Holland also reprises his role in the third Avengers film, Avengers: Infinity War, where he joins the heroes in the fight against Thanos. He is first seen in action leaving a school bus during a field trip when he sees Thanos' forces invading New York before proceeding to help Stark, Doctor Strange and Wong in fighting off Cull Obsidian and Ebony Maw from kidnapping Strange. However, the Black Order succeeds in capturing Strange, leaving Parker and Stark to get inside the ship which the two Black Order members used to travel to Earth in order to rescue Strange. The two Avengers were able to send Maw into outer space and rescued Strange from being tortured when he refused to give up the Time Stone. The trio decide to head to Titan in order to deal with Thanos themselves only to meet Star-Lord, Mantis and Drax the Destroyer of the Guardians of the Galaxy who also went to Titan to fight Thanos and rescue Gamora. Thanos then arrives on Titan to attain the Time Stone from Strange which leads to him and the team having a fearsome battle and ends with Thanos being mentally incapacitated by Mantis while the others try to take off Thanos' Infinity Gauntlet from his hand. However, this plan fails after Quill attacks Thanos when he learns the former was responsible for Gamora's death which lets Thanos to break away from being mentally incapacitated.
Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time. Jack-o'-lanterns are traditionally carried by guisers on All Hallows' Eve in order to frighten evil spirits.[97][120] There is a popular Irish Christian folktale associated with the jack-o'-lantern,[121] which in folklore is said to represent a "soul who has been denied entry into both heaven and hell":[122]
Peter Parker, the amazing Spider-Man, has made an astonishing discovery-he has a sister! Unfortunately, a manipulative super-villain known as the Gentleman-who had a hand in the deaths of Peter's parents-has somehow brainwashed her into becoming the deadly supervilainess known as Pity! Together with Doctor Octopus, Electro, the Vulture, and Mysterio, they've formed the newest incarnation of the super-villain group dedicated to destroy Spider-Man, the Sinister Six! But there is something more than just the death of Spider-Man on the Sinister Six's agenda; something that has caused Col. Sean Morgan and his high-tech anti-espionage agents of S.A.F.E. to become involved. Spider-Man teams up with Morgan to stop the Sinister Six before they can put their world-threatening plan in motion, and to save his sister before it's too late!
Writers and artists over the years have established a rogues gallery of supervillains to face Spider-Man. In comics and in other media. As with the hero, the majority of the villains' powers originate with scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology, and many have animal-themed costumes or powers.[note 6] Examples are listed down below in the ordering of their original chronological appearance:      Indicates a group.
Many new openly gay, lesbian and bisexual characters have since emerged in superhero fiction, such as Gen¹³'s Rainmaker, Apollo and Midnighter of The Authority, and Wiccan and Hulkling of the Young Avengers. Notable transgender or gender bending characters are fewer in number by comparison: the alter ego of superheroine Zsazsa Zaturnnah, a seminal character in Philippine popular culture,[63] is an effeminate gay man who transforms into a female superhuman after ingesting a magical stone. Desire from Neil Gaiman's The Sandman series and Xavin from the Runaways are both characters who could (and often) change their gender at will. Alysia Yeoh, a supporting character created by writer Gail Simone for the Batgirl ongoing series published by DC Comics, received substantial media attention in 2011 for being the first major transgender character written in a contemporary context in a mainstream American comic book.[64]
Should grownup dudes wear awesome Halloween costumes? Of course they should! In fact, Halloween costumes for men aren't childish at all. They are a rite of passage that grants you entry into all the coolest, spookiest parties. We know you'll find a creepy option that makes all your nightmares come true in our collection of mens costumes. So start stalking your perfect outfit right now. The witching hour is almost at hand and you don't want to be caught dead without one of our unique adult Halloween costumes.
In "What If? Spider-Man vs. Wolverine" Spider-Man goes to Russia with Wolverine on a rescue mission and eventually becomes a Black-ops version. Through training alongside Wolverine he enhances his spider-sense and becomes more confident. He eventually decides to join up with Wolverine permanently and leave behind his old ways. He also develops a change to his web shooter which enables him to shoot bullets out of it, which he does, killing a man. He is shown in a sleeker black and red suit more fit for his new lifestyle.[55] This Spider-Man appears in Spider-Verse as "Assassin Spider-Man" and is killed by Daemos.[56]
