusher Hogan, a television promoter offered Peter (Peter was wearing a makeshift costume to protect his identity) a TV show.
Warren Ellis' parody of Kurt Busiek's Marvels, Ruins, was a two-part miniseries set in an alternative universe where the situations that led to the heroes of the Marvel Universe gaining superpowers instead led to the more realistic side effects of horrific deformities and deaths. In this world, when Parker was bitten by a radioactive spider, instead of gaining powers, he broke out into an infectious rash that covered his body before his painful death. He had visited the offices of the Daily Bugle beforehand and infected fellow photographer Phil Sheldon, who set off to figure out how his world took a wrong turn, but succumbed to the disease before he could write his book.

Arcade Beetle Abner Jenkins Leila Davis Janice Lincoln Big Wheel Black Tarantula Boomerang Bullseye Calypso Carrion Clash Cyclone Demogoblin Doctor Doom Doppleganger Dracula Foreigner Gibbon Gog Grey Goblin Grim Hunter Grizzly Hippo Human Fly Hypno-Hustler Jack O' Lantern Jason Macendale Jigsaw Juggernaut Kangaroo Living Brain Lobo Brothers Looter Man-Wolf Kraven the Hunter (Ana Kravinoff) Kraven the Hunter (Alyosha Kravinoff) Lady Octopus Leap-Frog Magneto Man-Bull Massacre Mephisto Menace Mister Hyde Molten Man Morlun Nightmare Overdrive Owl Red Skull Ringer Scarecrow Scorcher Scorpia Scream Screwball Shathra Shriek Sin-Eater Speed Demon Spider Queen Spot Stegron Stilt-Man Styx and Stone Swarm Tarantula Taskmaster Trapster Phil Urich Vermin Walrus White Rabbit Will o' the Wisp
As the embittered webslinger faces further robot attacks, each deadlier than the last, his spider-sense warns that Jameson himself is behind them, possibly colluding with Electro, Alistaire Smythe, or another of Spider-Man's mortal foes. Convinced that his worst critic has become a mortal enemy, Spider-Man declares war on Jameson -- a war the publisher is eager to wage. But in their relentless pursuit of victory, they both risk losing everything that matters to them -- and may both fall victim to the cataclysmic secret behind the robots.
Many superheroes have a secret identity, and wear a costume or uniform to help conceal that identity. The costume usually has a logo or symbol as part of its design. Sometimes the costume/uniform incorporates special equipment, tools or technology. For example: Iron Man's armor suit, Captain America's vibranium shield, Spider-Man's web-shooters.   

Okay, so Lt. Dangle might not be the first thing you think of when you think "sex appeal" but face it, with that mustache and those short shorts, well, dang, Dangle can work it! Even if the mustache is a signature cop look, and the shorts are for optimal performance when chasing criminals...we're sure that he's a real catch for anyone in the Reno dating scene.
In keeping with their origins as representing the archetypical hero stock character in 1930s American comics, superheroes are predominantly depicted as white Anglo-Saxon American middle- or upper-class heterosexual young adult males who are typically tall, athletic, educated, physically attractive and in perfect health. Beginning in the 1960s with the civil rights movement in the United States, and increasingly with the rising concern over political correctness in the 1980s, superhero fiction centered on cultural, ethnic, national, racial and language minority groups (from the perspective of US demographics) began to be produced. This began with depiction of black superheroes in the 1960s, followed in the 1970s with a number of other ethnic superheroes.[51] In keeping with the political mood of the time, cultural diversity and inclusivism would be an important part of superhero groups starting from the 1980s. In the 1990s, this was further augmented by the first depictions of superheroes as homosexual. In 2017, Sign Gene emerged, the first group of deaf superheroes with superpowers through the use of sign language.[52]

The Dude. His Dudeness. El Duderino if you're not into the whole brevity thing. Whatever you want to call him, well, now you can be him when you go in one of our authentic The Big Lebowski costumes for men! Officially licensed by Paramount Pictures, we have exclusive designs that you're only going to find right here at HalloweenCostumes.com. A classic men's Halloween choice, when you go in this bathrobe costume, you're sure to feel like a much laid back individual. Just make sure you know how to whip up a killer White Russian!

