During the 1940s there were many superheroes: The Flash, Green Lantern and Blue Beetle debuted in this era. This era saw the debut of first known female superhero, writer-artist Fletcher Hanks's character Fantomah, an ageless ancient Egyptian woman in the modern day who could transform into a skull-faced creature with superpowers to fight evil; she debuted in Fiction House's Jungle Comic #2 (Feb. 1940), credited to the pseudonymous "Barclay Flagg".[15][16] The Invisible Scarlet O'Neil, a non-costumed character who fought crime and wartime saboteurs using the superpower of invisibility created by Russell Stamm, would debut in the eponymous syndicated newspaper comic strip a few months later on June 3, 1940.[17]
Spider-Man is zombified by Captain America. Unlike many of his zombie compatriots, Spider-Man is consumed with guilt over his need to eat flesh, though he is unable to prevent himself from satiating his hunger. He later eats Galactus, and becomes one of The Galactus, a number of heroes who obtain Galactus' powers due to consuming him. When his hunger begins to fade he turns on his fellow zombies, and later travels to Earth Z, where he kills the Sinister Six. He makes attempts to find a cure and succeeds, filling Sandman with nanobites and using him to wipe out all zombies, including himself.
It's been three weeks since spider-man foiled Doc Ock's plan and now Peter is invited to MJ's, which is Mary Jane's Club, but he is still under the weather because he was not able to prevent Silver Sables death, but while Peter is "having fun" at the party Carlie calls and tells Spider-man to come meet her at the cemetery. Spider-Man arrives and Carlie tells him that the grounds keeper saw a pale man digging the grave of Billie Connors with his bare hands and then vanishing into the dark with the body. Spider-Man instantly realized that this pale powerful man was Morbius and he goes to face him at Horizon labs. Spider-Man, disgusted by Morbius' actions, starts to attack him, but eventually stops when Michael explains that the reason he dug up the grave was to find a cure for the Lizard, and he tells Peter that he has already accomplished his goal. Spider-Man, hearing this, plans an attack on the Lizard and the confronts him in the sewers and fights him for a long period for time, but finaly Morbius and Spider-Man stab the Lizard with enough hypodermic harpoons for Max to bring Connor's back. But the Lizard is still in control, even in Kurt's body. The Lizard awakens Morbius' violent vampire side, with the smell of blood. And while Spider-Man was distracted with Morbius, Connors created the new serum that will turn him into the Lizard again, but this serums turns everyone into lizards except Connors himself, so while testing this serum Connors turns the entire Horizon Labs crew into Lizards. When he finally created the serum for himself, it turned him into a new version of the Lizard. When Spider-Man comes after capturing Morbius, Carlie tells him what has happened. Spidey creates a new cure and a battle ensures between Spider-Man and the Lizard. When Spider-Man stabs the Lizard with a harpoon filled with the cure, nothing happens, the cure doesn't work. Only at the end we see that the cure has actually worked and now Connors' mind is secretly in control of the Lizard's body.
In Batman: Year One, it is depicted that Batman hid a few pieces of his arsenal in his leather boots, such as a blow gun with fast-acting anesthetic darts and an ultrasonic device built into his left heel. Batman's boots are highly unique. The basic design of the boots are modeled on Tactical boots, but they are made from lightweight rubbers and are much more flexible to allow for full extension when kicking. The boots feature a unique "slingshot" ankle reinforcement design that acts as both the armor and as reinforcement for the ankle joint when kicking or landing from high distances. The bottom is a flexible split sole design and is textured for a variety of surfaces. The boots also have steel toes, making them much more effective when on the offensive. Although Batman is already an accomplished Olympic level swimmer, during the Batman: Hush storyline, it is revealed that he installed underwater propellers on the heels. In Batman Begins, a boot heel is revealed to contain an ultrasonic signaling device capable of calling live bats to it as a form of protection and cover for Batman during a getaway. This device was originally introduced in the Batman: Year One series.
Jump up ^ Claremont, Chris; David,, Peter (2014). Wolverine Epic Collection: Madripoor Nights. ISBN 0785189033. Issue #309 will culimate the Mary Jane storyline. I am introducing a new duo of bad guys called Styx and Stones. Styx is a mastermind who loves death, adores death, and he's got these plans to bring death in all of its wonderful forms. Stones is his partner who actually carries out these things.
One of the first things I did was to work up a costume. A vital, visual part of the character. I had to know how he looked ... before I did any breakdowns. For example: A clinging power so he wouldn't have hard shoes or boots, a hidden wrist-shooter versus a web gun and holster, etc. ... I wasn't sure Stan would like the idea of covering the character's face but I did it because it hid an obviously boyish face. It would also add mystery to the character....[21]
Spidercide later betrayed Jackal to Scrier (who was eventually revealed to be an operative of a cult of Scriers working with Norman Osborn). Scrier also removed Spidercide's clone degeneration factor and the Jackal was incapable of triggering his degeneration like he had done with fellow clone Jack. He was killed when falling off the Daily Bugle after it was revealed that the Jackal had deceived him. Although apparently dead, he was put into a stasis chamber as a precaution.[4]
The Mutant X version of Spider-Man diverges from his mainstream counterpart in Amazing Spider-Man #102, in that he was unable or unwilling to cure himself of having six arms. For unexplained reasons, he reverses his name to Man-Spider. A third divergence occurs when he and his clone continue to coexist after the end of the original Clone Saga. The two keep this a secret by taking care to never appear in public at the same time,[19] but "Man-Spider" is forced to admit the truth after his clone is killed by Madelyne Pryor.[20] He himself is later killed.[21]
^ Norman Osborn using the Green Goblin alias is as commonly described as Spider-Man's archenemy.[140][143][144] Mostly after he is the first villain to uncover the hero's true identity, being responsible for setting up the death of Spider-Man's girlfriend in one of the most famous Spider-Man stories of all time which helped end the Silver Age of Comic Books and begin the Bronze Age of Comic Books.[140] He was thought to be dead after that but writers help bring him back from the 1990s and he returned to plague Spider-Man once more in the comic books (such as being involved of the killing of Aunt May) and other heroes (such as the Avengers[145]). He is also an enemy of Spider-Man sometimes just as himself and not just only as his Goblin persona.[146]

