The Memory cloth is a piece of equipment that Bruce is shown by Lucius Fox at Applied Sciences. The item itself is normally soft and light, but when an electric current is passed through it the cape takes a rigid shape. Bruce took it, and the gloves then customized the skeleton and cut into bat wing shape scalloped cape and somehow made it a functional paraglider contraption.
In Amazing Spider-Man: Renew Your Vows, a story that has Spider-Man and Mary Jane married with a daughter named Annie (who is developing Spider powers of her own). After being glimpsed at in the "Spider-Verse" storyline,[59] Peter saves his family from Venom while most of the heroes die to Regent. He retires as Spider-Man to avoid detection from Regent and to focus on raising his family. However, he is later forced to don the mask again to stop Regent and protect his family. The second volume of the comic series details the later adventures of Spider-Man and his family.
^ Jump up to: a b Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 61. ISBN 978-0756692360. Stan [Lee] couldn't leave [the series] without gifting the readers one last new villain. With John Romita fulfilling the art chores, he crafted the Gibbon, an orphan named Martin Blank who was cursed from birth with a primitive, ape-like appearance.
The Classic Suit is the one Peter Parker begins this story using, and it appears he has been using this suit for the better part of 8 years. It features a smaller spider design on the front with the larger spider on the back - and more basic materials used in the design. It becomes damaged during the start of the story, during your fight with Kingpin.

Character hoodies are perhaps our favorite quick-and-easy costume, because they work for a great everyday geek fashion too! This Yoda hoodie will instantly transform you into a Dagobah dwelling Jedi. People might be expecting a Yoda voice when you go in this sweatshirt though, so do your best to practice your gravelly tone and work on flipping around the words in your sentences!


Jump up ^ Suarez, Essdras (29 October 2007). "Some Christians use 'Hell Houses' to reach out on Halloween". USA Today. Retrieved 7 November 2015. While some Christians aren't certain what to make of Halloween – unsure whether to embrace or ignore all the goblins and ghoulishness – some evangelical churches use Oct. 31 as a day to evangelize. ...Some use trick-or-treating as an evangelistic opportunity, giving out Bible tracts with candy.


A bite from a radioactive spider on a school field trip causes a variety of changes in the body of Peter Parker and gives him superpowers. In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him of danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility. Some of his comic series have him shooting webs from his wrists. Academically brilliant, Parker has expertise in the fields of applied, chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, mathematics, and mechanics. The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but not a genius; however, later writers have depicted the character as a genius. With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters. This mechanism ejects an advanced adhesive, releasing web-fluid in a variety of configurations, including a single rope-like strand to swing from, a net to bind enemies, and a simple glob to foul machinery or blind an opponent. He can also weave the web material into simple forms like a shield, a spherical protection or hemispherical barrier, a club, or a hang-glider wing. Other equipment include spider-tracers (spider-shaped adhesive homing beacons keyed to his own spider-sense), a light beacon which can either be used as a flashlight or project a "Spider-Signal" design, and a specially modified camera that can take pictures automatically.

Erika Christakis was questioning that practice when she composed her email, adding nuance to a conversation that some students were already having. Traditionally, she began, Halloween is both a day of subversion for young people and a time when adults exert their control over their behavior: from bygone, overblown fears about candy spiked with poison or razorblades to a more recent aversion to the sugar in candy.
Jump up ^ Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of Traditional Irish Food & Drink. Poolbeg Press. p. 138. ISBN 9781853711428. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.

Today's Halloween customs are also thought to have been influenced by Christian dogma and practices derived from it. Halloween is the evening before the Christian holy days of All Hallows' Day (also known as All Saints' or Hallowmas) on 1 November and All Souls' Day on 2 November, thus giving the holiday on 31 October the full name of All Hallows' Eve (meaning the evening before All Hallows' Day).[71] Since the time of the early Church,[72] major feasts in Christianity (such as Christmas, Easter and Pentecost) had vigils that began the night before, as did the feast of All Hallows'.[73] These three days are collectively called Allhallowtide and are a time for honoring the saints and praying for the recently departed souls who have yet to reach Heaven. Commemorations of all saints and martyrs were held by several churches on various dates, mostly in springtime.[74] In 609, Pope Boniface IV re-dedicated the Pantheon in Rome to "St Mary and all martyrs" on 13 May. This was the same date as Lemuria, an ancient Roman festival of the dead, and the same date as the commemoration of all saints in Edessa in the time of Ephrem.[75]

Spider-Man's advanced musculature produces less fatigue toxins during physical activity than an ordinary human. This allows him to exert himself physically for much longer periods of time before fatigue begins to impair him. At his peak, Spider-Man can physically exert himself at his peak capacity for many hours before the build up of fatigue toxins in his blood begins to impair him. He once fought Morlun for many hours continuously, and has stated an ability to hold his breath for at least twice as long as non-enhanced humans.


^ Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain. He has also been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comics books (mostly due to being introduced as the original Frightful Four[142]) along with being on the heroic side (being a Avengers member[143]) until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again.[144]
The costume and the equipment are different from the original, especially the costume that is made up of a normal dress of the era matched with a coat; The basic aspect of the costume is the mask made with the headgear and the aviator glasses used by his uncle during the Great War and the costume made in kevlar can withstand bullets and explosions.[2] He is shown to be a skilled marksman, being adept in the use of firearms and also uses a variety of such weapons including a revolver and a tommy gun to severely injure or kill criminals.[3]

After Octavius tries to retrieve some of Parker’s memories in an attempt to solve a revirbium related problem, Peter's consciousness begins to re-emerge, having somehow escaped the mind-purge. When Otto is possessed by the Venom Symbiote and is unable to free himself of it, Peter's consciousness again emerges and breaks the Symbiote's hold over Dr. Octopus, enabling Flash Thompson to call it back to him.
Sometimes mutant powers are really just the thing to bring a group together, and if your gang is ready to put their super human abilities to work, then there’s only one team for you: The X-Men! Storm can command the team while Cyclops keeps opponents at bay with his concussive optic blast. If you have a quick-witted member of your group, a Deadpool Halloween costume is sure to turn them into the crass and sharp-tongued Wade Wilson. Up the ante by getting a friend to go in a Wolverine costume, and you’ll have one mutant posse that no villain is going to want to tangle with. We heard Wolvie’s usually hungry though, so you’re going to want to bring plenty of snacks. “Hey. Pass the chip dip, bub!”
"Peter" emerged from one of the Jackal's pods. Believing himself to be the genuine Parker, he confronted Spider-Man, Ben Reilly, and Kaine. He became obsessed with proving to Mary Jane Watson that he was the real Peter and once Peter, Ben, Kaine and MJ were all near him at once the Jackal's programming kicked in and his shape shifting powers activated and he turned into a monster who was killed when Kaine threw a propane truck at him. Scrier would later resurrect him.
The armor was then coated with a black latex material to dampen Bruce's heat signature, making him difficult to detect with night-vision equipment. Made of a graphite material, the cowl acts as a protective helmet. The cowl's Kevlar lining is supposed to be bulletproof. A manufacturing defect in the graphite used in the production of the first shipment of the cowl's components made its outer shell incapable of withstanding blunt trauma (a flaw Alfred demonstrated to Bruce Wayne using a baseball bat). Batman apparently took on Falcone and his henchmen at the docks with the defective helmet. The second shipment was supposed to fix this problem. An advanced eavesdropping device is concealed within the cowl's right ear and enables Batman to listen in on conversations from a distance.
Mass-market edition of a brand new novel which follows super hero Spider-Man as he tries to put a stop to The Gentleman's (the leader of the Sinister Six) plan to destroy all the financial markets in the world. Spider-Man battles the most dangerous Sinister Six line-up ever: Doctor Octopus, Electro, Mysterio, the Vulture, the tragic but deadly Pity, and the group's mysterious leader, the Gentleman - a villain who had a hand in the deaths of Spider-Man's parents! But what neither Spider-Man nor his enemies know is that the Gentleman is about to set his master plan into motion: destroying all the financial markets in the world and make himself the richest man in the world. As for the villainess Pity, Spider-Man has become convinced that she is his long-lost sister. But to get Pity to reject her life of crime and break free of the Gentleman's control, he needs conclusive proof - proof that only the X-Man known as Wolverine has. But time is running out for Spider-Man, for Pity and for the world.
When it comes time for Halloween, there is a lot more to think about than picking out a costume. Plenty of strategizing comes with choosing the perfect outfit. For starters, you will need to know what size your child wears and check out some of our measurement charts to find the best fit. Trick-or-treating at night may be dangerous, so having reflectors or lights are definitely helpful. If you are buying for costumes and accessories for more than one person, be sure to check out any coupons and savings deals we have going on. 

^ Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain. He has also been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comics books (mostly due to being introduced as the original Frightful Four[142]) along with being on the heroic side (being a Avengers member[143]) until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again.[144]
We all know zombies are sick. But in the case of this Zombie Sk8r Child Costume, "sick" is a good thing! They'll have more steeze than any other dude at the skate park. And he or she be just waiting for everyone else to bail. Which let’s face it, they are sure to do because, being alone at night in a skate park, with a zombie is just a bit sketchy.
This version of Spider-Man first appeared in Marvel Adventures Spider-Man #53-#61 before appearing in the re-titled Spider-Man: Marvel Adventures comic book series. A modern-day high school student, this Spider-Man's origin is similar to his mainstream counterpart, but his supporting cast is significantly different. Although Gwen Stacy exists in this universe, she and Peter are not dating—instead Peter is dating a brand-new character named Sophia "Chat" Sanduval, who is a mutant with the ability to talk to animals. Peter's relationship with Gwen's father Captain George Stacy also differs from the original version—here, Captain Stacy discovers Peter's secret identity early on, yet rather than hide this information from Peter (as his mainstream counterpart did), he confides in Peter and becomes Spider-Man's unofficial police contact. While this Spider-Man battles super villains, he is generally more concerned with combating street-level crime and focuses heavily on taking down the Torino Family, a powerful New York City mob.[volume & issue needed]
Parker's daughter May is returned to him and Mary Jane, but he continues as Spider-Man. He loses a leg fighting the Green Goblin, gives up on superheroics and joins the police. He has trouble dealing with his daughter taking up the family business as Spider-Girl, though he supports her and occasionally aids her as Spider-Man. He and Mary Jane have one other child, Benjy.
Further customization comes with exploring the town as the New Kid fills out a 'character sheet' - finding characters who specialize in this fields and talking to them ad fulfilling tasks helps you discover your gender, race, economic class, etc. Of course, this still South Park, so none of it only matters - the Rednecks will try to beat you up anyway. (Some of the dialogue does change a little.)
When Peter joined The Future Foundation he was given a new costume by Sue Storm. The suit is made of third generation unstable molecules. It has basic default settings however, by concentrating Peter can change the suit's designs and color. Spidey, Ben, Sue, and Reed will work along with other members of The Future Foundation to protect the Marvel Universe from its greatest future threats.
After graduating from High School, Peter Parker enrolled at ESU ( Empire State University) where Flash introduced him to Harry Osborn and Gwen Stacy. During this time, Aunt May suffered from a serious heart attack. Peter would constantly blow his friends off and they saw this as an insult. Eventually their relationship would get better as Peter became more involved with his peers. He and Harry became best friends and roommates. Peter also started dating Gwen Stacy. He would also meet Anna Watson's niece Mary Jane. Although he was attracted to Mary Jane, Peter decided to settle with Gwen because MJ was too much of a "party girl" for him. Peter loves Gwen, but their relationship was strained a bit by him constantly leaving to fight crime. Their relationship was saved by Gwen's father, Police Captain George Stacy, an ally of Spider-Man, who approved of Peter dating his daughter. Gwen's father was later killed during a battle between Spider-Man and Doctor Octopus, after he was crushed by falling debris while saving a child. In his dying breath, George called Spider-Man "Peter", revealing that he had always known about his dual identity and urged him to take care of Gwen. George's death caused a strain in the couple's relationship because Gwen blamed Spider-Man for her loss. She left Peter for some time to live with her uncle in London.