Janine Godbe a.k.a. Elizabeth Tyne The one great love of Ben's life. Ben found out Janine was living under an assumed name after she murdered the father who molested her. Ben confided in Janine that he was a clone of Spider-Man. Later Kaine forced Janine to fake her death to hurt Ben. Janine later turned herself into the police for killing her father. In the MC2 universe Darkdevil is Ben and Janine's son.


Eventually, Vulture's Chitauri alien weapon malfunctioned. Spider-Man tried to web the weapon up and contain its energy, only for it to short-circuit and cut the ferry in half. Spider-Man attempted to save the ferry's occupants; at his request, Karen quickly calculated the strongest points of the ship, and Spider-Man linked 98 percent of those points together. However, he had missed two percent of the points, and it was this oversight that caused Spider-Man's webs to fail. Spider-Man desperately bound both halves of the ship together, though it kept falling apart. Iron Man eventually arrived to assist in Spider-Man's rescue, sealing the ship by reforging the cutlines. After that, he took Spider-Man away to have a private talk.[2]

Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time. Jack-o'-lanterns are traditionally carried by guisers on All Hallows' Eve in order to frighten evil spirits.[97][120] There is a popular Irish Christian folktale associated with the jack-o'-lantern,[121] which in folklore is said to represent a "soul who has been denied entry into both heaven and hell":[122]

After Peter had his aunt returned, he decided to stop being Spider-man for good. He started living in a new apartment with his aunt May and wife Mary-Jane. All of New York was wondering where Spider-Man could have gone after his seemingly final battle with the Green Goblin. He would not even react to messages send by Peter's good friend the Human Torch. Peter had found a job at a science-center where he did good work and stayed out of the superhero life, although it turned out that was harder then it seemed. It was at this time that a seemingly new Spider-Man appeared on the scene. It turned out that this was Mattie Franklin, a participant in the Gathering of the Five, whom got the gift of Power. She acted as Spider-man and later as Spider-Woman, when Peter finally accepted that he was needed as Spider-man and returned to the life as a superhero.