Gabriel Vargas Gabriel Vargas Captain Universe/Silver Surfer #1 (2005) A discharged Marine of the United States Marine Corps that was wounded in action and was honorably discharged. First Captain Universe to get arrested by the Kree after he stopped a group from killing Kree Civilians (Annihilation Wave Sympathizers). He was then assigned to Peter Quill's Special Ops group. During his mission he accidentally killed teammate Deathcry who was attempting to kill him after he 'stole' one of her kills. The Uni-Power leaves Gabriel after he cures the airborne Phalanx virus. Gabriel is killed by Phalanx Select Blastaar sometime after the Uni-Power leaves him.


Spider-Man Noir: Eyes Without a Face is a sequel to Spider-Man Noir, which takes place a few months after the Goblin's death. In 1934, Peter Parker, Spider-Man, has a new problem: The Crime Master is a masked criminal who has taken over as the city’s crime boss. As he investigates, his relationship with Felicia Hardy, owner of The Black Cat speakeasy, develops. He returns home to find Joe and Robbie Robertson talking with Aunt May. As a struggling black reporter, Robbie asks Peter to set up a meeting with Doctor Otto Octavius who is experimenting on Ellis Island. A few days later they meet with him and learn that he is experimenting on monkeys to understand more about the human mind. Octavius himself is wheelchair bound but employs controlled robotic arms, attached to the back of his chair, to help him. After they leave, Robbie suggests the story is deeper. That night a delivery of black slaves are delivered to Ellis Island.[5]
Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a magic ring that granted him superhuman powers. Lee and Kirby "immediately sat down for a story conference", Theakston writes, and Lee afterward directed Kirby to flesh out the character and draw some pages.[20] Steve Ditko would be the inker.[note 3] When Kirby showed Lee the first six pages, Lee recalled, "I hated the way he was doing it! Not that he did it badly—it just wasn't the character I wanted; it was too heroic".[20]:12 Lee turned to Ditko, who developed a visual style Lee found satisfactory. Ditko recalled:
Urich encounters Peter Parker during an oration by Peter’s Aunt May Parker in Central Park. The socialist slant of Aunt May’s words does not sit well with the Enforcers, and Urich is forced to intervene in order to prevent serious injury to either Peter or May. Urich subsequently takes Peter under his wing,[1] and after Peter mistakenly receives a tip-off meant for the Spider, the young man ventures to a warehouse where the Goblin’s men are unloading a shipment of stolen antiques. A particular antique — a spider statue — breaks open and releases a horde of spiders. One of the spiders bites Peter, causing him to pass out and dream of a spider god. When he awakes, he is upside-down in a black web.[2]
For her trouble, a faction of students are now trying to get the couple removed from their residential positions, which is to say, censured and ousted from their home on campus. Hundreds of Yale students are attacking them, some with hateful insults, shouted epithets, and a campaign of public shaming. In doing so, they have shown an illiberal streak that flows from flaws in their well-intentioned ideology.