Spider-Man has many abilities but the most amazing of all is his uncanny Spider-Sense. It is a tingling sensation on the back of his skull that acts as a "sixth sense" and it manifests when he is around or targeted by incoming dangers. It's a precognition ability that is pheromone based and is similar to Daredevil's radar sense, increasing his reaction time and awareness. The spider-sense can manifest when Peter's secret identity is about to be compromised. It also manifests when he encounters someone who might pose a threat to him or to someone he cares about. For example, when Peter saw his roommate Michele Gonzales with one of her clients, his spider-sense warned him that the client was actually a thug who was participating in a super-villain gladiatorial contest. While the spider-sense cannot discern the specific nature of the impending threat, he can identify which direction it is coming from and the severity of the danger by the intensity of the spider-sense. Sometimes it becomes strong enough to be painful. When Spider-Man is blinded, the Spider-Sense works as another set of eyes to avoid bumping into objects. When Daken used his pheromones on Spider-Man, Peter closed his eyes and relied only on his spider-sense to defeat his foe because the pheromones corrupted his sight. A similar situation happened when Peter fought the new Vulture who blinded him with acid in the eyes. Spider-Man relied on this ability to survive this fight. Of course his Spider-Sense is a great help when he faces people in the dark. This has been proven in his fight with Iron Fist. The spider-sense can lose its effectiveness when Peter is too distracted, tired or when he chooses to ignore it although its difficult to do so because it is heavily linked to his reflexes. There were also times that his spider-sense wasn't very effective due to the Spidey's previous lack of formal training, but this has since has been largely rectified since learning the Way of the Spider. Under extreme circumstances, such as fighting in the dark or against powerful characters, Spidey has often used his spectacular spider-sense in a more effective and better way. The Spider-Sense also gave him his own free-style form of combat, allowing him to go head-to-head with the best martial artists in the Marvel Universe and his H2H skill has improved significantly since merging his Way of the Spider training with his Spider-Sense. Furthermore, the Spider-Sense also allows Spider-Man to detect certain radio frequencies on which his spider tracers' signals are based upon. During Spider-Man's first encounter with the Chameleon, the villain used a certain radio frequency to send a message to Spider-Man via his spider-sense. The Spider-Sense, combined with his speed and reflexes allows Spider-Man to dodge almost all conventional attacks. Due to the similar nature of their powers, Spider-Man is unable to sense other "Spiders", such as Ben Reilly, Ezekiel, and Kaine. During the Big Time story, Spider-Man used a device to block Alistair Smythe's minions' enhanced senses, but also disabled his own Spider-Sense. After the events of Spider-Island, Peter regained this ability.
The police, led by Jean DeWolff, arrive too late to save Spider-Man from a massive beating but in time to kill Sandman. The Crime Master escapes, but Spider-Man has managed to link him with TFONG. A severely injured Spider-Man goes to Felicia to recover. The following day she forces him to leave before the arrival of her other man — the unmasked Crime Master. Felicia questions him too much, and he determines that she has been seeing Spider-Man. In fury, he attacks her with a shard of mirror. He gets a call from the leader of TFONG, telling him to shut Ellis Island down before they all get caught. Spider-Man goes to Ellis Island himself and finds Robbie, but was too late as Octavius had already drilled into his frontal lobe, leaving him motionless.[7]
Elsewhere in Europe, mumming and hobby horses were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[65] From at least the 18th century, "imitating malignant spirits" led to playing pranks in Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century.[65] Traditionally, pranksters used hollowed out turnips or mangel wurzels often carved with grotesque faces as lanterns.[65] By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits,[65] or were used to ward off evil spirits.[69][70] They were common in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands in the 19th century,[65] as well as in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.[65]
Jump up ^ Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of Traditional Irish Food & Drink. Poolbeg Press. p. 138. ISBN 9781853711428. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
The Utility Belt is a specialized belt Batman wears to equip his crime-fighting gear. The utility belt is a modified climbing harness, with magnetized impact-resistant pouches, and canisters attached to the belt at ergonomic points for ease of reach. It carries a magnetic gas-powered grapple gun, an encrypted cell phone, Batarangs, a medical kit, smoke bombs, mini explosives, periscope, remote control for the Tumbler, mini-cam, money, and other unspecified equipment. Batman removed the belt's shoulder and chest straps because they constricted his movements.