On Earth-50701 Spider-Man is abducted by an alien scientist and injected with a mysterious drug that corrupts him and causes him to attack fellow abductee The Thing. He is attacked by the Human Torch and Storm, both also corrupted, and in the scuffle is wounded, causing him to bleed the drug out of his system, returning him to normal. He is returned home, and later joins other heroes in fighting the scientist's Imperfects and their invasion attempts.
I thought of something else that has to be considered in the rise of the superhero. As Joe Crawford notes, superhero comics and science fiction hit the mainstream together, sharing creators, distributers, and reading publics. Both deal with science and technology and their effects in society — in a characteristically (for the ’30s) optimistic manner. A man will come from a faraway planet and act as the world’s protector; another will use his wealth and brilliance to develop tools that will be used to fight crime in the streets. No problem — even those caused by science and technology — can not be solved by the application of science and technology. By the ’50s, with the advent of nuclear technology and the revelations of the Holocaust, this optimism is somewhat tempered — the new crop of superheros that emerged in the decades after WWII (Hulk, X-Men, Spiderman) were hunted, persecuted, plagued by superpowers they did not want, which they carried as a burden (and of course the resurgence of Batman and Superman put them into a similar mold).
In the X-Men Forever universe after the X-Men have faked their deaths, Spider-Man runs into Rogue during a patrol, Rogue having recently unintentionally absorbed Nightcrawler's powers and appearance. Testing her new powers, Rogue spends the night fighting crime alongside Spider-Man, later suggesting that the two kiss to see how her recent transformation has affected her original abilities. After Spider-Man assists the X-Men in destroying a group of Sentinels,[91] the X-Men return to the manor, Cyclops concluding that Spider-Man can be trusted to keep the secret of their continued survival.[92]
Someone was probably smoking spinach when they suggested that Popeye was the first superhero. As the “Men of Tomorrow” book makes clear, the precursors to Superman and Batman were Doc Savage and The Shadow, created in the Street and Smith pulp magazines of the early ’30s. It is interesting to note that DC Comics currently plans to return its universe to its early roots and purge all magical powers from their characters, leaving Wonder Woman in limbo it would seem.
While you’re browsing our selection of Halloween costumes for kids or baby costumes, don’t forget to treat yourself to a little Halloween fun. We have a large selection of adult costumes, sexy costumes, and even pet costumes. If you are feeling brave and want to hit the Halloween events with your beau in tow, might we suggest you take a look at our couples costume ideas or our group Halloween costumes for a larger crew. Many of our styles are exclusive to us and we are confident that you will find something you like in our costume store. Even though we carry cheap Halloween costumes, that doesn’t mean that our quality suffers. We pride ourselves on superiority and believe our customers deserve the best costume experience at a reasonable price.
There are plenty of holidays throughout the year in addition to Halloween when kids want to dress up. With Spirit’s boys seasonal costumes, they can dress up for those special days like Christmas or Easter, while the whole family oohs and aahs over how cute they look. For Christmas, he can dress as Jesus, one one of the wise men, or Santa. Be warned that if he chooses Santa, he’ll surely be expecting some cookies and milk!
Spidercide was a major antagonist in the "Maximum Clonage" story arc. He first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #222 by Tom DeFalco and Sal Buscema.[67] He is depicted as an evil foil of Spider-Man, Ben Reilly, and Kaine. Introduced as a red herring to suggest the possibility of a third individual that was the original Peter Parker, he is one of the Spider-Man clones created by Jackal, to be Jackal's enforcer and protector. However, Spidercide is actually a clone to Ben Reilly, who is a direct genetic duplicate of Spider-Man.[40]
Why buy a superhero costume when you can have fun making your own at home? Replicate your favorite character's costume or invent your very own superhero complete with personalized powers using simple arts and crafts materials that you probably already have lying around the house. Think about the basic elements of a superhero costume outlined below and start building your superhero look!
Molecular Structure: One power Spidercide has that Spider-Man doesn't is complete control over his body on a molecular level. For example, he can extend his limbs or his body itself in a somewhat similar way to Mister Fantastic. He can shapeshift his form & appearance. He can also control the density of his bodily tissues, making him much more resistant to all forms of physical injury than he normally is enabling him to withstand even greater impact forces, falls from great heights, and high caliber bullets. He has also been known to transform his fists into various objects, turn himself partially or fully into liquid, & to simulate the type of artificial webbing that Spider-Man once used. Among other things.

Spider-Men is a five-issue, 2012 superhero comic book miniseries published by Marvel Comics, featuring Peter Parker, the original Spider-Man, and Miles Morales, the second and current Ultimate Marvel version of Spider-Man, who appear together in a crossover storyline that involves the two alternate universes from which they each originate. The series is written by Brian Michael Bendis and illustrated by Sara Pichelli.[1][2] It marks the first time that characters from the original Marvel Universe and the Ultimate Universe have crossed over since the latter debuted in 2000.

“We are not asking to be coddled,” the open letter insists. “The real coddling is telling the privileged majority on campus that they do not have to engage with the brutal pasts that are a part of the costumes they seek to wear.” But no one asserted that students should not be questioned about offensive costumes––only that fellow Yale students, not meddling administrators, should do the questioning, conduct the conversations, and shape the norms for themselves.  “We simply ask that our existences not be invalidated on campus,” the letter says, catastrophizing.