In the Clone Saga, a controversial story arc, the long lost Jackal-made copy of Peter Parker returns. For years he was believed to have died after his initial encounter with the real Peter Parker. The clone, who is now calling himself Ben Reilly spent years traveling the world as he knew there was no place for him in New York City again. When his aunt May was believed to be dying, Ben returned to New York and eventually met Peter Parker. At first the two fought and Peter saw Ben as a thread, but later on the two of them worked together, with Ben even taken over as Spider-man for some time when it was believed that Peter had lost his powers. It was also during this time that aunt May seemingly died of old age. Before she passed away, she told Peter that she had known about him being Spider-man for some time now. Years later, it would be revealed that it was not aunt May that had died, but a stand in that was the work of Norman Osborn. Peter remained out of super-heroin for some time, untill his powers seemingly returned and he and the Scarlet Spider fought side by side for some time. The story arc lasted for two years and ended with the death of Ben Reilly at the hands of a returning Norman Osborn who was revealed to be alive and has been pulling strings from the moment he was believed to have died. On that day, Peter felt to have lost a brother. Although Norman Osborn was defeated, it was far from the last thing that was heard from him. With his powers fully returned, Peter resumed his work as the Amazing Spider-Man once again.


In the Avengers Assemble episode "Planet Doom", Slinger's costume almost flawlessly resembles Spider-Man Noir's costume. This version of Spider-Man is a member of the Defenders, a resistance group of vigilantes who are against Doctor Doom, who has altered history and conquered the world. Slinger works alongside Bullseye (Clint Barton) and Snap (Sam Wilson), who are awaiting their foretold savior, the God of Thunder Thor's, arrival. After Doom's defeat, reality is restored to normal, and Slinger reverts to Spider-Man.
Your son can cheer on his favorite football, baseball, hockey or basketball team by dressing up as his favorite player for Halloween! Our wide assortment of officially licensed sports costumes for boys will have him looking like he just got off the field after a big game (except cleaner). Football fans can dress up as players on the New Orleans Saints, Oakland Raiders, Seattle Seahawks or other teams, complete with color coordinated helmet.
Steeds meer consumenten gebruiken social media als contactkanaal met organisaties. Ook HTM, de openbaar vervoerder uit regio Den Haag, ziet al jaren een gestage groei van klantcontact over kanalen als Facebook, Twitter en WhatsApp. Een groot deel hiervan werd al afgehandeld door klantcontactspecialist PCS, maar een chatbot biedt inmiddels de helpende hand. De door PCS en OBI4wan ontwikkelde tool heeft tot...
Recently, Indonesia’s island of Sulawesi was hit by a tsunami following a series of devastating earthquakes, affecting more than 1.5 million people. Our partner, Direct Relief, is working hard to supply Indonesia with much needed medical aid and supplies in response. If you click below to let us know you read this article, wikiHow will donate to Direct Relief on your behalf to support the relief effort for Indonesia.
This series debuted on MTV and aired from July 11, 2003 through September 12, 2003. The series would continue where the successful live action feature film left off. The series starts with Peter already having his spider powers and follows his superhero adventures and his friends, Harry Osborn and Mary Jane Watson during their first year of college at Empire State University.
Combat and customization meet collectibles with Artifacts, powerful items you can find throughout town that enhance your character's "might" - their stats and abilities in combat, and sometimes those of your allies as well. Many of these artifacts, of course, are items relevant to South Park lore as well, like a sexy magazine from Mayor McDaniels' office. If you feel like you're stuck and can't progress, finding or equipping new artifacts might be a good move.