In Python, the datetime module contains examples of attributes. A datetime object has several pieces of information associated with it that a user can extract. For example, to get the day from the datetime object, a user could call datetime.day and to get the year, the user could call datetime.year and so on. The day and the year are attributes of a datetime object.
Following decades of false starts and numerous unused scripts, Spider-Man finally made it to the big screen in the year 2000. Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004) and Spider-Man 3 (2007) comprised a trilogy of films starring Tobey Maguire as the title character, with Sam Raimi directing each installment. The trilogy featured a large host of characters from the comics, including Kirsten Dunst as Mary Jane Watson, James Franco as Harry Osborn, Willem Dafoe as Norman Osborn/Green Goblin, J.K. Simmons as J. Jonah Jameson, Alfred Molina as Otto Octavius/Doc Ock, Thomas Haden Church as Flint Marko/Sandman, Topher Grace as Eddie Brock/Venom, Rosemary Harris as Aunt May, Cliff Robertson as Uncle Ben, Dylan Baker as Dr. Curt Connors, Elizabeth Banks as Betty Brant and Bryce Dallas Howard as Gwen Stacy.
The following day, Peter learns from Doctor Strange that the psychic blindspot put in place to defend his secret identity has been destroyed, because of a viral video of spider-powered Peter defending people. Carlie deduces who Peter is and promptly breaks up with him for lying to her. Mary Jane admits her love for Peter, and Peter administers an antidote to her. The two look up at the Empire Stats Building, which is projecting a red and blue light, thanking Spider-Man for his heroic deeds.
Peter's life did not get any easier after his wedding. As soon as he returned from his honeymoon, he was attacked by Kraven the Hunter in one of the most traumatizing events in both Peter and MJ's lives. Kraven was seeking to regain the honor that his family had lost and to do so, he must prove his superiority over his greatest foe, Spider-Man. After ambushing him, Kraven shot Peter in the head with a rifle and buried him on his grounds. Kraven donned a black Spider-Man costume and became a merciless vigilante. He even defeated Vermin, a villain Spider-Man could not defeat on his own. After two weeks, it was revealed that Spider-Man was actually alive and Kraven shot him with a tranquilizer. Peter eventually made his way to Kraven's estate and brutally pummeled the hunter. Kraven was unconcerned as he has proven his superiority over his foe before and so he set the Vermin free. After Spider-Man left Kraven to capture Vermin, Kraven killed himself.
Spider-Man once again featured as a playable fighter in the 2011 release of Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds and its updated release of Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3 and versions of the game would be released on the PlayStation 3, PlayStation Vita and Xbox 360. October 2011 also saw the release of the next Spider-Man video game adventure with Spider-Man: Edge of Time, developed by Activision and Beenox, the latter being given free reign after the success of Shattered Dimensions, which bears a similar gameplay concept. The game involves Peter Parker and his future counterpart Miguel O'Hara. New villain created for the game, Walker Sloan, has created a time machine in order to go back in time and start Alchemex, the company which Miguel works for, now was established in his own views in the seventies. Miguel proceeds to stop him but is caught in the portal after Sloan has entered and somehow becomes a "viewer" in the events. This gives him the ability to communicate with Peter Parker, who now works for Alechemex in this time altered universe, and everything he does directly affects the year 2099. Both briefly navigate their own timelines until circumstances force them to switch, now residing in timelines alien to them they traverse obstacles in order to get home through the temporal portal and solve the dystopian effects of the timeline corruption. The two work together to prevent Peter's death at the hands of Anti-Venom, save Mary Jane from multiple danger, and even take on the CEO of Alchemex. Currently Beenox has been given rights to the creation of all future Spider-Man games.