For her trouble, a faction of students are now trying to get the couple removed from their residential positions, which is to say, censured and ousted from their home on campus. Hundreds of Yale students are attacking them, some with hateful insults, shouted epithets, and a campaign of public shaming. In doing so, they have shown an illiberal streak that flows from flaws in their well-intentioned ideology.
Sheikh Idris Palmer, author of A Brief Illustrated Guide to Understanding Islam, has argued that Muslims should not participate in Halloween, stating that "participation in Halloween is worse than participation in Christmas, Easter, ... it is more sinful than congratulating the Christians for their prostration to the crucifix".[231] Javed Memon, a Muslim writer, has disagreed, saying that his "daughter dressing up like a British telephone booth will not destroy her faith as a Muslim".[232]
Add your other half and the kids for a night of Halloween fun the entire family will remember, and get matching costumes for everyone! Become a king and queen with the little members of royalty, dress them up as their favorite farm animals, turn them into little Halloween monsters, and more. They'll love joining enchanted lands and making their own unforgettable memories with you!
In an unidentified alternate reality, the Man-Spider is Peter Parker who has an allergic reaction to the bite of the radioactive spider and is hospitalized. Because both Uncle Ben and Aunt May are at Peter's side in the hospital when their house is broken into, Ben is not killed by the burglar as in the main timeline. He is discovered by the Six-Armed Spider-Man and Spider-Man Noir, who cure him of his spider powers.[77]
Spider-Man possesses the uncanny speed, agility and reflexes of a spider. He can move at a speed that surpasses that of the finest human athletes. This is particularly evident over short distances. He has frequently speed-blitzed many foes- including those with enhanced speed and reflexes, moving so fast that he leaves blurring after images. He has been described as moving with the speed of machine gun fire, moving faster than the eye can follow, and moved so fast that Daredevil (who has enhanced reflexes and senses) could barely register him, and was unable react to a punch he was knew Spider-Man was going to land. Over longer distances, his speed seems less pronounced, but he was still able to outrun Kraven and his cheetahs (both of whom can run at over 60 mph) and has easily outran speeding cars. However, this could be due to his preference of Web-Slinging over longer distances than due to an inability to maintain higher levels of speed over longer distances. Spider-Man can easily perform the most complicated acrobatic moves as his body is extremely flexible, giving him agility, balance and bodily coordination that surpass those of the finest human athletes. Spider-Man is considered the best when it comes to balance in the Marvel Universe, as he possesses excellent equilibrium allowing him to balance himself on any object. Even some of the most agile street-level heroes like Captain America, Daredevil and Wolverine are nowhere near Spider-Man's level of speed and agility. Spider-Man's reflexes are forty times greater than peak level humans, and when combined with his Spider-Sense, speed and agility, enable him to dodge bullets and other conventional projectiles with ease. During the Grim Hunt storyline, he even dodged sniper rifle fire at point blank range- after the bullet had been fired.
The Negative Suit's black-and-white design comes from a history that is not all from your new villain Mister Negative, but from Spider-Man's visit to the Negative Zone, where his suit transformed in a realm with no color. However, in other stories, Peter's suit was also transformed into the Negative Suit after being attacked by Mister Negative himself.

A martial art garb designed around the totem of the bat. While retraining his body after having his back restored by a mutant with healing powers and then going through physical therapy Bruce Wayne was given the Mask of Tengu by Lady Shiva as a substitute Bat-Uniform during the final stages of his retraining, before this, he wore a standard ninja outfit with a hood.


But the reason I say you’re thinking about it to hard is because the idea of super-heros is prehistoric. It goes back to before the dawn of human civilization. Think about all the ancient Myths you learned about when you were a kid. Hercules is a particularly well televised example of this but its actually one of the better documented and more recent mythical hero stories of all time, being that its greek and all. There were probably early homo sapiens somewhere in africa about 900,000 years ago telling super hero stories to each other within minutes of the development of speech. Its just how humans think. We look at our own frailties and failings and then imagine a man (or woman) who is like us but without those frailties. A Superman.