In 1991, Sega released the first Spider-Man arcade game titled Spider-Man: The Video Game. Sega also released The Amazing Spider-Man vs. The Kingpin the same year. The Nintendo home consoles were late to the Spider-Man party, but they saw many Spider-Man titles themselves. The first was Spider-Man: Return of the Sinister Six, released in 1992 and considered by some to be one of the worst Spider-Man games of all time. Not all Spider-Man titles followed original story lines. In 1994, Spider-Man and Venom: Maximum Carnage was released for the Super Nintendo and the Sega Genesis. The game closely followed the Maximum Carnage Story Arc. 1995 gave us Spider-Man and Venom: Separation Anxiety, which was released on the Sega Genesis, the Super Nintendo and the PC. That same year, Spider-Man: The Animated Series was released for the Genesis and the Super Nintendo; it followed the storyline of the series, with most of the characters being represented the way they were in the cartoon. The next Spider-Man game, Spider-Man: Web of Fire, was released for the Sega 32X. This game is one of rarest and most valuable Spider-Man games to date. For the next couple of years, no game completely dedicated to Spider-Man was released. However, in 1995 he made his fighting game debut in Capcom's Marvel Super Heroes arcade game (which was later ported to the Sony PlayStation and Sega Saturn). He returned for the 1997 sequel Marvel Super Heroes vs. Street Fighter (which later ported to the Sony PlayStation and Sega Saturn) and its 1998 followup, Marvel vs. Capcom: Clash of Super Heroes (which was later ported to the Sega Dreamcast and Sony PlayStation).
Spider-Man is one of the most popular and commercially successful superheroes.[11] As Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in countless forms of media, including several animated and live action television series, syndicated newspaper comic strips, and in a series of films. The character was first portrayed in live action by Danny Seagren in Spidey Super Stories, a The Electric Company skit which ran from 1974 to 1977.[12] In films, Spider-Man has been portrayed by actors Tobey Maguire (2002–2007), Andrew Garfield (2012–2014),[13] and Tom Holland (2016–present), who has portrayed the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe since 2016. Reeve Carney starred as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark.[14] Spider-Man has been well received as a superhero and comic book character, and he is often ranked as one of the most popular comic book characters of all time, alongside DC Comics' most famous superheroes, Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman.
That isn’t to dismiss all complaints by Yale students. If contested claims that black students were turned away from a party due to their skin color are true, for example, that is outrageous. If any discrete group of students is ever discriminated against, or disproportionately victimized by campus crime, or graded more harshly by professors, then of course students should protest and remedies should be implemented.
From 1984 to 1988, Spider-Man wore a black costume with a white spider design on his chest. The new costume originated in the Secret Wars limited series, on an alien planet where Spider-Man participates in a battle between Earth's major superheroes and villains.[65] He continues wearing the costume when he returns, starting in The Amazing Spider-Man #252. The change to a longstanding character's design met with controversy, "with many hardcore comics fans decrying it as tantamount to sacrilege. Spider-Man's traditional red and blue costume was iconic, they argued, on par with those of his D.C. rivals Superman and Batman."[66] The creators then revealed the costume was an alien symbiote which Spider-Man is able to reject after a difficult struggle,[67] though the symbiote returns several times as Venom for revenge.[49]
During her career, she had a role in the rebirth of two of Spider-Man's old foes during the Rose's efforts to gain extra muscle: she was the one who threw the switch of the electric chair which gave Electro his powers back, and helped set up the theft of Doctor Octopus' corpse for re-animation from the Hand. She also appears in Loners as an assassin smuggling MGH.[113][114][115][116]

Spider-Man also fought the Rhino, Shocker, and the Scorpion. At one point, Peter felt that he was unable to carry the burden of being Spider-Man any longer and considered retiring from super-heroics. When the Kingpin of Crime made his move to take over the city, Peter knew that it was still his responsibility to protect the innocent and so he defeated this crime-lord and returned to crime fighting.


Unlike well known rivalries in comics book depictions where heroes always still have more than one enemy but usually one archenemy (e.g., Joker, to Batman in DC Comics, Red Skull to Captain America, Doctor Doom to the Fantastic Four and the Brotherhood of Mutants to the X-Men in Marvel Comics etc.), Spider-Man is known to have three archenemies and it can be debated or disputed as to which one is worse:[123]