Jump up ^ Hörandner, Editha (2005). Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo (in German). LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 8, 12, 30. ISBN 9783825888893. Der Wunsch nach einer Tradition, deren Anfänge sich in grauer Vorzeit verlieren, ist bei Dachleuten wie laien gleichmäßig verbreitet. ... Abgesehen von Irrtümern wie die Herleitung des Fests in ungebrochener Tradition ("seit 2000 Jahren") ist eine mangelnde vertrautheit mit der heimischen Folklore festzustellen. Allerheiligen war lange vor der Halloween invasion ein wichtiger Brauchtermin und ist das ncoh heute. ... So wie viele heimische Bräuche generell als fruchtbarkeitsbringend und dämonenaustreibend interpretiert werden, was trottz aller Aufklärungsarbeit nicht auszurotten ist, begegnet uns Halloween als ...heidnisches Fest. Aber es wird nicht als solches inszeniert.
Spider-Man has many abilities but the most amazing of all is his uncanny Spider-Sense. It is a tingling sensation on the back of his skull that acts as a "sixth sense" and it manifests when he is around or targeted by incoming dangers. It's a precognition ability that is pheromone based and is similar to Daredevil's radar sense, increasing his reaction time and awareness. The spider-sense can manifest when Peter's secret identity is about to be compromised. It also manifests when he encounters someone who might pose a threat to him or to someone he cares about. For example, when Peter saw his roommate Michele Gonzales with one of her clients, his spider-sense warned him that the client was actually a thug who was participating in a super-villain gladiatorial contest. While the spider-sense cannot discern the specific nature of the impending threat, he can identify which direction it is coming from and the severity of the danger by the intensity of the spider-sense. Sometimes it becomes strong enough to be painful. When Spider-Man is blinded, the Spider-Sense works as another set of eyes to avoid bumping into objects. When Daken used his pheromones on Spider-Man, Peter closed his eyes and relied only on his spider-sense to defeat his foe because the pheromones corrupted his sight. A similar situation happened when Peter fought the new Vulture who blinded him with acid in the eyes. Spider-Man relied on this ability to survive this fight. Of course his Spider-Sense is a great help when he faces people in the dark. This has been proven in his fight with Iron Fist. The spider-sense can lose its effectiveness when Peter is too distracted, tired or when he chooses to ignore it although its difficult to do so because it is heavily linked to his reflexes. There were also times that his spider-sense wasn't very effective due to the Spidey's previous lack of formal training, but this has since has been largely rectified since learning the Way of the Spider. Under extreme circumstances, such as fighting in the dark or against powerful characters, Spidey has often used his spectacular spider-sense in a more effective and better way. The Spider-Sense also gave him his own free-style form of combat, allowing him to go head-to-head with the best martial artists in the Marvel Universe and his H2H skill has improved significantly since merging his Way of the Spider training with his Spider-Sense. Furthermore, the Spider-Sense also allows Spider-Man to detect certain radio frequencies on which his spider tracers' signals are based upon. During Spider-Man's first encounter with the Chameleon, the villain used a certain radio frequency to send a message to Spider-Man via his spider-sense. The Spider-Sense, combined with his speed and reflexes allows Spider-Man to dodge almost all conventional attacks. Due to the similar nature of their powers, Spider-Man is unable to sense other "Spiders", such as Ben Reilly, Ezekiel, and Kaine. During the Big Time story, Spider-Man used a device to block Alistair Smythe's minions' enhanced senses, but also disabled his own Spider-Sense. After the events of Spider-Island, Peter regained this ability.
IKEA viert dit jaar zijn 75ste verjaardag. Als verjaardagscadeau boden we de Zweedse woongigant een interview in het septembernummer van ons magazine. Victoria van Keulen vertelt over hoe zij twee jaar geleden verantwoordelijk werd voor de klantervaring in Nederland, waarna zij tot de schrikbarende ontdekking kwam dat het onderwerp weinig leefde. Voor haar dus het doel het thema concreet te maken en te vertalen. Hoe dat is gelukt? Dat lees je in de coverstory van dit nummer.
In this example, the objects or instances are the individual superheroes described by the class Superhero. There could be an Ironman object, a Wonder Woman object, a Batman object, or a Spiderman object. The class Superhero associates certain attributes and methods with the superhero objects. For this example, each superhero will have the following attributes: strength, superpower, costume color, secret identity, points, and health. Additionally, each superhero will have the following methods (or actions): attack and heal.
Another showstopper is our Inflatable Ride-On Bull Costume, which will have everyone doing double takes at this hilarious rodeo image. This isn’t just a costume that you wear, but one that you ride! If his jokes tend toward toilet humor, he can go for maximum laughs that everyone will appreciate when he dresses up in a big Poop Inflatable Costume. From pajama costumes that are perfect as group or paired looks or food costumes like a hot dog or cheeseburger, these comic Halloween outfits are sure to please any boy who loves to laugh.
Spider-Man has been featured numerous times in Hasbro's Marvel Legends series. He first appeared in the Movie Sandman Build-a-Figure wave in both his outfit from the first movie and his black costume from Spider-Man 3. He was next featured in the Arnim Zola Build-a-Figure series, this time sporting his Big Time costume. The movie version of Spider-Man from The Amazing Spider-Man 2 was then featured in the Ultimate Green Goblin Build-a-Figure wave. A classic version of Spider-Man was later featured in the Hobgoblin Build-a-Figure wave, nicknamed "Pizza Spidey" by fans due to the presence of a slice of pizza. The Ultimate version of Spider-Man was then featured in the Space Venom Build-a-Figure series. The Symbiote version of Spider-Man then appeared in the Sandman Build-a-Figure wave. A Spider-Man: Homecoming-themed wave was then launched, with Vulture's wings as the "Build-a-Vehicle" this time. The line featured the movie version of Spider-Man in his costume and his homemade suit, as well as Cosmic Spider-Man. Spider-Man has also been featured in several two-packs and box sets, including a Captain America: Civil War-themed set that included Iron Man and Captain America, and a two-pack with Ultimate Vulture.
Costume design is the envisioning of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer. Costume may refer to the style of dress particular to a nation, a class, or a period. In many cases, it may contribute to the fullness of the artistic, visual world that is unique to a particular theatrical or cinematic production. The most basic designs are produced to denote status, provide protection or modesty, or provide visual interest to a character. Costumes may be for, but not limited to, theater, cinema, or musical performances. Costume design should not be confused with costume coordination, which merely involves altering existing clothing, although both processes are used to create stage clothes.
Most folks like to be swept off their feet by a hero, and if you'd like to become the sexy army soldier who's ready to save the day, then this Khaki Camo Costume is the look for you. With a traditional military commando inspired look, you'll have no trouble protecting the innocent...AND getting them into the safety of your arms. This sexy style is one of the most popular Halloween costumes for men who have arms that are a serious gun show.
From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
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