Spider-Man (1967–70) episodes Spidey Super Stories (1974–77) The Amazing Spider-Man (1977–79) Spider-Man (1978–79) Spider-Woman (1979–80) Spider-Man (1981–82) The Capture of Captain America Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–83) episodes characters Spider-Man (1994–98) episodes characters Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2001) Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003) The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–09) episodes characters Ultimate Spider-Man (2012–17) episodes Spider-Man (2017–present) episodes

I wonder, and I am not trying to be provocative: Is there no room anymore for a child or young person to be a little bit obnoxious... a little bit inappropriate or provocative or, yes, offensive? American universities were once a safe space not only for maturation but also for a certain regressive, or even transgressive, experience; increasingly, it seems, they have become places of censure and prohibition. And the censure and prohibition come from above, not from yourselves! Are we all okay with this transfer of power? Have we lost faith in young people's capacity—in your capacity ­ to exercise self­censure, through social norming, and also in your capacity to ignore or reject things that trouble you?
However, Parker still existed within Doctor Octopus's mind in the memories that he absorbed. The consciousness intent on stopping the villain and reclaiming his life, tries to influence Octavius, but fails to do so in any more than the slightest of ways. Parker's remnant also inadvertently causes Otto to share Peter's genuine love for Mary Jane Watson, and so pushes her away for her own safety. After Otto used a brain scanner to treat a young girl's brain injury, he decided to use the device on himself to discover Parker's presence within his mind. A mental battle ensues between himself and Parker, which Otto seemingly wins, erasing Peter's memories.
Detective Terri Lee (appeared in Spider-Man): She is a detective for the New York Police Department. Naturally, she investigates cases that involve Spider-Man and to an extent to Peter Parker, though she never found out Peter and Spider-Man are the same person. She didn't trust Spider-Man at first, but overtime she began accepting Spider-Man as an ally. She has ties to Carnage and she had a relationship with the vampire hunter Blade.
The white areas in Spider-Mans eye cut-outs on his mask are really clever plastic lenses of the two-way mirror type. He can see out very clearly, but no one can see in. Therefore, he can never be recognized by the color of his eyes. These ingenious plastic lenses also protect his eyes from dust, dirt, and the glare of the sun. Spider-Man's colorful head-mask conceals his facial features and expressions and also effectively muffles his voice, making it unrecognizable. When using the Iron Spider-Man suit, it changed his voice in many ways. When Spider-Man became an Avenger, a special comm-link was outfitted into his mask allowing him to communicate with his fellow Avengers as well as others.
Supported by a system similar to that of Tony Stark's classic Iron Man design, The Iron Spider armor features many gadgets, including four mechanical spider-arms, or "waldoes", that can be used to see around corners (via cameras in the tips) and to manipulate objects indirectly. Stark describes them as too delicate to use in combat, yet Spider-Man shortly afterward uses them to smash through the sensors in Titanium Man's helmet. Later on during the "Civil War" storyline, he uses them (reluctantly) during his fight with Captain America.
In 1963, Astro Boy was adapted into a highly influential anime television series. Phantom Agents in 1964 focused on ninjas working for the Japanese government and would be the foundation for Sentai-type series. 1966 saw the debut of sci-fi/horror series Ultra Q created by Eiji Tsuburaya this would eventually lead on to the sequel Ultraman, spawning a successful franchise focused upon the Giant Hero subgenre where the Superheroes would be as big as giant monsters (Kaiju) that they fought.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 72. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Gerry Conway and artist Ross Andru introduced two major new characters to Spider-Man's world and the Marvel Universe in this self-contained issue. Not only would the vigilante known as the Punisher go on to be one of the most important and iconic Marvel creations of the 1970s, but his instigator, the Jackal, would become the next big threat in Spider-Man's life.