Fearing for MJ's safety, Peter pushes her out of the apartment so that he could fight the Puma as Spider-Man without revealing his identity to her. MJ heard the sounds of battle. After Peter defeated Puma, MJ confessed to him that she cannot handle the danger he puts himself in. She tells him that she has always known his secret identity. Black Cat appears to reconcile with Peter which caused MJ to run away crying. She considered leaving town again but she then decided to confront Peter. They became very close and they would tell each other everything. They were hiding from their true feelings and Peter proposed to MJ. Although she initially refused, after making amends with her sister, MJ returned to Peter and accepted his proposal. Despite knowing that they are still too young and Peter's double life may make things difficult, Peter and Mary Jane tied the knot.

Steeds meer consumenten gebruiken social media als contactkanaal met organisaties. Ook HTM, de openbaar vervoerder uit regio Den Haag, ziet al jaren een gestage groei van klantcontact over kanalen als Facebook, Twitter en WhatsApp. Een groot deel hiervan werd al afgehandeld door klantcontactspecialist PCS, maar een chatbot biedt inmiddels de helpende hand. De door PCS en OBI4wan ontwikkelde tool heeft tot...
In 1962, Stan Lee and Steve Ditko took to creating a story for what would be the final issue of a soon to be cancelled comic, and in it they created one of the biggest pop culture juggernauts ever: Spider-Man. That classic look has stayed with the character throughout his 50+ years of consistent publication, and as iconic as it may be there have been some alterations to the Spider-Man costumes over the years.
Jump up ^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780252029318. Retrieved 14 December 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival. Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared.
Jump up ^ Moser, Stefan (29 October 2010). "Kein 'Trick or Treat' bei Salzburgs Kelten" (in German). Salzburger Nachrichten. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017. Die Kelten haben gar nichts mit Halloween zu tun", entkräftet Stefan Moser, Direktor des Keltenmuseums Hallein, einen weit verbreiteten Mythos. Moser sieht die Ursprünge von Halloween insgesamt in einem christlichen Brauch, nicht in einem keltischen.
The Marvel Comics teams of the early 1960s typically included at least one (and often the only) female member, much like DC's flagship superhero team the Justice League of America (whose initial roster included Wonder Woman as the token female); examples include the Fantastic Four's Invisible Girl, the X-Men's Jean Grey (originally known as Marvel Girl), the Avengers' Wasp, and the Brotherhood of Mutants' Scarlet Witch (who later joined the Avengers).
This series debuted on MTV and aired from July 11, 2003 through September 12, 2003. The series would continue where the successful live action feature film left off. The series starts with Peter already having his spider powers and follows his superhero adventures and his friends, Harry Osborn and Mary Jane Watson during their first year of college at Empire State University.

Jump up ^ Bannatyne, Lesley (31 August 1998). HALLOWEEN. Pelican Publishing Company. p. 19. ISBN 9781455605538. Villagers were also encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints. Poor churches could not afford genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils. It served the new church by giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween.
Peter becomes desperate to save May. He makes a deal with Mephisto who offers to save his aunt and restore the secrecy of his identity in exchange for erasing Peter's marriage to MJ. Mephisto gives the couple One More Day to decide (hence the title of the story) and Peter reluctantly agrees. He then wakes up in the house of May who is alive and well with no recollection of the deal. This marks the beginning of the Brand New Day era, in which Harry Osborn is alive and Spider-Man meets new friends and foes. He fights new villains including Mister Negative, Screwball, the Spider-Mugger, Menace who is the girlfriend of Harry, Kraven's daughter Ana Kravinoff in the story Kraven's First Hunt, the New Vulture in 24/7, teams-up with Anti-Venom to fight Norman Osborn's Thunderbolts in New Ways to Die and is accused of murder during the Character Assassination story. When the Secret Invasion took place, Spider-Man helped his fellow heroes in fighting off the invading Skrulls.