Jump up ^ Woods, Robert (2013). Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 9780313386541. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own. They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. Contained in small packages featuring Bible verses, Scripture Candy's "Harvest Seeds"--candy corn in everything but name—are among many candies created for this purpose.
Jump up ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1960s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. Dorling Kindersley. p. 24. ISBN 978-0756692360. While never reaching the popularity of previous [Stan] Lee and [Steve] Ditko collaborations, the Enforcers managed to give the wall-crawler a run for his money in their first appearance.
The earliest superhero I could find reference to was Mandrake the Magician, who debuted in 1934, four years before Superman, who was probably the first popular superhero. Mandrake’s super power was his ability to “make people believe anything, simply by gesturing hypnotically”. Does anyone out there know of any superheroes who made an earlier media appearance?
He’ll be ready for battle in his Silver Mirror Ninja costume, which includes a hood with mirror mask. This fierce garb will look amazing on any budding fighter. For extra fierceness, get him the Skull Dragon Ninja costume, so he can be even more intimidating and feel extra powerful. He can practice his ninja moves in the days leading up to October 31 so that when he makes his debut in front of his classmates or goes around the neighborhood he’s perfected his role for the day.
A Broadway musical, Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark, began previews on November 14, 2010, at the Foxwoods Theatre on Broadway, with the official opening night on June 14, 2011.[199][200] The music and lyrics were written by Bono and The Edge of the rock group U2, with a book by Julie Taymor, Glen Berger, Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa.[201] Turn Off the Dark is currently the most expensive musical in Broadway history, costing an estimated $70 million.[202] In addition, the show's unusually high running costs are reported to have been about $1.2 million per week.[203]
Though similar in appearance to the older costumes, this Batsuit is unique in and that it possesses a much larger amount of gadgetry than any other costume shown to date. Thus far, the Batsuit has been shown to not only contain multiple batarangs and other standard Bat-paraphernalia, but also a collapsible sword, wings, deep space gear, scuba equipment, and multiple rocket thrusters. Also, the emblem on Batman's chest can now transform into an emergency Batarang, becoming hard and rigid after being exposed to some sort of magnetic field emitted by the suit.

If you're a gym rat and you've got the six pack to show it, then we ALL know there's only one costume for you—a Greek Spartan warrior! You could be just like King Leonidas in The 300 and vanquish your opponents on the battlefield...or even defeat them on the dance floor if you know a move or two. And it won't matter if you're looking for admiration from goddesses, kings and queens, or your fellow warriors. Because when you're dressed in this costume, you're not going to be leaving a whole lot to the imagination!

When Peter joined The Future Foundation he was given a new costume by Sue Storm. The suit is made of third generation unstable molecules. It has basic default settings however, by concentrating Peter can change the suit's designs and color. Spidey, Ben, Sue, and Reed will work along with other members of The Future Foundation to protect the Marvel Universe from its greatest future threats.

The Marvel Zombies universe features a Spider-Man who has been turned into a flesh-eating zombie after being infected by Zombie Captain America.[12] Although Spider-Man is just as ravenous as the other zombies when hungry, when he has eaten, Spider-Man is racked with guilt at what he has done, especially for having eaten Mary Jane and Aunt May, but unable to change his nature.[13] At the conclusion of the original series, Spider-Man is one of the heroes who become The Galacti, having consumed the original Galactus and subsequently acquiring his cosmic powers.[14]
In the episode "Traction," the Batman is badly injured by the immensely powerful Bane, due to which he is forced to build a prototype called the "Batbot" to battle the villain. Bruce Wayne controls the Batbot while sitting inside the cockpit. It is shown to possess the superhuman strength to match that of Bane, along with enhanced levels of agility and endurance. It has two turbos retro-thrusters flight on its back as well. The Batbot is also shown to be controlled via the Batman's utility belt (for example, in "The Cat and the Bat" episode).

Spider-Man (1977) Spider-Man (1978) Spider-Man Strikes Back (1978) Spider-Man: The Dragon's Challenge (1981) Spider-Man (2002) Spider-Man 2 (2004) Spider-Man 3 (2007) The Amazing Spider-Man (2012) The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014) Captain America: Civil War (2016) Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017) Avengers: Infinity War (2018) Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse (2018) Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019)
On Earth-11638, this version of Spider-Man is called the Amazing Spider who is rich, powerful, and popular where none of his loved ones has died. Peter runs Parker Technologies and his Uncle Ben spurs him to be the best. Upon inventing a portal technology, he unknowingly brought Earth-616's Spider-Man, Deadpool, and Hulk to Earth-11638. During a scuffle with Spider-Man in Amazing Spider's lair called the Web, Uncle Ben was about to plug Spider-Man into the machine. Amazing Spider was caught between the machine and was placed in a comatose state.[60] While in a coma, Amazing Spider's soul arrived in Hell where Bruce Banner's Sorcerer Supreme counterpart died fighting the Infernal Hulk. Though Bruce's astral form stayed alive and helped return the Amazing Spider to life with the souls of the repentant damned which gave him a second chance to live. When he awoke, he found himself transformed into a new character called the Ghost Spider. To make amends with Spider-Man, Ghost Spider transported him, Deadpool, and Hulk back to Earth-616.[61]
Jump up ^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. p. 167. ISBN 9781438110370. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2015. They were both respected and feared. "Their backs towards us, their faces away from us, and may God and Mary save us from harm," was a prayer spoken whenever one ventured near their dwellings.