One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[21]
Peter's life did not get any easier after his wedding. As soon as he returned from his honeymoon, he was attacked by Kraven the Hunter in one of the most traumatizing events in both Peter and MJ's lives. Kraven was seeking to regain the honor that his family had lost and to do so, he must prove his superiority over his greatest foe, Spider-Man. After ambushing him, Kraven shot Peter in the head with a rifle and buried him on his grounds. Kraven donned a black Spider-Man costume and became a merciless vigilante. He even defeated Vermin, a villain Spider-Man could not defeat on his own. After two weeks, it was revealed that Spider-Man was actually alive and Kraven shot him with a tranquilizer. Peter eventually made his way to Kraven's estate and brutally pummeled the hunter. Kraven was unconcerned as he has proven his superiority over his foe before and so he set the Vermin free. After Spider-Man left Kraven to capture Vermin, Kraven killed himself.

Peter discovers that he is suffering from an unknown disease that is killing him. He seeks the help of the Marvel Universe's best scientists but none of them could help him so he decides to accept the inevitable. He is later attacked by the powerful Morlun, and after a brutal fight, the totem eater rips off Peter's eye, eats it and continues to beat Spider-Man to his apparent death. After his body is sent to the hospital, Morlun attempts to consume him, but after an intervention from Mary Jane, whom Morlun was about to kill, Spider-Man's form suddenly changed. His eyes glow red, his teeth become razor sharp and two poison stingers sprout from his arms. Peter attacks Morlun, stabs him in the shoulder with one of his stingers and bites him in the neck. He then apparently dies in MJ's arms. He finds himself face to face with a Spider monster who tells Peter that he has to either accept his spider side and evolve or die. Spider-Man embraces his "other" and recovers. He reunites with his friends and family and reveals that he has received new powers.


Spider-Man: Reign depicts an older Spider-Man in the future who, having given up on crime-fighting, is driven back into action by the return of some of his old enemies, exposing a conspiracy by Venom to take control of the city with a mass of symbiotes.[41] The character is later killed by Daemos with his head smashed on Mary Jane Watson's tombstone in Spider-Verse.[citation needed]
In Target’s Halloween store, you’ll find tons of wicked-cool Halloween costume ideas for boys. Spiderman costume? Check. Batman costume? Check. Pirate costume? Check. Cowboy costume? Check. We’re not kidding. With hundreds of fun Halloween costumes for boys, we’re sure to have the perfect pick for your little guy. Our huge selection of boys’ Halloween costumes includes superhero costumes, funny Halloween costumes, animal costumes, vampire costumes, zombie costumes and much, much more. If sci-fi is his thing, he’ll be stoked by our Star Wars costumes. Is he into horror? You’ll want to check out our scary costumes. If he’s not that into Halloween, take a look at our easy Halloween costumes. They make dressing up for trick-or-treating a cinch. With so many boys’ costumes to choose from, you’ll find just the thing before you can say “trick-or-treat.”
Spider-Man is an unlockable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance. As an Infiltrator, he gains the Combat Awareness buff after attacking Tacticians. He has tremendous agility and an appropriate repertoire of powers, including: web-based attacks and his Spider Sense. He starts with his traditional red & blue costume, but players can purchase the black costume to fight as an ebony Infiltrator or a nefarious Bruiser. By unlocking Spider-Man players also gain access to the bonus missions in Chapter 3 of the single-player campaign.
Throughout Ireland and Britain, the household festivities included rituals and games intended to foretell one's future, especially regarding death and marriage.[57] Apples and nuts were often used in these divination rituals. They included apple bobbing, nut roasting, scrying or mirror-gazing, pouring molten lead or egg whites into water, dream interpretation, and others.[58] Special bonfires were lit and there were rituals involving them. Their flames, smoke and ashes were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers, and were also used for divination.[43] In some places, torches lit from the bonfire were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect them.[42] It is suggested that the fires were a kind of imitative or sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, helping the "powers of growth" and holding back the decay and darkness of winter.[54][59][60] In Scotland, these bonfires and divination games were banned by the church elders in some parishes.[61] In Wales, bonfires were lit to "prevent the souls of the dead from falling to earth".[62] Later, these bonfires served to keep "away the devil".[63]
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