The armor was then coated with a black latex material to dampen Bruce's heat signature, making him difficult to detect with night-vision equipment. Made of a graphite material, the cowl acts as a protective helmet. The cowl's Kevlar lining is supposed to be bulletproof. A manufacturing defect in the graphite used in the production of the first shipment of the cowl's components made its outer shell incapable of withstanding blunt trauma (a flaw Alfred demonstrated to Bruce Wayne using a baseball bat). Batman apparently took on Falcone and his henchmen at the docks with the defective helmet. The second shipment was supposed to fix this problem. An advanced eavesdropping device is concealed within the cowl's right ear and enables Batman to listen in on conversations from a distance.


However, Parker still existed within Doctor Octopus's mind in the memories that he absorbed. The consciousness intent on stopping the villain and reclaiming his life, tries to influence Octavius, but fails to do so in any more than the slightest of ways. Parker's remnant also inadvertently causes Otto to share Peter's genuine love for Mary Jane Watson, and so pushes her away for her own safety. After Otto used a brain scanner to treat a young girl's brain injury, he decided to use the device on himself to discover Parker's presence within his mind. A mental battle ensues between himself and Parker, which Otto seemingly wins, erasing Peter's memories.
Character hoodies are perhaps our favorite quick-and-easy costume, because they work for a great everyday geek fashion too! This Yoda hoodie will instantly transform you into a Dagobah dwelling Jedi. People might be expecting a Yoda voice when you go in this sweatshirt though, so do your best to practice your gravelly tone and work on flipping around the words in your sentences!
While out web-swinging, Spider-Man sees a brilliant purple light from a distant warehouse, and investigates it to find Mysterio ranting about how he missed out on one chance to kill Spider-Man already. Although Spider-Man quickly defeats him and ties him up, when examining Mysterio's equipment, he is shot by Mysterio, causing him to fall through the rift created by the equipment. When he regains consciousness, he discovers that it is daylight. Although he interrupts a mugging, he is shocked and confused when the would-be victim informs him that, while he is grateful for the rescue, it might be disrespectful to be seen wearing Peter Parker's suit after his death. Swinging away to think about what he has just heard, Spider-Man runs into another Spider-Man on a rooftop.[3]
Thought to be the cowl worn by Bruce Wayne when he was "killed" in a confrontation with Darkseid during the Final Crisis. Bruce Wayne's last batsuit actually refers to two suits; one worn by Bruce as he was thrown through time by Darkseid's Omega Sanction and one worn by the corpse of a Bruce Wayne clone that Darkseid had the Earth's population believe was Bruce.
who lives a life as Peter and Spider-Man. They also used the same characters as before, such as: Peter's Aunt May, J. Jonah Jameson: Editor of the Daily Bugle, Betty Brant: Jameson's secretary and classic damsel in distress, and later on during the series, Robbie Robertson, Jameson's assistant. Spidey also faces some of his usual foes such as: Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, Mysterio and the Chameleon. This also included a six part story arc where Spidey goes up against Doctor Doom throughout the series. Spidey was voiced by Ted Schwartz in this series.
While Peter Parker still becomes the titular Spider-Man in the comic book starring his name, the initial focus of the story is upon Daily Bugle reporter Ben Urich, an experienced and respected reporter who has a network of informants under the alias of the Spider. The Goblin is a crime lord named Osborn whose henchmen consist of the Enforcers (consisting of Ox, Fancy Dan, Montana), Kraven, the Chameleon (a master of disguise) and the Vulture (a sideshow freak who had developed a taste for human flesh). Urich does not use the information he has to expose the Goblin but rather to blackmail him, in order to get enough money to feed his secret drug habit.[1]

The Classic Suit is the one Peter Parker begins this story using, and it appears he has been using this suit for the better part of 8 years. It features a smaller spider design on the front with the larger spider on the back - and more basic materials used in the design. It becomes damaged during the start of the story, during your fight with Kingpin.