Spider-Man is zombified by Captain America. Unlike many of his zombie compatriots, Spider-Man is consumed with guilt over his need to eat flesh, though he is unable to prevent himself from satiating his hunger. He later eats Galactus, and becomes one of The Galactus, a number of heroes who obtain Galactus' powers due to consuming him. When his hunger begins to fade he turns on his fellow zombies, and later travels to Earth Z, where he kills the Sinister Six. He makes attempts to find a cure and succeeds, filling Sandman with nanobites and using him to wipe out all zombies, including himself.

I suppose we could agree that there is a difference between fantasizing about an individual character vs. appropriating a culture, wholesale, the latter of which could be seen as (tacky)(offensive)(jejeune)(hurtful), take your pick. But, then, I wonder what is the statute of limitations on dreaming of dressing as Tiana the Frog Princess if you aren’t a black girl from New Orleans? Is it okay if you are eight, but not 18? I don’t know the answer to these questions; they seem unanswerable. Or at the least, they put us on slippery terrain that I, for one, prefer not to cross.

In 2010, a stage musical entitled Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark opened on Broadway, with music by Bono and the edge and writing by Julie Taymor. The musical was wrought with problems from the very beginning, with multiple injuries happening to actors on the set, and a total cost of 75 million dollars for the production. After opening for previews, the show received many terrible reviews, and was temporarily shut down for rewrites.

Here’s one of the ways that white men at Yale are most privileged of all: When a white male student at an elite college says that he feels disempowered, the first impulse of the campus left is to show him the extent of his power and privilege. When any other students say they feel disempowered, the campus left’s impulse is to validate their statements. This does a huge disservice to everyone except white male students. It’s baffling that so few campus activists seem to realize this drawback of emphasizing victim status even if college administrators sometimes treat it as currency.
From at least the 16th century,[5] the festival included mumming and guising,[6] which involved people going house-to-house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting verses or songs in exchange for food.[6] It may have originally been a tradition whereby people impersonated the Aos Sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf. Impersonating these beings, or wearing a disguise, was also believed to protect oneself from them.[7] It is suggested that the mummers and guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[8] F. Marian McNeill suggests the ancient pagan festival included people wearing masks or costumes to represent the spirits, and that faces were marked (or blackened) with ashes taken from the sacred bonfire.[5] In parts of southern Ireland, a man dressed as a Láir Bhán (white mare) led youths house-to-house reciting verses—some of which had pagan overtones—in exchange for food. If the household donated food it could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[9] In 19th century Scotland, youths went house-to-house with masked, painted or blackened faces, often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[6] In parts of Wales, men went about dressed as fearsome beings called gwrachod,[6] while in some places, young people cross-dressed.[6] Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and costumes were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[6] It has also been suggested that the wearing of Halloween costumes developed from the custom of souling, which was practised by Christians in parts of Western Europe from at least the 15th century.[10][11] At Allhallowtide, groups of poor people would go door-to-door, collecting soul cakes – either as representatives of the dead,[12] or in return for saying prayers for them.[13] One 19th century English writer said it "used to consist of parties of children, dressed up in fantastic costume, who went round to the farm houses and cottages, signing a song, and begging for cakes (spoken of as "Soal-cakes"), apples, money, or anything that the goodwives would give them".[14] The soulers typically asked for "mercy on all Christian souls for a soul cake".[15] The practice was mentioned by Shakespeare his play The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593).[16][17] Christian minister Prince Sorie Conteh wrote on the wearing of costumes: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day, and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance, people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities".[18] In the Middle Ages, statues and relics of martyred saints were paraded through the streets at Allhallowtide. Some churches who could not afford these things had people dress as saints instead.[19][20] Some believers continue the practice of dressing as saints, biblical figures, and reformers in Halloween celebrations today.[21] Many Christians in continental Europe, especially in France, believed that on Halloween "the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival," known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[22] An article published by Christianity Today claimed the danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and suggested this was the origin of Halloween costume parties.[23][24]
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