The toy's instructions are also somewhat crazy as they go through the entire transformation sequence, then end with a picture of Spider-Man transformed a totally different way from the waist down (resembling the picture on the back of the card). This was likely done because transforming him the correct way makes it impossible for him to stand without splaying his legs far out to the sides. The instructions also fail to note the step wherein his legs extend slightly to reveal double-jointed knees.
Spider-Man (1967–70) episodes Spidey Super Stories (1974–77) The Amazing Spider-Man (1977–79) Spider-Man (1978–79) Spider-Woman (1979–80) Spider-Man (1981–82) The Capture of Captain America Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends (1981–83) episodes characters Spider-Man (1994–98) episodes characters Spider-Man Unlimited (1999–2001) Spider-Man: The New Animated Series (2003) The Spectacular Spider-Man (2008–09) episodes characters Ultimate Spider-Man (2012–17) episodes Spider-Man (2017–present) episodes
Assigned as the sidekick of Captain Diabetes, the New Kid is forced to accompany him to infiltrate the Peppermint Hippo strip club and pose as a stripper in order to locate a woman with a penis tattoo, who may hold a clue to Scrambles' location... after questioning to wealthy regulars, and mixing up a fart-laden drink for the Peppermint Hippo DJ, they discover Classi is the woman in question. Chasing her to the back in pursuit, they are forced to battle many of the strippers, lead by Spontaneous Bootay, who aim to protect her.

In this Batsuit, the fins on the sides of Batman's gauntlets are now retractable and are capable of firing outwards as projectiles. The chest emblem is smaller than the original, and separated in half across the pectorals. Furthermore, this suit also has a built-in retractable 'memory cloth' cape that can be stored in compartments behind the shoulder blades. Though this function was only ever used once when scaled a vantage point in China.
“This year, we seem afraid that college students are unable to decide how to dress themselves on Halloween,” she wrote. “I don’t wish to trivialize genuine concerns about cultural and personal representation, and other challenges to our lived experience in a plural community. I know that many decent people have proposed guidelines on Halloween costumes from a spirit of avoiding hurt and offense. I laud those goals, in theory, as most of us do. But in practice, I wonder if we should reflect more transparently, as a community, on the consequences of an institutional (bureaucratic and administrative) exercise of implied control over college students.”
The armor was then coated with a black latex material to dampen Bruce's heat signature, making him difficult to detect with night-vision equipment. Made of a graphite material, the cowl acts as a protective helmet. The cowl's Kevlar lining is supposed to be bulletproof. A manufacturing defect in the graphite used in the production of the first shipment of the cowl's components made its outer shell incapable of withstanding blunt trauma (a flaw Alfred demonstrated to Bruce Wayne using a baseball bat). Batman apparently took on Falcone and his henchmen at the docks with the defective helmet. The second shipment was supposed to fix this problem. An advanced eavesdropping device is concealed within the cowl's right ear and enables Batman to listen in on conversations from a distance.
Since the North American history is relatively short, in searching for the superhero, maybe you should take a look into European or Asian history. I’m pretty sure there were stories about the super-capable guys fighting for the justice long before the 1934. These stories were probably told by the word of mouth, more likely then written down or sketched.
When Spider-Man tries to stop what looks like a simple robbery, he discovers that it's really the start of a sinister plot created by his archenemy, Dr. Octopus. Dr. Octopus is in control of a pair of unstoppable nuclear missiles that he plans to use to take over the world. Teaming up with Captain America, Spider-Man must race against time to stop World War III!
This version of Spider-Man, after being blamed by J. Jonah Jameson for his son's disappearance exploring another planet named Counter-Earth, designs a new costume with sonic weaponry and stealth capabilities using nanotechnology borrowed from Reed Richards. Traveling to Counter-Earth himself, he joins a group of human revolutionaries led by John Jameson himself in resisting the High Evolutionary and his tyrannical rule, in which humans are brutally oppressed and the half-human, half-animal Beastials form the social elite. He also battles Venom and Carnage, who traveled with Jameson to Counter-Earth and are plotting to infect the entire planet with symbiotes.[volume & issue needed] He is killed by Daemos of the Inheritors, along with the Knights of Wundagore and many other Beastials.[42]
If you've got an epic horseshoe mustache and the long sideburns to match, or are just willing to trim your black beard into a killer style, then there's only one character for you. Jules Winnfield from Pulp Fiction! This sharp tongued (but well dressed) man might recite a bible verse before he fulfills his contract, but we think you'll be a hot shot no matter what you say when you go in this iconic suit. Officially licensed, this suit is designed straight from the movie, and is the easiest way to portray the iconic Tarantino character and his sweet facial hair!

Karen: The suit has a built-in A.I. named Karen, similar to Tony Stark ’s F.R.I.D.A.Y., that informs Spider-Man on changing tactical situations and provides diagnostic reports. This feature was initially set to activate after Parker completed the Training Wheels Protocol, but Ned Leeds unlocked it with the rest of the suit's abilities. Karen records and stores data while the suit is in use through the Baby Monitor Protocol, allowing Spider-Man to access a personal database and review information he may have overlooked previously, or to research people or events he has previously encountered. Karen also provides suggestions and activates features autonomously, such as when she enabled the suit's 'Enhanced Reconnaissance Mode' when Parker needed help surveying a couple of criminals.


^ Jump up to: a b Anne E. Kitch (2004). The Anglican Family Prayer Book. Church Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2011. All Hallow's Eve, which later became known as Halloween, is celebrated on the night before All Saints' Day, November 1. Use this simple prayer service in conjunction with Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this festival.

A bite from a radioactive spider on a school field trip causes a variety of changes in the body of Peter Parker and gives him superpowers. In the original Lee-Ditko stories, Spider-Man has the ability to cling to walls, superhuman strength, a sixth sense ("spider-sense") that alerts him of danger, perfect balance and equilibrium, as well as superhuman speed and agility. Some of his comic series have him shooting webs from his wrists. Academically brilliant, Parker has expertise in the fields of applied, chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, mathematics, and mechanics. The character was originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko as intellectually gifted, but not a genius; however, later writers have depicted the character as a genius. With his talents, he sews his own costume to conceal his identity, and constructs many devices that complement his powers, most notably mechanical web-shooters. This mechanism ejects an advanced adhesive, releasing web-fluid in a variety of configurations, including a single rope-like strand to swing from, a net to bind enemies, and a simple glob to foul machinery or blind an opponent. He can also weave the web material into simple forms like a shield, a spherical protection or hemispherical barrier, a club, or a hang-glider wing. Other equipment include spider-tracers (spider-shaped adhesive homing beacons keyed to his own spider-sense), a light beacon which can either be used as a flashlight or project a "Spider-Signal" design, and a specially modified camera that can take pictures automatically.
The New Kid is you, after all, so customizing your character remains a crucial part of the game. After selecting your character's sex and selecting from a variety of hairstyles and a default outfit, everything else plays out ingame. Costume pieces are no longer attached to stats, so now you can create your own unique and customization superhero costume. (Try to be a little more creative than Super Craig.)
The Batsuit is the costume Batman wears to conceal his identity and to frighten criminals. Unable to create it by himself, Bruce Wayne needed Lucius Fox to provide him some sort of armor. Fox presented him a prototype armor suit that was rejected by the army due to cost. After receiving the suit, Bruce sprays it with black rubber and adds a bat symbol.
It is claimed that in the Middle Ages, churches that were too poor to display the relics of martyred saints at Allhallowtide let parishioners dress up as saints instead.[92][93] Some Christians continue to observe this custom at Halloween today.[94] Lesley Bannatyne believes this could have been a Christianization of an earlier pagan custom.[95] While souling, Christians would carry with them "lanterns made of hollowed-out turnips".[96] It has been suggested that the carved jack-o'-lantern, a popular symbol of Halloween, originally represented the souls of the dead.[97] On Halloween, in medieval Europe, fires served a dual purpose, being lit to guide returning souls to the homes of their families, as well as to deflect demons from haunting sincere Christian folk.[98][99] Households in Austria, England and Ireland often had "candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes". These were known as "soul lights".[100][101][102] Many Christians in mainland Europe, especially in France, believed "that once a year, on Hallowe'en, the dead of the churchyards rose for one wild, hideous carnival" known as the danse macabre, which has often been depicted in church decoration.[103] Christopher Allmand and Rosamond McKitterick write in The New Cambridge Medieval History that "Christians were moved by the sight of the Infant Jesus playing on his mother's knee; their hearts were touched by the Pietà; and patron saints reassured them by their presence. But, all the while, the danse macabre urged them not to forget the end of all earthly things."[104] This danse macabre was enacted at village pageants and at court masques, with people "dressing up as corpses from various strata of society", and may have been the origin of modern-day Halloween costume parties.[96][105][93][106]
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